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随笔集10篇作文2000字


作文摘要:该篇《随笔集10篇》的作文为初二作文,由作者“黑白色”与大家一起分享,体裁为随笔作文,2000字作文,请同学们仔细阅读全文,你觉得作文中哪段或哪句写的最好呢?同时,你发现哪里有错句或错别字吗?请点击这里评论吧!

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篇一:2013随笔集_17600字

芳香四溢,沾满成长的足迹。那些过往的日子,开心也罢,哭泣也罢,生命中因为它们的堆积而变得多姿多彩,而,岁月也是在这样的多姿多彩中从指间流逝,假如有人问,可曾有遗憾驻留心底,有,但是,也许正是因为遗憾存在于生命中,所以,我才会去追忆,在无人的夜里,品味属于自己的孤独,美着我的心,流着我的泪。

生命的诞生,想来该说“感谢”了,感谢给予我们生命的父母。在万千寰宇的轮回中,我们于飘渺的空间里得以生存,细细想来,该是多么微妙,没有人能解释其中的秘密,而我们就是这样无知地生活着,而且,还于万丈红尘中感受着我们自以为很深刻的痛苦。 叹息了吗?感悟了吗?同辽阔的宇宙比起来,感到自己的渺小了吗?所以,当想到这些,在昏黄灯下手指敲打着键盘落字的时候,心底忽然会泛起淡淡的怅然。生命,于我们来说,几十年,或许是漫长的,但是同历史的长河比起来,也只不过是沧海一粟罢了。

撷生命中点点滴滴的光华,收藏起那些属于自己也同样属于别人的过往,把它们变成字,在某些孤寂的日子里,做内心最美丽的忆,那该是酒一样的醇吧,如同千年的芳华凝聚为眼泪一滴,看似晶莹,却更是来自心底那不为人知的伤,不为人知的喜。

当蹒跚的步履踏过某些日子的时候,也许会微笑着,也许会哭泣着,但是,当一切成为过往的时候,才发现,那些让我们欣喜自豪的成绩、那些出类拔萃的收获,其实,只不过是生命中的点点星星闪烁而已,也才发现,那些所谓能让我们痛彻心扉、欲罢不能的伤,其实,也只不过是那一刻乃至更长时间的灵魂脱壳自己。

但是,当一切明白的时候,已是时过境迁了,当时,我们就是这样轻薄着,就是这样痴迷着。

音乐好美,似潺潺溪水流进我的心了,尤其是那钢琴的节奏,轻快、愉悦,莫非我们生命中的每一段经历也是一个音符,这些或缓或急的音符奏出我们生命之曲?如果曲子不好听,那该说明是演奏者的拙劣了。

拂一拂身上的落尘,掸一掸脚下的泥土,看一看过往的日子,听一听灵魂的回音,尝一尝酿造的陈酒......

收起凌乱的照片,打扫角落的蛛网,找出好久未戴的发夹,整理刚过去这个季节的衣物,擦擦漂亮的鞋子......

人生有如白云,随风而去;时光有如流水,不在回来;倘若可以的话,我想再来一次,穿越时光的局限,回到那一幕幕让我们流连的日子;倘若可以的话,我想再来一次,跨过心灵的隔阂,去重新温习儿时的快乐。

仅仅是倘若而已,就已经让我忘记了自己的年龄,忘记了自己的身份,忘记了自己的烦劳,忘记了复杂的人际关系,忘记了很多很多。

回忆是美好的,我经常在窗前对着月亮,问她是否还记得儿时的我在她的目光下吃月饼,问她是否还记得年幼时的我在妈妈的怀里撒娇,问她是否还记得和我一起成长的邻家小妹,问她是否还记得那一缕青涩的爱情,问她是否还记得....

这一切美好的记忆只有在我们的一次次追忆中才慢慢浮现,带我们回到那段美好的时光,回到我们曾经为梦想而奋斗的地方,回到那片给了我们无数伤痕与经验的地方,但那时的一切在现在看来都是多么美好的事,而这一切是回忆给我们带来的,让我们一起追忆那片属于我们的天空„„

—— 一篇很长的序,献给所有阅读《朝花夕拾》的人

2013年2月8日星期五

目录

1. 忠义——读《水浒传》有感„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„01

2. 期待„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„02

3. 新年的味道„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„03

4. 博大的父爱——傅雷家书读后感„„„„„„„„„„„„„04

5.贮蓄幸福„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„ 05

6.旧巷„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„ 06

7.落花,有情„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„ 07

8.茶话„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„ 08

9.我不是谁的花儿„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„ 09

10.听雨„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„10

11.小山妆„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„11

12.一个永恒的范仲淹„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„12

13. 博爱——《悲惨世界》读后感„„„„„„„„„„„„„„13

14.喜欢望月„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„14

15.过往芬芳„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„15

忠义

——读《水浒传》有感

《水浒传》是中国史上第一部用白话文写成的成篇小说,一书记述了以宋江为首的一百零八好汉从聚义梁山泊,到受朝廷招安,再到大破辽兵,最后剿灭叛党,却遭奸人谋害的英雄故事.读完全书,印在我脑海里挥之不去的只有两个字,“忠”和“义”。

在这昏暗迂腐,官官相护的年代,无数好汉被处处欺压。但乱世出英雄,在无法忍受的情况下,他们义聚梁山泊,汇成了一股连朝廷也不敢忽视的势力。在一次次征战中,他们为了义,救出兄弟,杀除贪官,却也冲为了朝廷眼中的最大贼。在几经波折下,朝廷招了安,让他们四处奔波扫平其他势力,但结果却是,在百经沙场后散的散,死的死,就如同一部戏完结后的惨淡收幕。

那一个个个性鲜明的角色印我的脑海,挥之不去。不必说宋江和小旋风柴进的仗义疏财,也不必说武松漂亮的醉拳,吴用的足智多谋.单说天真烂漫的李逵,他颇有些野,遇事不问青红皂白,总是一说二骂三打.结果不是吃亏就是后悔,但是却有

忠,即是对自己的祖国,对自己身边的亲人,朋友尽心竭力.宋江在种种威逼利诱之下,仍然对自己的祖国忠心耿耿,这就是忠;林冲的妻子在林冲被逼上梁山之后,对高俅之子的凌辱,宁死不屈,最终上吊自杀,这也是忠。

一个

他们是天上108位星辰,来到人间替天行道。他们豪气冲天,为了兄弟赴汤蹈火在所不辞。在宋江的带领下,他们打倒贪官污吏,济世救民,颠覆了我们心中所谓的“义”。何为真正的义,谁也说不清。但他们却说明了一点善、正即义,民心所向即义。他们用自己的义,反对朝廷的腐败。

但当他们实力达到顶峰时,宋江却不顾反对要朝廷招安即使有义,却依然要顾到忠。不是所有义都是大逆不道,也不是所有忠都不能与义并存。也是他们四处征伐,扫灭那些本与他们同道的贼。从那一刻开始,故事就发生了戏剧性的扭转。即使如此,朝廷依然是朝廷,它永不会为了你一点战功,而天真地以为你以忠顺。所以,当他们得胜归来时,硬生生地拆散了他们。

直到现在,我依然为他们的结局而感叹。但转念一想,觉得又能怎样呢?或许那已是最好的结局了。那个时代成就了他们,却也毁灭了他们。但到最后,他们的情也依然存在,想起吴用、花荣随宋江自杀,我眼中便盈满了泪水。不求同年同月同日生,但求同年同月同日死。“兄弟”这两个字,涵盖了人生在世的太多太多。《水浒传》对当时民不聊生,奸臣当道,外敌入侵,军队战斗力下降的社会从一个特殊的角度进行了剖析,可以说是一部讲述社会现实的神话传奇小说,但它带给我们的,却是一部震撼人心的“忠义”盛典。

01

期待

期待就是坐上火车看窗外,听说下一站有很美的风景于是我伸长脖子往外看,可惜风景很一般,这一刻的心情很失望。然而火车驶过站台继续前行所有失望便都抛开.渐渐的成为回忆.回忆又被时间冲淡.我还是会开始新的期待......尽管我不知道期待是否会实现,但我深深懂得,期待就像是一跟桅杆,支起了生命的帆.

我只是茫茫大海中普通渺小的一滴,大海中的暗礁与水草会阻挡住我寻梦的步伐。但人生只有走出来的美丽,没有等出来的辉煌,梦想的大门永远为那些自强不息,永不言弃地敞开着。我努力地避开那些荆棘,擦干我的眼泪,执著地寻找着,找寻梦想带给我的曙光。我坚信,生命中多一点坚持,人生就会多一份希望。期待着总有一天,我会与其他的兄弟姐妹汇聚成小溪,欢快地汇人梦寐以求的大海,伴随着最初的梦想。

我只是漆黑的夜空中只能微弱地照亮那一方天空的启明星,无边的黑暗会使我变得暗淡。但再伟大的巨人也有他渺小的瞬间,再渺小的凡人也有他伟大的时刻。在天空中什么都没有的夜晚,我可以告诫自己不要害怕、不要悲伤。我可以画上星星,也可以画上月亮,将黑暗中的你我照亮。我便丝毫没有理由绝望。勇往直前,微笑自信,是梦想得以启航的动力。人生中,总没有一劳永逸的开始,也没有一帆风顺的过程。披荆斩棘是最寻常的事。但是我期待着,过程即使再黑暗、再坎坷,梦想也会幻化成遥远天空中那颗最亮的启明星,指引着我为了美好的明天而义无反顾地前行。

我只是在夜间才独自绽放的夜来香。白天,蝴蝶和蜜蜂围绕着那妖艳的花瓣翩翩起舞,已累倦的他们又怎肯在夜间悄无声息的陪我一起成长?但生命的奖赏远在旅途终点,而非起点附近。我改变不了环境,但可以改变自己;我改变不了事实,但可以改变态度;我不能预知明天,但可以把握今天。梦想的实现往往青睐于有准备的人。没有他人的鼎力相助,我仍能吸取着自信的光芒,努力的雨滴,为梦想之花的开放而蓄积力量。我期待着梦想之花的开放可以让我笑看人生。

期待好友重逢,相间却又无语.以为他们变了,不再像从前那样天真,也许是我变了,变的保守和顽固.实现相遇的那一瞬,才发现我们之间陌生多与熟悉,挨过尴尬的分分秒秒,一句淡淡的再见说出.彼此越走越远,悄悄回头望着那远去的背影.我有些后悔。曾经的海誓山盟换得今天的形同陌路。我期待我们的心能再次紧紧相拥。

期待茁壮的成长,却发现烦恼如影随形。初二的书包如此沉重。期待明天的收获,就应该在今天挥洒汗水.期待明天的成功就该在今天挑战失败。期待不相信眼泪,期待青睐有志者,左肩担着期待的苦涩右肩担着期待的甘甜,明天也许我并不清楚,但我会在期待中追求。期待春天的到来。期待那融化的小溪,期待那南回的大雁,期待久违的笑声,期待人们眼里的勃勃生机。受够了寒风,淋透了冷雨,每个人的心都需要滋润。是春日的暖阳,是春日的细雨,亦是春日的微风。在期待中我们变得成熟,在期待中我们长大成人。 总有一种期待:扬起生命之帆,让涛声为伴奏,扯缆绳作琴弦,揽劲风当号角,奏一曲穿越时空的乐声。礁石间,狂浪里,我微笑着注视着它驶向梦想的彼岸,采撷那朵神圣的花,让花香四溢,弥漫那片天地。我一直那么期待着,只求生命之花绚烂无比。

02

新年的味道

鞭炮响亮的“歌声”吵醒了沉醉于美梦的人们,他们慢慢地睁开了眼,看着那刺眼的太阳。物都以新的面貌来迎接春的到来。新的花,新的草,新的衣服,新的一天„„正所谓:“海日生残夜,江春入旧年。”所以新年的味道是新鲜的。过年也正是人流涌动的高峰期。家才是最可靠的的居所,一个个在外地打工的人都想回家和家人团聚,也正是过年的时候给了思念家乡的人一个团聚的机会。正所谓:“夕阳西下,断肠人在天涯!”所以,新年的味道是温馨的。拜年正是一年中最开心的时刻。从爆竹声的响起到撕开日历的那一刻,无疑都是快乐的。正所谓:“爆竹声中一岁除,春风送暖入屠苏。”在噼里啪啦的爆竹声中,送走了旧年迎来了新年。所以,新年的味道是快乐的。

总会想起儿时盼新年的情景。那新年总是在盼星星,盼月亮地无限的期待中,姗姗来迟的。那个时候,新年的味道特别的浓厚,特别的耐人寻味。有连串的炮声;有红艳新奇的对联;有新年特色的年糕、花糕,是希望能过得一年更比一年高吧!有手持大刀的门神、有天爷爷、地奶奶、财神、灶神、有供神用的香炉;有各式各样的年画;有纸糊的灯笼;有手工制作的小玩意,星星点点地装扮着一个个热闹非凡的年集;还有为新年的第一天精心准备的新衣裳;当然最为关注的还是那一个个并不厚实的红包。有了这些才会体会到新年的味道。除夕那天晚上,是我们中国的狂欢节。晚上都是要熬个通宵的。因为当时电视没有普及,也就是左邻右舍地聚在一起,畅谈过往的坎坷与平淡,畅想未来一年的心愿,共同在一起等待着新年的钟声响起,共同鸣炮庆贺这激动人心的时刻。在初一这天,天还刚刚亮就开始相互拜年,盛上一碗过年的饺子送给长辈们尝尝。接着就是和小伙伴们噼里啪啦的放爆竹,看着五颜六色的火花飞奔上天,听着那一声声激动人心的爆鸣声,震人心弦,如同雷霆般响彻天地。儿时的新年,是一家老小一年的期盼。

现在上了初中,春节联欢晚会成了各家各户年夜饭中必不可少的一道菜,而各家联络感情的机会变得少而又少,和老人们团圆的时间也逐渐缩短。街上放鞭炮的儿童因为要写作业而被父母亲叮嘱“不准再玩鞭炮了”取而代之的是家家门口挂起的红灯笼。

家里搬了新房,对周围的邻居们都还不太了解,也很少有机会交流与往来。习惯地放下了对年的等待与期盼。不喜欢街上挤满置办年货的人,不喜欢看每个人脸上急忙而又开心的表情。不管怎样,年的味道在我心中渐渐散去。

尽管多了各式各样的选择,尽管少了这样那样的忙碌,但也丢掉了原汁原味的年味儿。很多人喜欢走出家门,在富丽堂皇的酒店中吃上一顿年夜饭。或者在吵闹的KTV中唱通宵以示对节日的庆祝。在各种新奇的想法中,年,似乎不再是我们举杯欢庆的中国节,反倒是张显时尚的好日子。还有很多的年轻人,把外国的节日过得有滋有味,对于春节却是意趣冷淡。如此过年,年的味道还怎能韵味十足。想到这里,我突然觉得,不是年疏远了我们,而是我们有意无意地离它远去。 我不知道今后的新年是否会变回原来的样子,但希望它不会继续变得更糟糕。其实在我心中我是喜爱过年的,只是这份喜爱伴随着时光的流逝渐渐的变得含蓄,变得不再强烈。大概很多的人也是如此,或许我们在心底默默地呼唤一声,年就会恢复它本来的面目。

中国年,是新鲜,温馨和快乐的,真心希望这新年的味道能够重回人们的心中,一直持续下去它原本的面貌。

博大的父爱

——傅雷家书读后感

每个人都有生身父母,大都体会过父母的慈爱和教诲。当我读《傅雷家书》的时候,感到的是一种另一番教诲,不是老师的教导,不是长者的叮嘱,而是父母对儿女的关切,是不同于我的父母的关爱,却不失被细心呵护的感觉,我似乎找到了另外一种父母之爱,这也是大多数子女所体会不到的。这也许是这十年对她爱慕不减的原因吧。是那一封封家书,就象一次次珍贵的谈心,拉近了我们的距离,我像一个孩子在感受着,聆听着,用心铭记着。《傅雷家书》摘编了1954年-1966年傅雷和夫人写给出洋在外并最终成为著名钢琴演奏家的大儿子傅聪的信件。洋洋万言,字字涌动,阅者无不为傅雷的精神感动。信中有对过去教子过于严格的悔赎,有对儿子进步的表扬和鼓励,有对音乐和艺术的指导和探讨,有对党和国家建设及运动的看法和意见,有对儿子生活的慰问和关心,“贯穿全部家书的情义,就是要儿子知道国家的荣辱,艺术的尊严,能够用严肃的态度对待一切,做一个‘德艺兼备、人格卓越的艺术家’。”看一部家信录,就是看一片傅雷的“又热烈又恬静、又深刻又朴素、又温柔又高傲、又微妙又率直”冰心世界,我们不光明白了傅雷之所以能够成为一代翻译名家的原因,更会从中学到如何育子成才的人生真谛。

在书中我们不光看到了一个严格戒子而又亲切关爱的父亲,同时也看到了父子的共同成长。他把对祖国的发展的关切之情,以及对祖国的热爱同样流露给学生,傅雷以高度负责的精神和心力,在对社会祖国和人类世界尽自己的责任。儿子傅聪,在异国漂流生涯中,吸取了多么丰富的知识,但父亲的信时时给他指导、鼓励和鞭策,使他有勇气和力量去战胜各种各样的魔障和阻力,踏上自己正当成长的道路。通过这些书信,不仅儿子和亲人之间,建立了牢固的纽带,也通过这一条纽带,也使傅聪与远离的祖国牢牢地建立了心的结合。后来的事实证明不管国内家庭所受到的残酷遭遇,不管他自己所蒙受的恶名,他始终没有背弃他的祖国,不受祖国敌对者多方的威胁利诱,没有说过或做过有损祖国尊严的言行,这就是一个父亲对一个儿子的熏陶,这与父亲在数万里外,给儿子殷切的爱国主义教育是分不开的。时间,距离都不是问题,有心的父母,你那颗不眠的爱子之心,就是不可替代的教科书,人生的加油站。

这是教育子女的一本好书,同时也应该是作子女的我们了解父母的一本好书。傅雷在信中所写的每字每句已经成为经典,永垂不朽的经典。傅雷是一个真真切切,实实在在的好父亲,对于儿子的爱就是他最好的证明。爱子情深已经不能包含他的全部,只是“博爱”二字彰显了他的全部魅力。

其实,我们身边的父亲也跟傅雷一样的平凡与伟大。我们的父亲也是经常为我们的生计,为了我们的学习,为了我们能上一个好的学校,为了我们能拥有好的成绩,在外面拼搏打拼。这几年,我们是否看见,他们的头发白了,他们的腰弯下了,他们抱住我们的臂膀不再那么有力了。父爱如山,也许支撑我们的山终究会随着父亲的老去而倒塌,但那份沉甸甸的爱却永远不会倒下。

父爱是博大的爱,为子女遮挡风雨却不求回报。而傅雷可以说是千千万万个父亲中的一个杰出的代表,情不改变,父爱相随,难道这父爱不是博大,又是什么?

贮蓄幸福

幸福是什么?每个人对于幸福的定义都有不一样的理解,一千个人解读幸福会有一千种不同的答案:诗人说,幸福是给我一篇能够让我流泪的诗篇。医生说,幸福是让我能解除每一个病人的痛苦。流浪人说,幸福是给我一个温暖安心的家。鱼儿会说,给一片海洋,那是就是我的幸福。鸟儿会说,让我在蓝天里自由,那就是我的幸福。溪流也会说,让我回归大海的怀抱吧,那就是我的幸福。

而我认为真正的幸福不在于金钱的多少,地位的高低,而是一种心态,是一种发自内心的生活感受。平静的生活是幸福;健康的身体是幸福;和睦的家庭是幸福;舒心的工作是幸福;友好的人际关系是幸福。人生活在这个世界上更是一种莫大的幸福,只要我们用心去体会,幸福就在我们身边,无处不在。

幸福就是早上看到太阳依旧冉冉上升,给大地抹上一层光辉,傍晚又徐徐落下,让月光和繁星取代黑暗。

幸福就是我们每天开开心心地上学,坐在明亮安全的教室里,获取更多的知识本领,增长见识。幸福就是见到老师亲切地说一声:“老师好”,然后老师还你一个慈爱的微笑;幸福就是当同学有困难时,伸出援助之手,互相帮助,团结友爱。幸福就是对熟悉的人问声好,遇到朋友聊聊天,拉近了人与人之间的距离,绽放友谊之花。

幸福就是当我们小时候回到家中,闻着厨房飘来的阵阵菜香,看着母亲忙碌的身影,深深地感受到有家的温暖。幸福是电话中传来母亲嘘寒问暖的声音 ,是母亲在睡觉时替我们盖好被子,是母亲在困难时鼓励我们,在失败时给我们加油,在伤痛时为我们操劳担心,让我早早地脱离病痛的折磨。那么我们是否也因该为母亲做点什么呢?其实母亲要的东西很少,也很容易得到满足。当我们为劳累了一天的母亲倒一盆洗脚的水时,当我们给她捶捶背消除疲劳时,当我们在她口渴时递上一杯热茶时,当我们在节日来临送上一份祝福时,那便是母亲想要的幸福了。

幸福是当我们坐车时,让一个座位给老人,老人那慈祥的微笑和感激的话语使我们都得到一种心灵的幸福;当一位工人推着许多东西上陡坡时,我们帮他推一把,他那可亲可敬的微笑会给我们带来心灵的满足。

幸福更是奥运健儿刻苦的训练为家园争得荣誉,赢得光彩,为我们这个家园奏响了令人骄傲,催人奋进的华彩乐章!幸福还是2008年5月12日14时28分,弟子兵,用血肉之躯救出幸存者的感人画面,是白衣天使,救死扶伤的身影;13亿人的心在一个晚上紧紧相连。这是何等的幸福啊!

幸福就是那么简单。而贮蓄,是温馨的延续,是幸福的守望。幸福,是需要我们用双手去贮蓄,去提炼,去细细品味息。在物欲横流的现实世界里,很多人都不愿变得自私、嫉妒和猜疑,却无法摆脱那双无形的手对自己的钳制。幸福也渐渐离我们也去了。

贮蓄幸福,使幸福在温室里不再枯萎;贮蓄幸福,使幸福在镜像中永不凋零。幸福是爱的阶梯,我们一步一步搭建,贮蓄幸福。

贮蓄幸福,让幸福洒入我们的心田,开出美丽的人生之花。

旧巷

外婆一代人从小就生活在那个旧巷里。

若不是偶尔有几辆小车驶向那里,旧巷,根本不被世人所知。仿佛是陶渊明笔下的世外桃源与世隔绝,无人问津。

远东旧梦、巴黎街头、伦敦繁华,这些城市的喧嚣与摩天大楼钻石般的灯光与它无关。几千米以外金融区的天际线在旧巷看来,只不过是上帝惨白而无力的一笔。

旧巷养育的小孩总是精力过剩,热衷尖叫着从这头跑向那头,永远不知疲倦。

旧巷收纳的老人总是温和安静,搬一把椅子,悠悠地享受太阳的服务,痴痴地笑。

每一个棚户、石库门、弄堂里住着这样两代人。一间房、一堵墙,像是一条河流被截成两段,生命的隽永不息循环构成了旧巷的核心。年轻人的出门赚钱打工,剩下的便仅仅只是这两代人。旧巷偏偏是这样的,它不寂寞。

旧巷里没有复印店、照相馆、裁缝店,甚至只有一个不知多少年的小超市,老板脾气古怪,可东西的价格却比外面便宜很多。就这样,旧巷才不会那么逼仄。

旧巷中大多是不完整的家庭,不论什么时候,门窗都是大开的,所以外人很容易看见屋内的摆设:通常是一台老旧的电视机、一台破冰箱,混杂着汗味的被褥摊在床头,古老的日光灯就在屋顶来回晃动。7点钟,大多数黑白电视都在播放新闻联播,结束后,伴随着背景音乐,旧巷里的人们会很快关掉电视机,在昏暗的灯光下呆滞地注视着室内的家具。

几乎旧巷里的每一位居民,都认识旧巷中的流浪猫、流浪狗:阿黄常偷吃田地里的玉米、小白喜欢晒太阳、花花见到生人会摇尾巴„„一个个亲近的昵称是老小两代人对于动物的共同喜爱。或许是那里人烟稀少,他们只得和猫狗交流罢。

红日升起,夕阳西下,一次次轮回往返、一天天在旧巷中度过,一代代人在旧巷成长、出门,回家,最终在旧巷里养老。曾多次想把外婆接到城里来住,可她终不愿意。她说,旧巷里由她的全部回忆。的确,如果记忆都不存在了,人还为什么而活呢?

听说旧巷这样的老式房屋群永远都不会被拆除,因为历史价值,注定了它的文化价值。

不知哪一天,旧巷会被漫天的沙土掩埋。反正,它曾经的记忆永留世间。

落花,有情

一种执念萦绕在脑海,挥之不去。

期中考试过后,莫名地被一种巨大的压力笼罩着。看到试卷上的红叉叉,我懊恼不已。无心继续读书,只得放下书本,踱到窗边冥想。

刹那间,由一簇红在我的眼前跳跃。细一看,是一朵花。

柔美的花瓣绽开得恰到好处,如绝代佳人的红唇,在低低地呢喃。

错落有致的花蕊被包围着,仿佛仙女脸上的梨窝,恬淡而灿烂地绽开。

花枝轻颤,如舞女的羽衣霓裳,在微风下翩翩起舞。她的一颦一笑都牵动着我的心。她就像一位音乐家,用指尖在我心弦弹奏乐曲。

美丽而不娇作,妖艳却不张扬。难道她本不是这世上的人,而是仙女下凡转世?

不知是上天看到她的美貌嫉妒了,又或是红颜短命。大雨滂沱,惊心动魄。

在风雨面前,即使注定被打败,她也是高昂着头去面对的。如同演员谢幕一般,她拖着长裙,款款从枝头落下。留下的,仅仅是光秃枝头上一丝丝的余热——证明她的存在。那挥撒在半空中的,是她对这个世界的最后告别与对风雨的不屑一顾。

然后,她坠落了,拥入土地母亲的怀抱,将在这里永远长眠。

我的心也像坠入黑暗的深渊,随那花一起,再也看不着一丝光亮。

一缕阳光不知何时悄悄探入双眼。眸子上扬,猝不及防地容纳了整个绿意。每一片绿叶明丽得几乎透明,向四周播撒快乐和生机。虽稚嫩却顽强直指天空,无所畏惧。

低头看着大地,寻找那朵花,仅一瞬间,她已被溺水掩盖,娇躯埋在土壤中,却毫不惧怕。散落的花瓣早已面目全非,每一片残骸 犹如一个过去的记忆。

或许龚自珍说的“落红不是无情物,化作春泥更护花”就是这样罢。辗落成泥,只有香如故。是的,有时,坚持是苍白的,而放弃却是一种智慧。

那我呢?为什么不做一朵落花,放弃眼前暂时的光阴与美好,积蓄力量,等待那下一次的完美绽放?我笑了。回到书桌前,打开书本温习功课。

恍惚间,我仿佛看见另一朵花,在更高的枝头绽放„„

茶 话

小时候,我抵触茶,仅仅因为它的苦涩。每次总是在大人们的强迫下猛灌下几口,就像很多人记忆中的喝中药一样,那苦涩的感觉如恶魔般占据童年。

就像春蚕蜕变成美丽的蝴蝶,渐渐地,我们长大了。没有儿时那般情景——被几个大人摁着喝苦涩的茶或是奇苦无比的药丸。心中竟有一种不名的惘然若失,而这种惆怅又很快消失了,因为心中缺少的空白早已被繁重的学业与试卷填得满满当当。

不知何时,我尝试着开始品茶。起初只是想装得老成,学学大人们的模样。可后来发现,自己真的爱上了茶,爱上了一个人独守寒冷的夜,坐在窗前品茶。其实也不算怎么品茶,毕竟自己只能算一个不懂茶道的“外人”,但只单单享受它清幽的味道就足以让人留连

轻轻地把茶杯放在桌上,盯着它发呆,刚刚沾了水的茶叶浮在水面上,把水面挤满,像池塘里的荷叶,不留一点缝隙。仅仅一分钟,水微微泛黄,几片调皮的茶叶打着旋儿落入杯底。水面的茶叶也三三两两地降落,下沉的茶叶像是在跳缓慢而优雅的华尔兹,动作十分轻盈打旋,转身,侧身„„没有束缚,伴随心灵而舞,最后缓缓落入杯底。谢幕。

茶已经泡好了,我轻轻旋开杯盖,清香扑鼻而来,滋润和供养我的每一寸肌肤、每一根神经。吹吹那些跳跃的精灵,轻抿一小口,顿时,香气触动我的每一个味蕾。茶香溢满整个小屋,也温暖了黑暗的夜和一个人孤单的灵魂。

有时候,茶叶为了这一刻的美丽和绚舞甘愿付出一生的等待和落寞,它只自由地在杯中下降、下降,沉淀、沉淀,然后,就什么也没有了。它沉入杯底的那一刻,什么都没有了,舞台的追光灯不再为它闭光,黑色的幕布就这样无情地拉上。

其实,我们的人生不就是茶叶这样吗?躺在茶叶盒中的小小茶叶,有的选择了盒中永远的黑暗,但这很平淡,却在平淡中葬送了自己的一生,什么也没留下;有的选择的是热水的洗礼,在清水中翩翩起舞,舞出动人身姿,为世间留下清香。

人从一开始,心态就决定了他的命运:或平淡无奇、或轰轰烈烈。既然不容易来到世上,为什么不去搏一搏呢?至少,当生命快要完结的时候,收获的不是悔恨,而是充实与满足。

想到这里,我放下茶杯,带着齿间的茶香,重新步入书房„„

我不是谁的花儿

古往今来,为了探求生命的意义,无数伟人执着地追求、思考,更有很多人把对人生价值的思考付诸于实践:我是谁?我为什么活着?我应该怎样活着?

这三个问题在我看来是宇宙中最难回答的问题,一千个人会有一千种不同的答案。

古代希腊科学家苏格拉底认为:良心----言论的自由与真理,更甚于生命。

20世纪初,我国投身于反抗清政府统治中的爱国青年林觉民懂得:一个人的幸福固然珍贵,天下人的幸福却更加重要,为天下人的幸福而牺牲个人幸福是高尚的。

苏联作家奥斯特洛夫斯基说:人的一生应当怎样度过,当回忆往事的时候,他不至于因为虚度年华而悔恨,也不至于因为过去的碌碌无为而羞愧;当临死的时候,他能够说:我的整个生命和全部精力,都已经献给了世上最美丽的事业-----为人类的解放而斗争。

时代在发展,人们对世界的看法也在变,但人们对于自身和生命的价值的认识和追求永无止境的。作为21世纪2012年的中学生,我们不可能“为人类的解放而斗争”,更没有必要“为天下人牺牲个人”,也夫法理解家苏格拉底的哲学。因此,我们应该有自己独一无二的人生观、价值观,而不是跟随着前人的步伐前进。

我认为,人应该独立地活着,自我的活着,因为我不是谁的花儿。

我不能把自己打扮成任何角色,我只能是我自己;我要有我自己内心的判断,那不是别人强加于我的;我有选择生活的自由,我不盲从;我可以勇敢说:“不”,即使面对的是唾手可得的好机会或是拥有“绝对权威”的人;我知道我的优点、缺点,会跌倒,会有痛,但绝不会麻木;假如生活抛弃了我,我不跟它愤怒,而是奋力将它追回来......

我知道我是不同的,我的朋友、对手、偶像都是我自己。

我不是谁的花儿,因为我会是一棵大树,或许我需要人们的修剪,但绝不是依靠施舍。

我会是一棵懂得感恩的大树,在社会需要时献出我的枝干,予人依靠和阴凉。

我始终坚信,我不是谁的花儿,而是一棵大树,岁月留下年轮,我会开花结果,无论世界怎样待我,我会一样美丽、茁壮生长.......

闷热的夏天,在迷迷糊糊中一闪而过。

一声巨雷,既而在远处空旷的天边打响,传过山谷,传过河流....传过草原,传过沙漠....传过城市、传过农村....越来越近、.越来越近...

雨季,就这么开始了。时而淋淋漓漓,时而淅淅沥沥,天空是湿的,大地是潮的,即使在睡梦中,恍忽也有把伞撑着。而这伞,即使躲得过一陈潇潇的冷雨,也绝躲不过整个雨季。在这种天气中,连人的思想恐怕都是湿润的。

听听,那雨。只要不是台风来临时的狂风暴雨,总带给人一种美感,不仅仅是视觉上的,更是听觉上的美感。

秋天的雨,无论是疏雨滴梧桐,或是骤雨打荷叶,听上去总感觉有一种就不清的凄楚、凄清、甚至凄凉,任你有多少英雄侠气,怕也经不住那三番五次地击打,那柔软与缠绵,在心中交错、旋转。雨,简直是一滴湿漓的灵魂,在窗外喊着谁。

雨打在房瓦上,韵律清脆可听,铿铿、铿铿、铿铿...仿佛是中国古老的音乐,如瀑布、如碎玉、如高山、如流水,与鼓琴、咏诗、下棋、投壶的声音一起融合、共鸣....

雨天的屋瓦浮漾着湿湿的疏光,灰而温柔,迎光则微明,背光则幽暗。至于雨敲在鳞鳞千瓣的瓦上,由远而近,轻轻重重,夹着一股股细流沿屋檐泻下,各种敲击音与滑音交织成网,千指百指抚摸着琴键,冰冰纤手上挥,动听的歌曲就从黑键白键中流淌出来,在大地和高空中倘佯...

最妙的是雨打在花朵上的声音呀!江南、秋雨、桂花。从春雨绵绵听到秋雨萧萧,听不厌的是雨本身之恒古不变的旋律。滴答、滴答;哗啦、哗啦,雨水滚过花瓣,放大了的花药和花丝分外妖娆。

永远下不完的雨盈绕耳畔,我独自一人站在窗边呼雨。那一刻,我终于听懂了雨的哀诉,这是它等待的发泄,这是它向命运的示威!

夜晚,我伴着雨声渐渐入睡,迷糊中,我看见自己和雨一起,在空中跳舞....

10

这个城市还笼罩在泛滥和白光里,清晨在星光还没有隐去的时刻,就已经悄悄地悄悄地涂抹起了天空,像是一个悠闲的公爵,耐心地涂抹着他手上的全麦面包。

他把黑加伦果酱均匀地涂在金黄色砚个,薄薄的一层,像是一抹还未来得及僵硬的微笑。他让这个世界亮起来,然后在很长一段时间后,又不甘心地黑下去。

乌溪江的水开始流动,那是一条历史长河,它给予了这个被群山包围的小城经太多太多。永不停息地流动,就像这座小城的步伐,不快不慢。

叫卖声已经充斥起人们的耳畔,为了生计,人们不得不起早摸黑,给那些上大夜班的工人提供最后一站的早餐。流动的车马渐渐唤醒还在睡梦中的人儿,家家户户的灯光总算亮了起来。小城也苏醒了。

仿佛非洲辽阔平原上的动物大迁徙,看起来缓慢而笨重的跋涉。看起来没有尽头的煎熬,在几个眨眼的瞬间,就只剩下一片空空荡荡的荒芜平原。

是蒲松龄笔下的山怪再现了吗?抑或者是王质又遇到了烂柯上的仙人。我不知道。

整个城市有一种萧索的气味,它钻进人们的手套里,钻进厚厚的围巾里,钻进同样冰冷的太真洞中,钻进坊门街熙熙攘攘的人群,钻进一场又一场的离别。

大南门外是一对恋人,在夕阳欲颓时,相拥而抱,古老的城墙上映出了他们的影子,诉说那一段段曾经的故事。

永远闹哄哄的步行街,也在慢慢来到的冬天面前,逐渐安静下来。

苍凉的江风将沿岸百年的建筑吹得更加衰败,吹成一座又一座遗迹,仿佛傲慢的祖先留给后世的沉重传承。江水浑浊,却也有鱼虾。当年人吃人的情景已不复存在。

对面只有一栋闪着冷光的大厦。

每一根日影,都仿佛无限放大的针,在天空的度尺上,宣告着这个城市的老去,与新生。 一轮又一轮的文明与历史,崛起,然后再熄灭。

衢城,小山里的一座城,终将被历史淹没,被世人遗忘„„

11

一个永恒的范仲淹

你从历史长烟中缓缓走来,挥一挥衣袖,抹去的是一个时代的辉煌。历史的车轮辗过灰色的埃土,化作一缕清风,任意飘荡。一代一代的文人墨客登上舞台,诉说那爱恨多年的离骚,款款谢幕后被世人所遗忘。你却站在那里,亘古不变的记忆中印着你意境宽广的痕迹。范仲淹,你的代名词是永恒。

范仲淹从小丧父,家境贫寒。他发奋读书,以求得一个好功名,从此为国效力。他本是我国穷苦人家读书人的一个,却铸就着与众不同的辉煌。终于,他如愿以偿地科举得官,按照自己意愿主持新政改革,大刀阔斧地除旧图新,亲自推行地方政治的革新。可以说,他是一个诸葛亮、周恩来级的政治家,将一生奉献给了实践。他按自己处世治国之道,鞠躬尽瘁地将全部才华投入国家建设与改革中,一直到死都没能放弃,就悄然离去。

然而,我所敬佩的范仲淹,并非只有他在政治上的惊人造诣。诚然,他的政治抱负一笔一画的体现在他的文字中。“浊酒一杯”是无法排遣思乡的苦闷,“燕然未”是归家的遥遥无期。意气风发的范仲淹,竟在此难以入眠,熬白黑发,滴尽相思泪。

三次被贬,范仲淹并没有学会明哲保身,坐食禄米,而是不屈不挠,尽显锋茫。在权力倾扎中容得下他吗?官场的腐败斗争他受得住吗?在好友藤子京的嘱托下,他来到岳阳楼前,大笔上挥,名垂千古的《岳阳楼记》一气呵成。他在浩浩荡荡、横无际涯的洞庭湖上吟道:“先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐”。这大彻大悟的感叹如庙宇的敲钟声那般浑厚沉远,震悟大千。十四个字,概括了范仲淹一生追求的为人准则和政治抱负,是忧国忧民思想的真实写照。“不以物喜,不以已悲”,他是历史的旁观者,却在无声无息中成了历史的开创者,这一声大叹悠悠千年,激励着古往今来多少仁人志士。很少有人做到一生忠心为国,至死步渝,范仲淹绝对是一个缠绵深婉,议论风发,阐民民为邦本,平静而深邃的目光中为人们昭示了一位智者的情怀。

冬风琵琶,等到飞鸿再过时,岳阳楼上是否依旧立着那“忧天下”的眺望人?时光什么也不怕,唯有永恒,可以超越时光。当年的风景早已不在,因为它们是存不住的,长存的是那些曾用生命去推动历史车轮的人。岳阳楼,你必将被历史名记,千古永恒„„

12

博爱

--------《悲惨世界》读后感

黑暗的牢房里,一个衣衫褴褛的囚犯独自痛苦而茫然地坐着。在他25岁时,只因贫困和饥饿而偷了一块面包而被判了19年苦役,阴暗而潮湿的监狱里,只有墙缝中露出的一丝微光照在他绝望而又无助的脸上。

这个不幸的囚犯就是让.瓦让,贯穿全书的主人公。他的不幸遭遇使他仇视法律,不再相信任何人,性格变得凶狠而孤僻,他发誓要报复这个社会。然而就在这时慈悲的主教用人爱之心唤醒了这位老苦役犯的良知,使他彻底悔悟,化名为马德兰,开始新的生活.... 在女工芳蒂娜的委托下,让.瓦让救出柯赛特,将她视为亲生女儿,隐居修道院,开始八年他人生中最幸福的时光。可是好景不长,柯赛特和马里尤欺相爱,让.瓦让为了柯赛特得到幸福,忍痛成全了这场婚姻。由于心里过不去,向马里尤欺坦白了自己苦役犯的身份,不料遭到他的误会,拒绝了妻子和他见面。最终,知道真相的他悔恨交加,去小屋看望老人。但风烛残年的让.瓦让在情感上受到打击,已处于弥留之际,便惨然离开了人世。

我读完这本书的感受就是,在一个幽深的隧道中寻找出口,看遍了黑暗与恐惧,最终迎接出洞时阳光的照耀,享受温暖和光明。无疑,“悲惨”二字贯穿全文的一条大主线。雨果从人道主义出发,再现了那个时代的法国社会之黑暗,同情劳动人民的命运。这个世界上,凡是伟大的人都有一个高尚的灵魂。而让.瓦让,正是这样一个高尚的人。

每个人都有爱。但有的人只爱自己,爱自己的亲人,爱自己所拥有的一切。而让.瓦让的爱却是给了世上所有可怜的人、贫穷的人、值得同情的人、值得尊敬的人。这种爱是至高无上的,才是博爱!

我再一次被人性的巨大力量所震撼。也许在如今这个社会苦役犯是不太会有了,但是像让.瓦让这样拥有博大胸怀的人是不是也销声匿迹了呢?愿我们身边多一些主教般光明的使者,愿他们像纯洁的天使般永远守护着人们心中那份慈悲为怀的心。人之初,性本善。希望有更多的人加入到爱的行列中,关心生活中每一个弱者。社会需要这样的人,世界也需要这样的人。唯博感染人心,唯爱让天地动容。只有“博爱”,我们才能创造生活,创造出一个善良、和睦、光明、充满爱的世界。

13

喜欢望月

喜欢望月。望引得苏轼感慨的“但愿人长久,千里共婵娟”的美好祝福之月,望引发李白暇想的“又疑遥台镜,飞在青云端”的儿时之月,望李益“回乐烽前沙似雪,受降城外月如霜”的乡愁之月,望杜荀鹤“三湘月色三湘水,浸骨寒光似炼铺”的清冷之月。

每每夜深人静时,我会抬头望月,被误解的委曲,考试的失败,人际关系的僵化...种种人生中遇到的大小坎坷,我总能在月亮中获得解脱、得到释放。望月望多了望久了,便觉得月亮实在伟大:她没有太阳耀眼的光辉,却能在黑暗时添一丝光明给世界。遇到晴天,她毫不遮掩,大大方方地露出自己皎洁的面容;遇到阴雨天,她默默躲在乌云背后继续贡献亮光。无论严寒酷暑,刮风下雨,她一如既往。

喜欢望月。特别是李白眼中的月。是“月下飞天镜,云生结海楼”的镜花水月,是“举头望明月,低头思故乡”的相思月,是“举杯望明月,对饮成三人”的豪放月,是“长安一片月,万户捣衣声”的宁静月,亦或者是“唯愿当歌对酒时,月光光照金樽里”的古今共赏之月。望碧空中平静的月、安详的月,她浴过苦雨,迎过凄风,充盈着矛盾、搔动和斗争。然而,她始终持着一颗平常心,待人间千事,世间万情,让人觉得她的生命是如此深邃和丰盈。她淡于浮华,从不随波逐流。“得不到的永远在骚动,被偏爱的都有恃无恐”,她从没被人偏爱过,因为她的微不足道。但她不想成为第二个太阳,所以她也不骚动。她知道自己只是月亮,也就不会今天观山明天看海,几经风潮却不知身在何处。

望月望多了望久了,忽然觉得社会和人生也不过是一片星空:世事纷纭,如同宇宙中闪耀的千万颗星,人人都想成为最亮的那一颗,却在不经意间迷失,随风远逝。而生命如月,阴晴圆缺是常境,最重要的是保持月的心境、月的品质、月的精神、月的心态,尽管微小却竭尽全力,做一个独一无二的自己,成就独一无二的人生。

14

过往芬芳

“生命过往,落一地芬芳„„”依稀记得我们在一起的日子闪烁光芒,如同明媚的璀璨星辰,渗透一季花香„„——题记 浮光摇曳过几度春秋,我们从相遇、相识到相知。最初的记忆甚是模糊,逐渐的,你们的轮廓愈加清晰,纹理分明。从那时起,我的身边有了你们。我的喜怒哀乐总有你们在身边相伴,留在记忆中的那缕风,见证我们的过往。那一个个模糊的身影,就是一朵朵绚丽的花朵,伴着夕阳,开在我走过的小路上„„

友情是一朵欢乐的花

无邪的年代,好玩的我遇见同样疯狂的你们。我们在学校里恶作剧,却很少被抓到,因为表面上的我们都是乖孩子。顺利搞了恶作剧,一干人私底下偷着乐。校外,我们结伴出游,骑上自行车到处瞎逛,悠扬惬意。我们都是向往自由的娃儿呀!清风拂过每个人的脸庞,芬芳四溢,个个笑靥如花。我们在一起,不会因为分歧而疏远。我们也会吵架,但我们不会闹对立。我的脾气不好,有些事儿过于敏感,而那只是因为太在乎了,害怕你们离去。每每我发脾气时,你们总会默不作声。待我气消后,会凑过来,像个犯错事的孩子一样跟我解释事情的来龙去脉。但有时候是我不对,你们还是会一如既往地去包容,不,是纵容我的任性。只是不知道终有一天,你们离开了,我怎么办?在你们面前,我是个倍受宠溺的孩子。我知道,你们所做的只不过是在呵护我那颗多愁善感的心罢。那些日子的风,很温和,像是你们给予的包容一样,氤氲芬芳。

亲情是一朵温暖的花

“现在立冬了,天变凉了,记得多带一些衣服,唉,要不然把棉袄也带上吧···”你这孩子,怎么不听我的话呢,从家里多拿些苹果,少买零食,每天都得吃菜,听见了吗„„

唠叨似乎是妈妈的专利产品,每次我放假回家,这都是我的一项“必修课”虽然我已经听了不知道多少遍遍,但妈妈仍然乐此不疲,每次都要提醒我一遍,恐怕被我遗忘了。小时候的我不懂事,经常为此感到烦心,觉得妈妈是天底下最坏的人,总是喜欢管我这,管我那儿。直到长大了才发现,这是我成长过程中最珍贵的礼物,也是一朵包含了母亲伟大的爱的娇嫩花朵„„

就让我轻轻的摘下这朵亲情之花,深深的埋在心间,让它发芽,长叶,开花,结出美丽的果实,而那鲜美的果实,就是我对母亲的爱„„

师生情是一朵开不完的花

考试!考试!上了金外以来,这似乎已经是家常便饭了,每当我这腔埋怨无处倾倒时,我就在随笔里发泄,而语文老师就像一位心理医生,每次都能对症下药“别担心,甩掉包袱,否则会压力过大···”“没关系,老师相信你,你永远是最棒的,其实你很优秀,不要对自己要求太高···”老师那温暖的话语好像一缕春风,吹进我的心扉,驱开重重浓雾,让它洒满光明。 在老师的话语中,我感到了一种从未有过的自信和喜悦,在我小小的心中蔓延„„ 我小心翼翼地采下这朵“师生情之花”,牢牢的攥在手心,让它伴我一路前行。

过去的日子如凋落的花、似枯黄的叶腐朽在时间的泥土中,往事埋藏在阳光的阴影下,却滋润了更美好的未来。过去的日子不再回来,但面对生活快乐的态度依旧可以重生,乐观不会被时间冲淡,也不会因为枯燥而褪色,它是一颗种植在心灵上的绿草,生机勃勃。 有人说,成长是疼痛的美丽;有人说,成长是残酷的过程;有人说,成长是幸福的灾难。我们不停地追逐,不停地梦想,不停地憧憬,这多少个不停的不停,让成长变得出奇地迷人。而我说,它是海啸般铺天盖地的香,是过往的芬芳……

后记

经过了长达几天的艰苦奋战,这本作文集终于尘埃落定。这本《朝花夕拾》随笔集的里面是我八年级上写的一些比较好的作文。首先随笔集的名字就让我推敲了半天,最后还是决定将鲁迅先生“朝花夕拾”的名字拿来,“朝”是指早上,而“夕”指黄昏,在夕阳西下的时候漫步于田间小道,拾起晨间掉落的一朵小花,别有一番韵味。里面的文章大都是我回忆儿时生活的,它们虽然笨拙稚嫩,没有华丽的词语和过多的雕琢。却是我一年生活的结晶,也汇集着我成长的过程。它的内容非常丰富:有幼稚可笑的儿童篇,有酸甜苦辣的成长篇,有奇思妙想的童话篇,当然,也有美丽的写景篇……其中的艰辛就不用说了,但苦中有乐的是我学到了许多。在重温以前的作文中,我发现自己的文笔竟小有进步,单凭这一点就不禁沾沾自喜。虽然文学素养上鲁迅老人家根本不能比,但我更高兴的还是对事物有了更深的了解和更透彻的看法,这就是我的收获。

才发现时间有时候真的过的很快,一个学期就这样过去了。人生也是如此,从刚入学到现在,有些人离开这个集体,但也不停的有新成员加入,我们目睹了种种聚散离别,终于,那些欢乐或悲伤的日子仿佛火车开过。虽然还有余音在耳边回荡,但它确实已经在渐渐远去。给我们留下的记忆也许深刻,也许只是一抹淡淡的痕迹,但这都是我们曾经一起欢笑流泪的证据。

让我们打开这本作文集,当我们用心去触摸这些稚嫩而鲜活的文字,我们内心的尘垢会被慢慢地拭去,我们的内心充盈着感动,我们被文字牵引,我们被童心的真诚、美好、善良感动。每一滴水都闪耀着太阳的光辉,而每一篇作文,都会折射出我们纯洁的心灵。于是发现,虽然我们还未能写出“笔落惊风雨,诗成泣鬼神”的文章,但我们坚信,只要有纯真的童心相伴,我们就可以用手中的笔写出使人眼睛发光的文句。

所有的相聚都在等待离别,而所有的离别都是为了重逢时的精彩。天空也许是灰色的,但我们也可以穿上五颜六色的衣裳。终点在前,年华在后,系好鞋带,相信青春永远只愿为自信的人绽开。

我在成长的道路上一步一步地走着:从一个小丫头渐渐长成一个小女孩;从一个毫不懂事的我到一个能为妈妈排忧解难的我;从一个天真烂漫的我到一个乖巧懂事的我。在成长的道路上我经历了许许多多的事。以前,我是家中的小公主,被长辈们宠着、爱着,在成长的道路上,有人为我挡风遮雨。我更希望在以后的道路上,能自己一个人坚强地走下去!朱自清说:“燕子去了,有再来的时候;杨柳枯了,有再青的时候;桃花谢了,有再开的时候。”可是童年,那段欢乐时光怎么一去不复返呢?是它逃走了罢?还是我把它放了?是的,童年将要逝去,留下的只是零星的追忆,只是沙滩上的几只贝壳,只是风中几点散落的落花和过往的芬芳罢了。

我愿牵着你的手,漫步在田间小路上,夕阳照着我们的身影,暖乎乎的,你突然弯下腰,拾起地上的一朵娇艳的花,还沾着露水,把它递给我,见证我们美好的时刻。

篇二:初中随笔集_5800字

一池春水

江南好,风景旧曾谙,日出江花红胜火,春来江水绿如蓝。能不忆江南?卓君,你看这一池春水被春风吹散,不正像江南一样让人迷恋?泥融飞燕子,沙暖睡鸳鸯。不知草长莺飞的江南三月,是否也有一番这动人的风景。我曾听过江南闺妇的哀叹:早知潮有信,嫁与弄潮儿。或许是一位“心怯空房不忍归”的少妇,留在青青柳上的绝句,被才人捡去,遂成千古流传的佳话。

侧坐莓苔草映身,于青草更青处垂下线纶,开始了我漫长而幸福的等待。卓君,这一池水春水,似你的容貌,倾国倾城,沉鱼落雁,闭月羞花,鬓如刀裁,眉如墨画,呵呵,你可曾记得那首《错误》:

我打江南走过,

那等在季节里的容颜如莲花的开落,

东风不来,三月的柳絮不飞,

你的心似小小的寂莫的城,

恰若青石的街道向晚,

跫音不响,三月的春帏不揭,

你的心似小小的窗扉紧掩,

我达达的马蹄是美丽的错误,

我不是归人,是个过客。

或许等待本来就是一个错误,因了人们的诠释而出落得分外绚丽?多少恨,昨夜梦魂中。还似旧时游上苑,车如流水马如龙。花月正春风。我苦苦求索,“可怜薄命作君王”李煜在等待些什么,或许是宫女手中温馨的茶香,或许是龙椅之上昙花一现的辉煌,可亲可爱的卓君能否给以解答?

静水流深,然而静水之下,游鱼咬钓钩。水面泛起了一层淡淡的涟漪,如梦一般渐渐地远去,静静的晚风送来渔舟的晚唱,将一缕愁苦吹得如烟如雾如尘。

等待是什么?

等待是一樽芳香的醇酒。有了等待的醇酒,生活便如诗如画。

等待是一杯馨香的淡茗,有了等待的淡茗,生活便如韵如歌。

卓君,你看,我钓得一尾鲤鱼,我又将它放回水里,因为我已了却了一桩心愿,我已完成了一场等待的游戏。

樱花祭

寂寞的三月,樱花开始飘散。每一朵花开,都会取代另一朵花的位置。于是每一次的盛开,都意味着一个小生灵的悄然坠地,无声无息。

寂寞的樱花落了一地伤感,每一次消逝,都维系着笔者的心。面对着这般美丽的生灵,自然界的一切似乎都在此刻归复了宁静。

开放意味着凋亡,凋亡意味着重生。破茧成蝶,是三月春虫的美梦。然而破茧而出的,往往是一只型陋若斯的飞蛾。从一出生开始,它们便永无休止地舞蹈着,向着月亮,向着烛光,跳着一段最美的舞蹈。

天使的声音渐渐传来,悠远荒芜又宁静。有的人用文字构筑了一个美丽的围城,于是便有人愿意走近他,走进他构筑的美丽的城市。

也有的人用文字抒发心灵,他们的文字真如樱花一般,即开即谢,凋落一地伤感。那种让人感伤的美,只应在人心里出现,却无从收拾。

正如那一地凋落的花瓣,无从收拾。

是谁播种了春天的种子,是夏天的希望,而后变作秋的金黄。是谁摇落了那一树樱花,在每个明月悬天的夜,诉说着一个不为人知的故事。

我想我的文字当是樱花,即开即谢,一地无从收拾的伤感,诉说着一个不为人知的故事。

三月,我看见,樱花正在飘散,有些落在了文人墨客的肩头。并化为了不朽的诗篇。

来去匆匆,是樱花转瞬即逝的生命。你知道吗,正如天地间万物一样,樱花的生命也很短暂。我想,我们人类也像天地间万物一样,一直进行着生命的接力,一棒又一棒,接连传下去。而今它传到我的手中了,我便以最快的速度,飞驰在人生的漫漫长路上。

樱花也进行着生命的接力。它们的生命太过短暂,长的一星期,短的两三天,但是耐人寻味的是,无论生命多么短暂,每一朵樱花都传递着关爱的讯息,传播着人间温情。

它们默默地开着,不管哪一阵风会带走它们轻盈的花魂。

飘散在风里的,永远是一曲生命的欢歌。

用心倾听,便能知晓,那是一曲关于生命的颂歌。不管生命多么短暂,都要开出应有的绚丽。不管凋谢何时叩门,都要用心谱写一曲生命的欢歌。

生命的接力棒,一棒一棒传下去,传到某一个樱花手中时,便促成了一朵鲜花的美丽。

然后我听见了一种鲜花坠地的声音。我敢说,那是一种迄今为止,我听过的最美的声音。

当有一天,一阵迟来的夏风吹散了阳春三月所布置的一切美景,当樱花在最后一缕清风里悄然飘散,我便拿了笔记本,将那飘散的樱花接住,永远地封存在我的记忆里。

它们,是不能够被人遗忘的。

它们,是不应该被人遗忘的,同时,它们也不会被人遗忘。

至少,我不会。

又一阵樱花从我眼前飘过,悠悠坠地,落成了一方香冢。那里埋藏的,是一个永不消逝的灵魂。

落花的声音

五月,已经没花了,但是,我却突然想听听落花的声音。

于是我来到论坛上,来寻找落花的声音。我用我的一切来寻找它,那落花的声音。

可是,我什么也没有找到,因为我已经失去了一切,我把我当成了四川的难民,我就失去了一切。

那些风花雪月夜,那些花影弄窗时,都如四散的烟花,瞬间就消逝在我的记忆里。

我想我就是四川的难民,我的腿卡在墙缝里,我的灵魂在四处游荡,我的理想在灾难中化为乌有。

我的一切,一切的一切,都消失了,包括我的梦,我的理想,我的明天。死去万事空啊!

但是,我不是四川的难民,所以我有明天,我有未来,有梦想。去往天堂的路太挤太挤,我还是赶下一班把。四川,我的家。

可是,我那不甘寂寞的心又开始了新一轮的寻找,我寻找未来,寻找希望,寻找四川的难民已经永远失去的一切。我,都要将它一一找回,并在下一个花好月圆之夜,将它交给一个我不认识的人,然后告诉它,这个包裹里装着的,是三万人的灵魂,是他们的梦想,是他们的未来,是他们的希望!

可是,我再也找不到去往天堂的路,就像我也找不到花开的声音。 花落时分,我在月下漫步,我不想寻找花开的声音,我只想在月下理清我纷乱的思绪。我的心太乱了,我找不到方向,

可是,我听到隔壁有人在哭,他的哭声是那么悲凉。

我终于找到了,我找到了花开的声音。

然后我依然在寻找,落花的声音。那声音是那么脆弱,如此地不堪一击。 可是我依然在寻找,寻找落花的声音。我突然觉得,那些花在飘落时,其实依然在开放,就像我们在奔赴死亡时,心里还惦记着人世间的一切美好。

花开的声音,我已经找到,但是花落的声音,我却从未听见。于是我去找妈妈,去问她花落是什么声音?

妈妈告诉我,花落是这样一种声音,它们落得无声,但是如果你用心听,而不是用耳朵,那你会听到花的哭声。即使在天堂,它们也默默地祝福我们。就像那些上了天堂的人,他们遇难了,那么他们会在死去的那一刹,默默地祝福,祝生者平安,祝死者安息。

祝福你们,那些在汶川地震中失去了生命的人,祝你们永远安息。我知道在天堂,你们也会默默地祝福我,祝福我们永远安康。

在天堂,你们的眼睛是那么明亮。天上的星星会化为你们的眼睛,照亮我们来时的路。

当夜幕降临,当夜的翅膀笼罩了大地,当黑夜的眼神注视着我时,我似乎听见了落花的声音。我知道,那是一种来自天堂的声音。

夏日蝴蝶

盛夏的午后

盛夏,阳光是那么灿烂,雨水是如此地多情,以至于我忘记了一切,只沉醉在这夏日的午后,那阳光灿烂的午后。

我不知道世上还能有多少这样的午后,我们是不是还可以在这样的午后,轻轻地掬一捧散茶,在那青瓷构成的茶杯里,放上一生的回忆,并着一世的忧伤,将那一切的回忆都泡在这一盏茶水里,永远地泡下去。最后,当它们都到达我们的口腔时,一种沁人心脾的错觉也在我们的心底蔓延开来。

就像是一盏茶,碰翻了,在我们的心底四下流淌,将一世的回忆都流淌在这心底,永不磨灭。



蝴蝶

有很多蝴蝶翩然起舞,在万花丛,在香雪海,在柳荫下,在春梦里,翩然起舞。

然而我想,能有多少蝴蝶会破茧而出,在阳光下翩然起舞?会不会有更多的小生灵在未破茧之前就一命归阴?千年的长叹是千年的梦想,没有一只蝴蝶愿意死在茧里,可是还是又太多的蝴蝶不能破茧而出。

即使破茧而出,怕还是不能有与万花共舞的机会。比如我眼前的这只蝴蝶。



邂逅

在盛夏的午后,我独自徘徊在门口,落地窗将我与盛夏隔离开来,但是我的心,还在这落地窗之外放浪。我走近落地窗,意外的发现,原来这里有一只盛夏的蝴蝶。

我不知它何时来到了我的家,来到了我的窗里,为什么它不肯进入我的视线,走进我的心?

但我发现的它的时候,它已经死了,就像夏日里死在我们心中的阳光。 有的阳光徘徊在葡萄架上,有的阳光徘徊在人的肩头,也有的阳光在人的心里哭泣,因为它想照到最昏暗的地方。

这只蝴蝶,翅膀是斑斓的红,就像夏日里熊熊燃烧的火焰。但是夏日里最不能被人接受的是火焰。生在冬日最好了,可是现在毕竟不是冬日,所以,它的死亡似乎也是一定的了。

我想在死亡之前,它一定是看着眼前的光明,用最热烈的目光,与阳光对视。

然后它不停地拍打着窗户,不停的呐喊,最后,筋疲力尽而死。 

发现

我眼前的这只蝴蝶,有着世上最美的翅膀,至少我这么认为,秘鲁有一种光明女神蝶,据说是世上最美的蝴蝶,它有着世上最美的翅膀,蓝天一样,但是它能比得过我眼前这只蝴蝶吗?这只世上最美的蝴蝶啊,它已经死去了。

在透明的玻璃前,它选择了永生。

就这样死而无憾,就这样飘飘渺渺,就这样来来去去,就这样无牵无挂。 这只蝴蝶,是世上最美的蝴蝶,因为它用自己的死诠释了一种生命的高贵,如同夏日里鸣叫不休的蝉。

我看着这一只蝴蝶,心中有一股清泉在流淌,它直流到我的心底,在那里,有一种莫名的情绪在滋长,我怀疑我要为它流一滴眼泪了,但是真正要流泪的时候,却惊愕地发现,原来自己已然无泪。

这只蝴蝶,是世上最美的蝴蝶,它的死似乎与我无关,但是它的美,却早已浸透了我的泪水,我的血液。

这一只蝴蝶啊,这一只已然老去的蝴蝶啊!它是已经长久地驻立在我的心里了。



后记:不管怎么说,我已经邂逅了一只蝴蝶,它是那么美,那么惹人陶醉,就像夏日的阳光,就像夏日里射穿玻璃的阳光。

雪之味

绿蚁新醅酒,红泥小火炉。晚来天欲雪,能饮一杯无?

我常常怀疑,是不是在那个大雪天,在白雪染白了乡村的黄昏的时候,白居易是不是真的举起一杯“绿蚁新醅酒”,问刘十九,“能饮一杯无”?

我想那当真是一个浪漫的雪季,当真有一个叫刘十九的人,陪着白居易,一边赏雪,一边度过那个漫长的黄昏。

在其它时候,一样是黄昏,他们也只能缩手缩脚,偎在炉前,尝一杯新酒,只是在那个黄昏,那个落雪的季节,他们尝到了酒外之味。在千年之后的今天,又有一个书生,读到了《问刘十九》,从那几行短短的诗句,他也品到了酒外之味——雪味。

天欲雪,是的,欲雪而未雪,就像“山雨欲来”,欲雨而未雨,而风已满楼。满楼的风夹杂着泥土与野草的芳香,将一个未雨的“日沉阁”,装扮得如同待嫁闺中的新娘。

那一样是另外的味道,我们称之为雨味。

水光潋滟晴方好,山色空蒙雨亦奇。

欲把西湖比西子,淡妆浓抹总相宜。

西子湖之美,在于“淡妆浓抹总相宜”。是的,烟雨西湖,让多少画家、文人雅士费尽了精神,却也未能画出西湖之万一。桂林山水,奇绝八九,终未有一副图画,能画出这八九之一。

欲雪欲雨,是未来之美。写美景,往往落笔便俗。传神之笔,在于写美景之侧,在于写将来未来之态。

烟雨西湖,桂林山水,若只是远观,而非近看,想必另有一番韵味。只是文人雅士太贪,不肯舍弃一分一毫,这一不肯舍弃,却使得他们舍弃了许多,而且都是不愿舍弃的。

是不是在那个欲雪的黄昏,他们一唱一和,度过了许多美好时光。北风乍起,吹面生寒,一枚雪花,飘然入室,至炉火之上,便化为一团烟云。他们看着窗外,未关的窗,将一方雪景镶嵌在文人的心房。

他们就这样看着雪景,度过了那个漫长的下午。

菩提本无树

我家曾有两处宅院,现在是只剩一处了。原来的那出几易其主,如今却不知姓谁了。我最难忘的是那一处老宅院,宅院不大,容得下我们五口人,就再难容他人了。夏天会有苦楝花散发着淡淡的药香,只是每逢暴雨,我们家的那条可怜的狮子狗就遭殃了,它是住在露天的院子里的,它的狗窝只有一个顶棚避雨。

于是每逢下雨,就会有风吹着雨水灌进它的窝,这是很不幸的一件事。我记得那条狗身体很衰弱,羸弱的身体使这条可怜的家伙无法走很远,也总是受到其他狗的欺负。弟弟常常给这条狗喂食,他总是把馒头嚼过,吐给狗吃。

后来这条狗不知去向,据说是被人抱走了,一个陌生人。

后来我们家还养过几条狗,大多不得善终,有两条“兄弟”狗居然被人药死了,死状凄惨。

只是那些开在房顶上的苦楝花,在我的记忆里,一直散发着淡淡的药香。 而今搬离那座宅院很久了,不时会回忆起它,回忆起那些不知所终的狗。现在我们家仍然有两条狗,一黑一白,黑的油光发亮,白的一尘不染,一黑一白,倒常让人想起黑白无常。

我觉得人间自有极乐,这种想法是在我看见那条狗的睡相之后突然产生的。那天很晚了,我从睡梦中醒来,看见了那条狗,黑狗,油光发亮的那条狗,它闭着眼睛睡在我的床边,睡相恬然。我突然感到了宁静,感到了无比的安宁,我想到了那远在乡下的奶奶,她一直教我,教我认识佛,认识佛教,我常常幻想极乐,可是我没想到极乐就在身边——一条狗,深夜的陪伴,无限的满足,无限的感叹„„

忘忧花,含羞草,菩提树,极乐鸟,人间自有极乐,何必非要去寻西天的极乐呢?

或许你不懂我在说什么,你不明白我想表达什么意思,其实我自己是明白的,这就足够了。有些事就是这样的,你自己明白自己在想什么就行了,不必非要表达给别人知道,桃李不言,下自成蹊,智者不言,极乐在心。

我想起了家中的那一株菩提,夏季会缀满沉甸甸的果实,阳光的惠顾会使菩提充满盛夏的味道。有人说没有感知过硬生生的疼痛的果子最好吃,或许也是有道理的,子非鱼,安知鱼之乐,子非树,安知树不知痛?

离树最近的算是风了,我觉得,那并不存在的风都不知道菩提树正在想什么,何况是我们呢?我说风不存在,只是因为风不过是空气的流动,本身是不存在的,存在的是空气,而不是风。

这流动的空气并不知道自己是不存在的,它也不知道树在想什么。于是树有了自己的极乐,那是一个绝对寂静的世界。树没有眼睛,没有耳朵,甚至没有鼻子,于是对外界缺乏感知,但那些所谓的感知不过是人类自以为是的感知罢了,没有这些感知的树,谁知道有没有更高的智慧呢?

六祖慧能有偈曰:“菩提本无树,明镜亦非台,本来无一物,何处惹尘埃?” 六祖慧能说的是什么,是菩提,是明镜?或者,他什么都没说,“本来无一物”是也!

流动的空气,它又知道什么呢?

无欲的菩提,它又知道什么呢?

今夜的笔者,我又知道什么呢?

知之为知之,不知为不知,是智也。或者,那个在川上长叹的老人,也什么都不知?

罢罢罢,由他由他!

篇三:语文随笔集_20700字

潍坊市重大教育教学问题《学生写作兴趣与能力培养》学生成果集汇编

六级五班文笔集

滨 海 三 中

2011.10

前 言

我们顾不上怀念那些被遗忘的流金岁月,毕竟都已经走过了,将被风沙掩埋,成为不为人知的记忆,直至永远。但是,我却在一本本随笔日记里找到了永不退色的记忆和美好。

随笔,带给我们的不仅是童年的回忆,不仅是青涩的情感,它更像一束阳光,他更像一位知己……

古人云:读书破万卷,下笔如有神。朱熹的诗依旧在耳畔:为渠哪得清如许,为有源头活水来。作文水平的提高,固然不一定读万卷书,但只要多读书,思想便会丰盈;只要多笔耕,笔端便会如泉涌。写作更多的是一种感受,当你学会大大方方的投入大千世界的怀抱,世界必将回馈给你更灵动的文字。

作文离不开实践,同样作文更是生活的一只彩笔。作为一名青少年,如果学会了写作,就是学会了独自面对生活,学会了独自面对自己,学会了思考人生,学会了面对宇宙和未来,这是个人成长的声音,是生命拔节的声音。

每一个学生就像玫瑰花蕾,有不同的花期。而最后开的花,与最早开的花一样美丽。一年年的作文课上,流动的不仅是学生手中的那支笔,更应该是学生心底的那首歌!

李卿卿

2011.10

随笔集

校园童话:

小时候,校园

挂在高高的蓝天上

看见她,听到她

就好像 拥抱着满天的星星,都是

我的向往„„

我们de班级

六、五 朱镜文

如果要谈起我们的班级,那可有的说了。别看我们班级只有49个人,49个人各有特点。 调皮鬼马效晨、王彦钧,他俩是我们班出了名的“活宝”。

聪明、文静的班长张琳婧,她可是“人小威力大”、“女中豪杰”,班里的纪律可全靠她了。

智多星王子宇,各科考试成绩名列前茅,从不偏科,真让人羡慕嫉妒恨啊。

跑步健将马凯,运动会短跑冠军。

我们的语文老师——21世纪的时髦青年。常常上课口吐潮语,让紧张的课堂气氛一下子变的轻松、活泼,让我们精神抖擞,总感觉时间过得飞快。我们都喜欢她。

我们的数学老师——一丝不苟,要求效率。总想把满脑子的智慧传授给我们,非常负责任。我们信任她。

我们的Englishteacher——班主任杨老师,他可是我们的侦查员和研究员。同学们的一举一动他尽收眼底,如果同学们哪个违反纪律,他就会大发雷霆,从不从轻发落,每次开班会讲的最多的总是纪律和安全,非常严格,但是他可是为我们好呢!我们离不开他。 我爱我的班级,我爱我的校园大家庭!

简评:语言风趣,一个个形象跃然纸上,字里行间充满对班级的热爱之情!

我参加了合唱队

六.五冯一笑

在暑假的时候,我很荣幸的被老师选入

了学校的合唱队,这是一件令我非常高兴的

事。

暑假还没完,我们就开始练习了,学校

的音乐老师先教我们怎么练发声,教我们怎

么用真假声,经过一个小时的练习,同学们

基本掌握了发声的技巧,我们一个个累的口

干舌燥。

我们休息了几分钟后,老师开始教我们唱歌了,老师还说这首歌是我们献给教师节的礼物,同学们听了都唱劲十足,都说一定要认真学好、唱好。一开始我总唱跑调,我回到家后,什么也没干,马上打开电脑,搜出《我们把祖国爱在心窝里》这首歌,跟着电脑反复的学唱起来。

经过我的努力学习,终于能把歌曲唱好了,还跟同学们配合的很好。在演出的那一天,我们顺利的完成了演唱,我非常高兴。

通过参加合唱队,我学好了跟同学之间的配合,也懂得了不管干什么事,只要努力去做,就一定能做好。

快乐的活动课

六、五刘继圣

上了一下午的课,终于可以上节活动课了。

老师把我们带到楼下站好队,站了一会儿,由班长把我们带到了活动场地,一会儿,便自由活动了,我们好高兴呀!我和一些同学一块儿玩儿猫抓老鼠,经过划拳,选出了三只猫,其他的同学是老鼠。游戏开始了,只见老鼠们蜂拥而出,在粮仓偷粮食,由于老鼠太多

了,高的猫们不知道先抓那只好,等猫们回过神来向我们这里猛冲过来,我们便争先恐后地向窝猛冲过来!我们大部分都跑回来了,可是锣齐鼓不齐!还是有几只小老鼠被猫们抓了个措手不及呀。

我们正玩儿得热火朝天,只听叮铃一声下课铃响了!

唉!(╯﹏╰)时间过得真快呀!我们便怀着依依不舍的

心情回到了教室!

我心中的晓雯音乐

六、五 王琪琛

在我的心中,晓雯音乐常常是一种快乐。每周六晚,我都在学校度过一段愉快的时光。每当学习一个新曲子,我就很高兴、快乐。也有人问我:弹琴累吗?你妈妈看见你弹错了,不说你吗?我会说:“不累,如果妈妈看见我弹错了,不会说我,而是鼓励我改掉!”

在我心中,在晓文音乐学校学习音乐有时也是一种负担。每当妈妈催促我练琴时,我就不高兴,有一种难过的感觉,有时妈妈真的不了解我!以前,我也产生了不想学的念头。好几次,我对妈妈说:“妈妈,我太累了,我不想学了!”这时,妈妈就认真地对我说:“宝贝,如果你真的不愿意学,妈妈绝不会强迫你,我花钱是为了让你快乐,而不是让你痛苦!如果你不开心,咱就不学了,你可想好了,一定不学了?”如果这样,我会说:“我还是考虑考虑吧!”

现在,从不到三年级就开始学音乐的我,已变成

了一个上六年级的大男孩了。现在我已经在提高班学

习了很长时间了,无论是音乐素养还是演奏技巧,都

有了很大的提高。有一句话我感觉李老师说的很对,

那就是“将动作汇入你的音乐,会更加好”。

我相信,通过老师的教导和我的努力,在音乐的

这条道路上,我会越走越远的。

家是温暖的小屋:

母亲,倘若你梦中看见一只很小的白船儿,

不要惊讶他无端入梦。

这是你至爱的女儿含著泪叠的,

万水千山,求他载著她的爱和悲哀归去。

——冰心

母亲

六、五 窦雨菲

有一个人,无论你走到哪里,都舍不下对你的牵挂,有一种爱,它让你的生活更加幸福,却不要你任何的回报,这个人叫“母亲”,这种爱叫“母爱”。

------------题记

今天上午,我和妈妈吵架了,原因是因为我差不多看了一上午的电视,没有背古诗,写作业,妈妈说:“一上午在家干什么,不写作业,不背古诗,天天就知道在家看电视。”于是我居然说:“不就是看点电视吗,怎么了,不行呀.

我走进卧室,轻轻地把门关死。坐

在椅子上,泪流满面,心里在想为什么

我要看一上午电视,而不学习呢?为什

么我要在母亲面前如此无礼。现在哭和

抱怨自己又有什么用呢。于是我把作业

本翻开,拿起笔准备要把作业认认真真

的写完,写完作业,又背了一首古诗,

这时妈妈叫我去吃饭。象往常一样妈妈

给我一双筷子,我们开始吃饭了,但这

顿饭我和母亲没有说一句话,以前都是

欢声笑语的吃晚饭,但这顿饭非常冷漠。饭做得非常好,而我却吃得没有滋味。我鼓起勇气向妈妈说:“妈,对不起,我不应该那样朝你说话,请您原谅我吧,我把作业和古诗都完成了。”妈妈对我说:“我也是为了你好,看多了电视视力会下降,而且作业没完成.........

母亲告诉了我许多道理,这时我感觉母爱是多么无私,多么伟大呀!我流下了感恩的眼泪,饭是甜的,泪却是咸的。

在我们的人生道路上,母亲为了我们的成长付出了多少心血,庆祝了多少慈母之情啊!就让我们以前留意母亲的微笑,母亲的忧虑,木青的快乐和痛苦吧。珍惜着平凡伟大的爱吧!

我 的 妈 妈

六、五袁敏博

今天,我来介绍一下我的妈妈,我对我妈

妈印象最深刻的就是她的“大嗓门”!

早上起来妈妈叫我起床时用“大嗓门”喊

我;批评我时,也会用“大嗓门”来教育我,

鼓励我时,时常竖起她的大拇指,再加上她的

大嗓门„„„我认为妈妈说话时,有一个“毛

病”,说着说着,声音就会越来越大,差不多,

每次说话都要我提醒。

有一次,我在家里练毛笔字,我的横不小

心写歪了,妈妈就用她的“大嗓门”来教育我,

写字时不要一心二用,写字时拿笔要稳,要横

平竖直,有力度。我连忙又写了一个横,“这次写的好”!下了我一跳,我以为妈妈又要用“大嗓门”批评我呢,这次妈妈是用“大嗓门”夸奖我。

这几天,妈妈有事不在家,妈妈不在家的日子,听不见她的“大嗓门”,还真是有些不习惯。我知道妈妈都是为了我好,虽然我的心里还是有一些害怕,但是我还是喜欢妈妈用“大嗓门”来教育我,鼓励我。

我可爱的小弟弟

六.五张琳婧

这个可爱、天真、搞笑的小弟弟今年五岁了。

他长着胖乎乎的身子,圆嘟嘟的脸蛋,小小的眼

睛下面,镶嵌着红樱桃般的小嘴,长得可水灵了!

走到哪里都说是个小女孩。

可是一年差不多我们只能相见两次面,因为

他和舅舅、舅妈一起住在河北保定。见上一面,

不是他们来就是我们去,真是好远啊!

下面我依次介绍一下,他可爱、天真、搞笑都

体现在哪一方面:就先说一说可爱和搞笑吧!他是一个男孩,但也经常趴在妈妈怀里撒娇。比如说有一次吧,他趴在妈妈怀里说:“妈妈,今天好热啊,我的嘴里都冒火了,必须用一个东西(雪糕)凉爽一下。”他的一句话把我们笑的前翻后仰。从中我可以看到一个可爱、一个搞笑的小弟弟。

下面我再给你们介绍一下,他天真的一面:有一次,他们一家人去篮球场玩。舅舅在打篮球,而弟弟却突发奇想,要捡塑料瓶。舅妈问:“捡塑料瓶干什么?”弟弟说:“要卖钱啊!”望着弟弟那天真的眼神舅妈就没有说什么。只是默默在后面帮他拿着塑料瓶。第二天早晨醒来,他拿着仅有的几个瓶子去卖钱,尽管只卖了几角钱。但弟弟还是掩盖不住自己心里的喜悦,因为毕竟是自己的辛苦劳动得来的。

这就是我的弟弟,一个天真、可爱、搞笑的小弟弟。你们喜欢他吗?

和爸爸打羽毛球

六、五王怡菲

“啪!啪!啪!啪!哎呀……”这是在哪儿?这是在打羽毛球的场地上。 我已经来过4次了。这次,我和爸爸打得很激烈。

王怡菲vs王建生

“啪!”“啪!”“给你个见面礼!”我这样想。(我和

爸一打球,就都不认识对方了)。 谁知道,爸爸也

我了个见面礼。我一急,没接住。 接下来,我有点

急,因为我总是接不住(不是我水平不行)。 我恼

爸给着了,

“啪!!”地打过去,爸爸没接住。你,一定在为我高兴吧,但是我心里并没有因此而放弃,因为我知道,我只要一放松,就会被打败。但是爸爸没接住球后捡球时在笑我。我一时控制不住我自己,“啪!!啪!!啪!!啪!!”一连几个“要害球”(对方的弱点)过去,“对手”都没接住。我心中的那团火消了一半。 然后,我乘胜追击,一下就把爸爸打败了。

打羽毛球对我来说是“一箭三雕”啊!把“健康”射下来了;把“保护视力”射下来了;把快乐射下来,把“爸爸”射下来。

我喜欢我的弟弟

六、五宋子彬

我喜欢我的弟弟。

他的外貌有点像我,他和我差不多高,我们同一年出生。他的脸有点长,眼睛很大,看起来很有神,眉毛很浓,留着短发。他跑得很快,喜欢蓝色和绿色。他的语言有点假,老说谎,我都不敢相信他。

我们经常在一起玩,有时也会出点小矛盾,他有点喜欢发呆,但成绩不错。

他长得很帅气,但是他也很能玩。

下课了我去上厕所,我看见他飞快的冲出门口,我拉住他的衣服,他带着我跑,他一停把我发射出去了,他真是想玩想疯了。还有一次在家里,他想玩电脑,我问他爸爸让不让,他爸不让,弟弟就不高兴了,非要完电脑,他一直大叫,我直接和他说:“去我家里玩电脑去”。他说:“好啊!”我真是服了他了。

我喜欢和我的弟弟玩,虽然我和他经常玩,但是我们也是死对头。因为我妈经常拿我弟弟来做比较。我考试比弟弟考得差,所以妈妈经常批评我。

我和我弟弟是永远离不开的好朋友!

赶海

六、五 张昊

星期天上午,爸爸带我去附近的海滩上去赶海。

海水正好退潮,海滩上露出了许多岩石。浅浅的水湾里有许多小鱼。小鱼很机灵,我刚把渔网放水里,它们就立马钻进了石头缝里。没有办法,我只好把渔网放进靠近岩石的地方。不一会儿,果然一只小鱼从石头缝里钻了出来,四下看了一看,就大摇大摆地在水里游来游去,我在岸上暗自高兴,我把渔网一抬就一下子抓住了它,这只小鱼在网里急得上蹿下跳,我却得意的哈哈大笑。

最好逮的是小螃蟹,它们通常都躲在石头底下,翻一下

石头,石头底下就会有很多的小螃蟹,但是下手要快,否则

它们会逃得无影无踪。在我老爸的帮助下,我逮到了十几只

小螃蟹呢!

快到中午了,老爸带着我和十几只小螃蟹高高兴兴的去

了爷爷家,爷爷最爱吃这一口了!

有趣的按鲨鱼游戏

六、五 于嘉慧

今天,我们玩了按'鲨鱼

先来看看这条鲨鱼的“尊容”:这条鲨鱼是浅蓝色的,有

小巧玲珑的身体,可是却有一个特大号的头,一双眼睛虎视

眈眈的望着你,一张长满锋利牙齿的大嘴巴随时准备向猎物

进攻。

游戏开始了,爸爸信心十足的按了一下鲨鱼的牙齿,手

还没来得及缩回去,鲨鱼的牙齿已经压了下来,只听得“哎呀”

一声惨叫,爸爸的手指已经有了一份

此时,爸爸已被吓得“魂飞魄散”了。

妈妈小心翼翼的按了一个,还好,“鲨鱼”纹丝未动。

终于到我了,我轻轻地按了其中一个,鲨鱼的嘴巴向我的手指压来,正在这千钧一发之际,我以迅雷不及掩耳之势的速度一缩,“啪”的一声,鲨鱼的嘴巴也盖上了。虚惊一场。 这次的游戏真好玩啊。

钓鱼

六、五 仉海旭

今天天气真好,我早上太兴奋了,所以很早就起来了,因为今天我们一家和爷爷奶奶要去海边钓鱼。

我们先去超市买了些吃的东西,然后开车来到了海边,一看到大海我就高兴地叫了起来:“哇塞,太美了!”蓝蓝的天空上飞着很多海鸥,蔚蓝的大海上有几只小船。那里的人很多,一进去人已经满了,慢慢地往里走,我们找了个人少的地方开始钓鱼。

爷爷和爸爸把鱼竿弄好已经10点多了。我是个“初学者”,所以我就细心的向我爷爷学习。爷爷拿起鱼竿把鱼钩上放好鱼食,使劲向大海里一甩,把鱼钩甩进海里,爷爷说:“钓鱼一定要有耐心,鱼竿的竿头使劲地抖动两下鱼就上钩了,这时要迅速提起鱼竿收线。”我按着爷爷说的来做,等了好长时间也没有鱼来咬钩,我都快坐不住了,突然,我觉得鱼竿往下一沉,我急的把鱼竿使劲往上拉大声喊:爷爷,有大鱼上钩了!”爷爷帮我一起拉上线一看,鱼食被鱼吃掉,可是鱼跑了,唉!我太心急了。因为海上的浪不小,所以爸爸和爷爷发挥也都有点失常,后来爸爸吹牛说:“我一定是第一个钓上鱼来的。”可是,过了一会儿,爷爷已经钓上一条了,爸爸却一点动静也没有,又过了一会儿,爸爸也有了动静,慢慢的鱼头都上来了,可是那鱼一晃又掉下去跑了。

因为我的耐心不好,所以我和妈妈拿着瓶子和鱼食去钓小鱼和小螃蟹子,在钓螃蟹的时候,妈妈捉到了只大个的高兴地说:“看·······”话还没说完就被螃蟹的钳子夹住了,疼得妈妈大叫,奶奶急了,使劲帮妈妈把螃蟹钳子拿开,我说:“没事吧?”妈妈说:“没关系。”我看见妈妈的眼泪都快出来了。我们拿着战利品就去找爸爸他们,爸爸和爷爷也钓了好多鱼,今天的收获可真不啊!

等我们回到家已经很晚了,虽然很累,可是我很开心,今天我不仅学会了钓鱼,还知道不管做什么事情都要有耐心!

爸爸要戒烟

六 . 五 于林祥

晚饭后,我坐在沙发上吃水果。突然,一阵呛人的烟味冲进了我的鼻子里,我忍不住咳嗽了几声,转头一看,原来是爸爸又坐在了沙发上抽烟了。客厅里的空气变得浑浊起来。这时,妈妈走到爸爸身边一

说:“你总是抽烟,电视里不是讲

我也抱怨道:“爸爸,别抽烟了。

妈妈又说:“你呀,大家都多少次

吧。要抽,你就到阳台上去抽,

毒。”

“好了好了。”爸爸把手里的烟放到烟灰缸里,“我宣布,今天起,正式戒烟!希望大家多监督!”

“耶!我们胜利了!”我几乎是喊了出来。这可是好久以来我和妈妈的心愿。我对妈妈说:“快削个苹果,奖励奖励爸爸.”我们都笑了。

边用手挥散烟雾一边过吗,吸烟有害健康。”烟里有尼古丁,有毒。”劝你戒烟了。你就戒了别让大家都陪着你吸

老河口钓鱼记

六·五袁凤一

清晨,我早早的起床,跟着爸爸妈妈一起去了汽车站。坐着汽车去了老河口。 汽车在路上颠簸着,我坐在车上,心情特别好,因为我们要去钓鱼。

到了老河口,我蹦下车,先看到的是一个土坡,爸爸妈妈从台阶上上来下去,顽皮的我从坡上跑了下去,感觉自由自在的。爸爸领着我去钓鱼的地方,我们坐下来开始钓鱼。 不一会儿,爸爸就钓上来了两条鱼,一条较大,一条比较小。我和妈妈一条也没有钓上来,真实的。妈妈是个急性子,见钓不上鱼来,有该用网去捞小螃蟹。一会儿,妈妈满面春风得意回来。我问:“妈妈,你这么快网到螃蟹了?”妈妈说:“那还不快,先把网撒上,一会再去收网。”我说:“( ⊙ o ⊙ )啊!这比钓鱼还简单!那我也会了,下回我去网螃蟹!” 妈妈和爸爸笑了!我说:“笑什么我又没说错!我总不能在旁边干坐着吧!”妈妈说:“好好好,下一会你网鱼,不让你干坐着!”我说:“那太好了!”

今天我实在是太高兴了,因为我们吃了一顿鱼肉大餐,还让我懂得了网鱼的技术。

我的姐姐

六、五 窦雨菲 只要一提到姐姐,妈妈就赞不绝口,我也对她佩服的五体投地。

姐姐长的不高不矮,不胖不瘦,高高的鼻梁上架着一副眼镜,听说有800度,但是也遮不住她那炯炯有神的大眼睛。他的皮肤非常光,牙齿整齐,远远望去象发亮的珍珠。姐姐不仅漂亮,而且学习名列前茅,她在寿光一中上学,每次期末考试都是A,她的英语有时考的不到A,就说自己考不好,其实成绩总是数一数二的。她就是这样严格要求自己。有一次我问姐姐为什么不看电视玩会电脑呢?她说那样太花时间,看了还想看,还是不

玩好。

她就是这样利用有限的时间,学习无限的知识。学习成绩怎么会不好呢?

我要学习姐姐不贪玩,珍惜合理利用时间的好习惯。

流动的真情:

生活里,总充满了悄无声息的感动:本书,一件礼物,一棵树,一场大雪„„

海宝表

六、五 袁瑞鸿

我有一件我喜欢的一件工艺品,它是个海宝的表。它还是今年上海世博会时,我姐姐从上海带回来送给我的,虽然我们相处不到一年,但我已经把它当作我最亲密的朋友了,我什么都会给它说。接下来,我就隆重及详细的介绍我的这位“好朋友”吧。

它的颜色跟“上海”的“海”字很搭,蓝蓝的。给人一种拥抱海的感觉,让我们能随时感觉到世博会就在我们的身边。它长15厘米,宽10厘米左右。看起来小了点,但戴在脖子上,显得很小巧玲珑。它摆的是一个跳跃欢呼的样子,这代表的我们中国人对外国人的欢迎和友好。唯一巧妙的地方就是把它的头做成了表,用的是个透明的玻璃把里面的表针罩着,里面的2个大大的眼睛都看的很清楚,因为周围没有数字,看时间可要自己揣摩揣摩啊!不过看习惯就好了,凡事都有一个过程!一点困难正是我们青少年所应该克服的。而且在它的最上边有根有弹性的橡胶绳子把它串着,橡胶的绳子使它不容易断,也不会有折痕,看起来很美观。尤其是在夏天戴在脖子上冰冰凉凉,舒服极了。你把它戴在胸前,既可以当装饰品又可以当表看。真是一举两得啊!

一件小小的物品,对我们就意义非凡。但在生活中往往很少人才会体验到,那么我们就要用心去感受身边的每一件工艺品,用眼睛去发现身边的每一件工艺品吧

好朋友豆豆

六、五 王妍

在暑假,我来到了奶奶家看望我好久不见的爷爷奶奶。来到奶奶家,我却发现奶奶的脚边多了一个身影:“豆豆”!

原来,奶奶养的小黑狗“小黑”丢了,奶奶和爷爷非常伤心。大娘为了不让奶奶伤心,于是,就送给奶奶和爷爷了一只小狗来陪他们作伴,代替小黑。

豆豆长的非常漂亮,用我的话说就是一个字:“帅”!当然,豆豆是公的!

豆豆非常可爱,还非常的平易近人。有一次,奶奶家来了一个亲戚,豆豆不但不咬他,反而将自己的小脸凑到了他的身上,仿佛在对他说“可以陪我玩会吗?”

豆豆不但平易近人,还有一点的天真贪玩那!

有一次,我正在写作业,可豆豆突然跑来。咬着我的裤脚仿佛在对我说:“陪我玩会吧,小主人!”可我在写作业没时间陪它玩,豆豆它很不高兴,突然,它看到了一只淡紫色的蝴蝶,便把所有的不高兴抛到了九霄云外,兴高采烈的跑去追蝴蝶。

假期末尾,我要回来上学。告别的时候,豆豆和爷爷奶奶一起来送我。豆豆看着我,仿佛在对我说:“小主人,等你下次来的时候,不要忘记陪我一起玩儿哦!”

秋叶

六、五廖浩

星期天,我出去玩,突然一片叶落到我的头上,我拾起一看是一片半干的树叶,我把树叶撕碎之后扔了。在家里看书,当看到关于秋叶的资料后我才恍然大悟,上面说:秋叶在秋天落下,是因为风吹干了他的水分,只要轻轻一碰就会落下;秋叶落在土里可以当做肥料。下午我又出去玩,看到几堆秋叶在路上,我这次没有把秋叶撕碎,而是在想秋叶夏天生机勃勃,把它最美的一面展示给全世界,这些落叶有黄的,有紫的,有红的„„慢慢的地,慢慢地飘了下来 ,它的样子就像一位姑娘在空中翩翩起舞。现在他要完成生命中的最后一次使命了落到土里去,养育下一代。秋叶代代都是这么无私;这么伟大。

我愿为一片树叶......

六、五 宋浩琪

树,一种及其普通,及其常见的植

物。

树,一种外表拙,“内心”细的植物。

树是人类的“密友”——当人们看到树枝

上嫩绿的萌芽便知是春姑娘姗姗来迟;当树枝繁

叶茂,便知是夏哥哥抱着火红的吉他登场了;当

树叶渐黄、落下,人们便知秋姐姐穿着红枫叶般

的嫁衣出嫁了;当树穿上白衣裳,人们便知冬孩

子来打雪仗了。

仲夏,大人们在树阴下下棋,孩子们则缠着妈妈讲故事。迷路时,探险家们着大自然的指南针——树,不一会儿就走出了迷宫般的森林。

树不求回报,日日夜夜的工作—— 的作用 。美化环境、调节气温、净化空气......国外曾有学者对树的生态价值进行过计算:一棵50年树龄的树,累计创值约196000美元。这一计算是否精确姑且不论,就树木的实用价值而言,确是显而易见的。

一棵树可以生产200公斤纸浆,而这些纸浆如果要生产卫生纸,则至少有重为100克的卫生纸750卷。

在城市,一棵树一年可以贮存一辆汽车行驶16公里所排放的污染物。很多树木可以吸收有害气体,如1公顷柳杉林每天可以吸收二氧化硫60千克,其他如臭椿、夹竹桃、银杏、梧桐等都有吸收二氧化硫的功能。当城市绿化面积达到50%以上时,大气中的污染物可得到有效控制。

我们如果每人多栽一棵树 ,那世界该多么美好啊!

银杏叶

六、五 王怡菲 我家院子里种着一棵有两层高的银杏树。

它的树干只有用大人的手才可以圈起来。它的树叶十分茂密。

它没有结过果实,可能还不够年龄吧!

它的树叶非常漂亮,当它落下来时,就像一只只小蝴蝶在翩翩起舞(但都是黄的,慢镜头)。我捡了很多,都做成了书签。树叶有小的;大的;分岔的;不分岔的;变异的;混血儿(有绿色、黄色);带雀斑的;不带雀斑的……再一天,给你片。

银杏树的果实叫白果。它含有蛋白质、脂肪等人体所需要的营养成分,是一种绿色保健食品(但不要吃太多哦)。入药、有润肺、止咳的作用。叶子能制造杀虫剂和治疗心血疾病的药。它的木质十分优良,是建筑、雕刻、做家具的上等木质。

银杏树可活千年以上。山东莒南县的定林寺中有一棵大银杏树,相传是商代种植的,距今已有三千多年了。

银杏树是最古老的树种之一,所以它被称为“活化石”。

你想见见我家的银杏树吗?如果想,那就Let's go!

大连之旅

六、五李颖杰

去年夏天,我去了位于辽宁的大连。

在那里,白天人山人海、车水马龙,像潮水一般。晚上灯火通明,就是深夜了也仍是人山人海,直到凌晨三四点才会慢慢安静下来。

在那里,到处都有海水的味道,海水又清新又有一种淡淡的咸味。

我们参观了许多地方。

第一天我们去的是海边和蛇馆。在海边我们看到了一望无际、广阔无垠的大海。在蛇馆我看到了各种各样的蛇,有蟒蛇、眼镜蛇、斑纹蛇……这些蛇五颜六色,有红色、白色、黄色……这些蛇的身上有各种漂亮的花纹,并且这些花纹还非常有规律。

第二天,我们看的是水中动物的精彩的表演,表演的动物是海豚、海狮、海象、鲸鱼等。 第三天,也是我们最期待的一天。因为今天我们要去的是发现王国。发现王国是一个非常大的游乐园。游乐园里面有许多游戏设备,有海盗船、过山车、360度翻滚时钟、激流勇进……这天我们玩的是流连忘返。

最后一天,我们高兴地结束了快乐的旅程。

光阴似箭

六、五王妍

今天,我在校园里发现了一件事:树叶变黄了,大多数都翩翩起舞的落了下来,给我们的校园铺上了一层华丽的金黄色地毯!凝望这脚底的落叶,心底突然沉静下来。

记得我刚入学那会儿,才九月份,校园里的大树上的树叶,没有变黄,还那是那么的绿,和春天的时候一样,绿的那么郁郁葱葱,绿的那么美丽、绿得发亮。

可现在,眨眼间就已经到了十一月份,校园里的树上的树叶几乎每天、每小时、每秒都在落,落在教室的窗台,落在食堂的阶梯,落在我们那晃晃悠悠的自行车上,到处都有„„

真不可思议!因为短短几个月的时间,就让现在的树叶和两个月前的树叶有了天壤之别。而树叶落地也让我明白了一个成语:光阴似箭!

是啊,一眨眼,我也成长为一个中学生了,想起一直以来的成长,时间变得从未有过的可爱和动人。

旱莲花

六 、五 曹海心

今天放学,我回到家,按照惯例,我先去阳台看

一看我的旱莲花。也许,你会问了:旱莲花?好奇特的

名字。但是,你一看见它,就不会觉得奇特了。

它是那么平常:绿油油的圆圆的叶子,立刻能让

你想象到又圆又大的荷叶;红艳艳的花儿让你想到那

些小姑娘头上戴的.裙子上别的又红又艳的大红花。它

还有三个特点呢:首先, 必须在中秋节播种,它大约

可以在春天的“尾巴”.夏天的“前奏”就开花。一开花就开好几天,直到第二朵花儿开了,它才迟迟离去。其次。它的叶子好像有某种特性,如果用小型花洒像它的叶子喷一点水,普

通叶子一定会让水珠滑下来,水迹好粗的;而它呢?水珠虽然照样滑下来,但不会流出水迹,貌似没有水珠在上面过似的。

它的叶子似乎还有一种特性:一旦某种叶子被另一个叶子挡住,立刻枯黄,可是嫩芽 居然还包在其中。

真是一颗积极向上的旱莲啊!

我喜欢旱莲!

家乡的雪

六 、五 曹海心

年前,每次回姥姥家,常会碰到下雪的天气。

就拿那次来说吧,周五放学以后,我骑车带着弟弟回姥姥家,快要到家时,天上下起了鹅毛大雪,那雪柔柔嫩嫩,洁白无比。但是,这还不如老家的雪。

到了!姥姥

们。我像看漓江的

四周,好一幅秀丽

上的雪花穿着洁

地为柳树披上衣

上被子。冰天雪

我们说笑着

哇!梅花开得正

疏淡的香气扑面出来迎接我山水那样看着的风景画!天白的衣裳轻轻裳;为麦苗盖地,可好看啦! 进了院落里,盛,一股纯净而来。轻轻拨开花朵一看,有几片小雪花们正睡的香呢!家乡的雪常常会把梅花叫醒。雪花们稚嫩又脆弱,经不起风吹雨打,它们就在梅花的花房里睡了,睡的那样香,那样甜,可爱极了。

家乡的雪玲珑小巧,玲珑小巧,洁白柔软,今年的冬天,你会来我的老家家看雪吗?

春 天 来 了

六、五 袁敏博

冬天很快就过去了,不知不觉,春姑娘悄悄地来到我们身边,明媚的春光照到我们的脸上感觉暖洋洋的。

今天是星期日,我和我的伙伴们一起到白云公园去寻找春姑娘的足迹,啊!远远望去,远处都是一片连绵起伏的山峦,一山青、一山绿、一山浓、一山淡、真像一幅优美的山水画,小山坡上长满了一片绿油油的小草,它们好像一群活泼可爱的孩子们,正在接受者春天的阳光和春风的抚爱,小草的样子形态各异,有桃形的、有锯齿形的、有椭圆形的、有尖形的。小草给春天带来了勃勃生机。

河水里有许多游来游去的小鱼,他们在自由自在的游着,快活得玩耍,也在感受着春天给它们带来的快乐。柳树伸伸懒腰,也伸出了嫩嫩的绿芽,鲜艳的桃花也开了,它们在阳光下竞相开放,争奇斗艳,大雁从遥远的南方排着整齐的人字行飞回来了,他们唱着动听的歌曲,像是在迎接春天的到来。

啊!春天多美啊!我喜欢这美丽的春天!

春天

六、五 田昊

我最喜欢春天,春天是个温暖的季节,也是个万物复苏的季节。

春天到了,燕子飞回来了,冬眠的动物也苏醒了,所有的植物都发芽了开花了,漫山遍野的野花好看极了。小朋友们也把棉衣脱掉了,换上了单衣在田野里快乐地奔跑。小河里的冰也融化了,鱼儿在水里快乐的游来游去。

大自然变得生机勃勃,在那个时候我非常喜欢到野外去欣赏那个春天的美景,小河里的水是那么温暖,不像冬天里的河水凉得快把手冻掉了。春天里不再寒风刺骨,春天的风是那么柔和吹在脸上暖暖的舒服极了。

啊!我喜欢春天,这个百花盛开的季节。

麻雀和狐狸

六 . 五于林祥

在森林里,有一只狐狸在散步。突然,它听到了一阵鸟叫声。它找到声音的来源后,

是一只小麻雀,于是狐狸就想吃掉麻雀。

狐狸走到麻雀旁边,麻雀看见它,立即往上飞,边飞边想:“狐狸一般都是没什么好心

的,有可能他想吃掉我。”狐狸却对麻雀说:“别走啊,漂亮的麻雀小姐,我不是来干坏事的。”

麻雀有点半信半疑,说:“真的?”狐狸回答:“那是当然了。”但是麻雀还是不太相信。狐狸

接着说:“我是被您这美丽的容貌迷住了,您长得那么漂亮,那么美,心又那么的善良,而

且还乐于助人,向您这样的动物还不好找啊!哈哈。”

麻雀听到自己是那么的优秀,觉得狐狸不是很讨厌了,就慢慢地飞下来。麻雀的脚还

没落地,狐狸就冲了过去,麻雀还没缓过神来,就成了狐狸的一份美餐。

六、五马效晨

风,带着鼓鼓囊囊的、黑的乌云,急匆地赶着路。一不小心,摔了个趔趄,千万个雨从

乌云口袋里出来„„就这样,雨,来了,轻轻地来了,没有一点预兆,除了满天的乌云„„

先是细如牛毛的雨丝,沾湿了平滑的路面。它太小了,太轻了,仿佛一阵风就可以把它

吹得无影无踪。这时的雨,是最美的,是抚摩树木的慈母,是沁入心扉的清凉,虽然这种体

验只有几分钟„„

渐渐的,雨大了起来,落在树叶上的声音也由“沙沙”变成了“哒哒”。天地之间被这

一层纵横交织的雨雾笼罩得严严实实,模糊一片;房檐上,活泼的雨水滑着“滑梯”从瓦上

落下来,一头扎进大地的怀抱,逗得大地妈妈“哧哧”直笑。它呢?则拌着,嘻嘻哈哈地融

入大山那浓浓的绿色中„„

雨,越下越大,打在窗子上“梆梆”直响。吓得鸟儿也躲进了屋里,传出一两声不满的

啼叫。雨娃娃不好意思了,赶紧向鸟儿道歉。这一道不要紧,“轰隆隆”的一声,倒把鸟儿

吓得够呛。雨娃娃羞红了脸,不好意思地跑进河里躲了起来„„

雨,停了,阳光带着一缕缕泥土的清香露出了笑脸。雨娃娃们回到了乌云里,风伯伯也修好了乌云的破损处,爬起来继续赶路。他也许还不知道,雨娃娃们做了一个多么愉快的旅行啊!对了,这可是雨娃娃们的秘密哦,替它们保守这个秘密吧,好吗?

作文名篇集锦

俗话说,民以食为天。几乎每个地方都有自己的美味。从宴会上得正餐大菜到街头巷尾的风味小吃,可以说举不胜举。那么,你来向大家介绍一种美味吧。

爱吃的鱼豆腐

六、五 张云舒

鱼豆腐是我们这的风味小吃。

鱼豆腐味好,吃起来又香又软。白白的鱼豆腐浸在黄色的油里,一个个的豆腐伴着黄色的油,白白的豆腐散入其间,真是让人垂涎三尺.

鱼豆腐的做法很简单,先将豆腐浸到油水里,泡到三十至五十分钟再将豆腐取出,用鱼肉和豆腐一起放到锅里,只要鱼豆腐够嫩就可以了.

吃鱼豆腐也有好方法:把一个完整的豆腐放到嘴里,让那种浓浓的香味瞬间吸到肚子里去,然后,再咬碎,在一下子吞下肚.不过,要慢慢地品尝其中的奥秘,细细的咀嚼,品尝它的

有一天,我吃鱼豆腐时,因为鱼豆腐才刚刚做好,才刚出锅,非常烫,我又急着吃,刚放到嘴里,谁知,嘴里起了个大泡,从此,我给鱼豆腐起了个别名--泡豆腐。

简评:突出了鱼豆腐的色香味,写得诱人!结尾也充满创意。

兰州拉面

六、五李达

兰州拉面是我们全家最喜欢的主食之一。

兰州拉面在我们这开了许多家,而且兰州拉面不光我们家喜欢吃,差不多这里的人都喜欢。

兰州拉面的味道香气扑鼻,形状也很好看,不仅长长的而且又具有弹性的。面条浸泡在米黄色的汤里,边上有嫩绿的香菜,上边还有牛肉,样子象一朵刚刚盛开的花朵,真是令人垂筵三尺啊!

兰州拉面的做法普通:来了客人,做拉面的师傅随手抓了一贯面团,将它拉成又细又长的面条扔在锅里煮,大约煮十分钟放进米黄的汤里。

汤的做法就更简单了,把事先准备好的骨头倒入碗中,加上一点葱花油、酱油、香油,如果喜欢吃辣的再放入辣椒油一碗香气扑鼻的汤就出锅了。

一根根普通的面条,一碗碗普通的汤它们却带给了我难以忘怀的回忆。因此我给兰州拉面起了一个特别的名字——“回忆拉面”。

第一次做鸡蛋面

六、五袁振帅

我现在也已经不小了,应该也要学会做点东西才行。我最喜欢的就是爸爸做的鸡蛋面条,可是有时候爸爸不在家,就吃不到鸡蛋面条了。我蹭爸爸今天正好没有上班,所以就要爸爸教我做鸡蛋面条。晚上,我就要爸爸教我做鸡蛋面条,爸爸就一口答应了教我做鸡蛋面条,我兴奋的不知是好。就像穷人捡到了宝似的。

爸爸先叫我打两个鸡蛋,然后放点盐,我

就按着爸爸说的先打了两个鸡蛋接着放了点

盐。我刚要搅鸡蛋的时候,爸爸说:“放一些

葱吧。别忘了把葱切成段。”我想:糟了,我

不会切葱。我正着急的时候,一个主意从我脑

海里溜了出来:去请教爸爸吧。只见爸爸先把葱切成两半,爸爸切到一半的时候我就学着爸

爸的样子把葱切成两半,爸爸在一边说:“好”。爸爸又把葱的一小半切成块状,爸爸切完后我就接着切下面的,开始我切的太的大,慢慢的我掌握了窍门。我把葱切成一小块一小块的,和鸡蛋搅拌好。下一步是倒油和开火,我先给锅里倒上油再把火打开。不一会儿油就开了,像是雨水滴到地上贱起的小花似的。我把搅拌好的鸡蛋倒到锅里,鸡蛋发出了滋滋的声音,慢慢的膨胀了起来。爸爸忙用铲子把鸡蛋翻过来,我模仿着爸爸的样子把鸡蛋翻来复去。不一会儿鸡蛋熟了,一股香味扑鼻而来,我情不自禁叫了起来:“啊!好香哇!还用筷子搅了几下就用锅盖盖上了锅。不一会,一碗热热乎乎的鸡蛋面条出现在我眼前。我心里比吃了蜜还要甜。我连忙拿了双筷子,狼吞虎咽地吃了起来。

今天晚上,我吃得比爸爸以前做的鸡蛋面还要香,因为这是我自己亲手做的,特别有成就感。这使我也体会到了劳动的乐趣!

简评:不仅写出了做鸡蛋面的乐趣,更洋溢着浓浓的亲情。

过桥米线

六、五秦单宇

云南的过桥米线,是我最喜欢的小吃。

过桥米线有好几种口味如:原味的、麻辣的、番茄的等。不过我最喜欢吃原味的,它的汤特别好喝,它的面也筋道嫩滑,汤里有各种各样的东西,有黄金版般的玉米,翡翠般的白菜、玉石搬的木耳等。让人垂涎三尺。

吃的时候别太急了,因为那些菜肉要在水里煮熟。大碗里很热就盛在盛面的小碗里吃。把面弄到小碗里,在用勺子弄断,在弄上汤和别的东西。吃的时候在嘴里慢慢咀嚼,顿时那叫一个美味。慢慢的品尝它的嫩滑。最后剩下的汤,一定要喝。喝的时候就要用到勺子了。里面剩下的料啊!菜啊什么的都在勺里。喝着那叫一个香。如果太热了,就要杯果汁吧!

云南的过桥米线真的很好吃,你也去品尝品尝吧!

麦香果冻

六、五 宋浩琪

麦香果冻只是偶拿手的甜点之一,very好吃。

麦香果冻色香味俱全。嫩嫩的麦香果冻中有颗小樱桃,上面有酸酸的苹果果脯,如果能找的几片干净的花瓣铺在下面,那可真是让人垂涎三尺!麦香果冻是淡淡的燕麦色,底下的花瓣,上面的果脯,里面让麦香果冻看起来像个肌骨莹润的小姑娘。

麦香果冻做法很简单:先去买几盒麦香味牛奶,再买根棉花糖。回家之后,先把奶倒入锅里,用小火慢慢熬沸,关上小火放入棉花糖,两

三分钟后倒进模具里,六七小时后拿出来,让人一

吃忘不了的麦香果冻就完工了。

我妹妹吃麦香果冻总喜欢切成小块叉着吃,让

人感到很闷热。

吃完麦香果冻后像抹了唇膏一样,有次吃完麦

香果冻后出去玩,被同学们认为臭美!所以我给麦

香果冻起了个别名——燕麦唇膏。

北京的臭豆腐

六、五 王兆阳

北京的风味小吃是什么?是撒尿牛丸?是臭豆腐?你们猜猜是什么?回答:“臭豆腐”。臭豆腐是闻着臭吃着香。是食物中的上等佳品。而且一本漫画书《阿衰》中,主角阿衰最喜欢吃的东西。臭豆腐是民间小吃。它有着悠久的历史,而且有着超强的吸引力。

臭豆腐是这样做成的:一 先从卤水中拿出来。二 放入油锅中炸,在炸的过程中就必须用细火慢慢的炸,不能火太大了。小豆腐在油锅中跳蹦迪,吱吱作响的油水是它们的伴奏曲。

出锅了!出锅了!小豆腐已不是白面书生了,而变成金黄大侠了。望着它那诱人的表面,我真想吃了它们,我最喜欢吃原味的,因为那样才能品尝出它的色、香、味。

吃臭豆腐时,我喜欢一只手捏着鼻子吃,因为那样闻不着臭味,但是那样吃特麻烦,还的大口大口的吃而且老是掉,有一次我去北京吃的时候,它掉在了地上,我给它起了个名字叫“麻烦来”

我有归纳了一句话“不到长城非好汉,不吃臭豆腐真遗憾!吃一串还想吃,再吃一串更想吃。同学们!如果你来到北京,爬了万里长城,吃了正宗烤鸭,品了粘牙糖葫芦,千万别忘了再吃一串地道的臭豆腐解解馋。”

阿香米线

六、五 陈亭君

记得上一年的时候,我和妈妈去吃全福元旁边的“阿香米线”,至今还回味无穷。

那年,我和妈妈去“阿香米线”的店里去吃午饭。但我一看,“阿香米线”这个店牌已经改成了“@!xiang!”,中文就是“啊!香!”

一进门,一种芳香扑鼻的香味令我心旷神怡,好想来到了美食仙境似的。

我们点了过桥米线、番茄汤米线,服务员弄好之后,给我们端了过来。那个碗非常厚,里面的米线汤是淡颜色的,番茄汤是红色的,还给我们每个人上了一盘配料:玉米粒、火腿肠、料酱等5种调料,还每人上了2盘米线。

锅才端来的时候都沸了,这时我小心翼翼地、慢慢地、赶快地放了调料,过了3分钟,才尝到米线。顿时,一股香气涌入我的鼻子,一个字,那就是——“香啊!!”。

我起身越过桌子到妈妈的旁边,弯下腰,尝了尝妈妈的番茄汤米线,又回到自己的座位尝了尝。嗯···我的汤有点甜,妈妈的汤有点酸,妈妈尝了我的一下,真香!但妈妈吃了两碗还想吃,我只能把剩下的半碗给了妈妈,妈妈就说,你吃你吃吧。

出来的时候,我和妈妈想着米线,下一次一定再吃,因为·因为太好吃了,改天你也尝尝吧。

好吃的汤圆

六、五 王旭辉

汤圆是我最爱吃的食物,每次吃汤圆,我都能吃好几碗呢!

汤圆非常好吃,吃起来松软可口。乳白色的汤圆浸泡在清澈的汤里,好像一群群小孩子们在温泉里洗澡,又像一颗颗美丽的珍珠沉浸在深海里面。

汤圆非常香,闻着闻着就会流口水,把一个汤圆放入口中,细细的咀嚼,就会有甜甜的

水流入你的口中,让你百吃不厌。

有一次,我用

一下,汤圆破了,

拿了一双筷子,夹

轻地夹了一下,夹

我又对汤圆无可

已经变成乳白色

这碗汤很好喝,我

去了。

有一次,我们一家人吃汤圆,由于我吃得太快,噎着了,吐不出来,咽不下去,最后,我喝了一口水,咽下去了,这就是狼吞虎咽的“好处”。

勺子吃汤圆,轻轻地扎了甜甜的水流了出来,我又了一下,又破了,我又轻不起来。汤圆太弱小了,奈何。我发现碗里的汤,的了,我喝了一口,发现又迫不及待的一口气喝下

鱼香肉丝

六 . 五张琳婧

鱼香肉丝是一道非常非常好吃的家乡菜,它色、香、味俱全。我想:你们也一定吃过。这样看来,它也是一道非常非常有名的家乡菜。

什么都不用说,就说说它的香味吧!尝第一口的时候,那真是辣中带甜、甜中带辣。那味甭提多香了!

现在我再来说说它的看相吧:粉嫩嫩的肉丝在红红的肉丝汁里浸泡着。上面再点缀一些红色的辣椒和黑色的木耳,那种样子真是令人垂涎三尺。

我吃的时候总喜欢先把点缀的木耳来挑着吃掉,然后再细细的品尝肉丝和汁里的味道。因为这道菜本来就是辣的,又喝上热水,嘴里有种说不出来的感觉。那表情啊,就别提多纠结了!

这么好吃又好看的菜,最起码我感觉是非常非常复杂的,如果让我品尝的话,我也只能品出做这道菜的几种材料:第一当然是肉丝啦,第二个是木耳,第三个呢是辣椒,第四个是香菜。尽管我吃过N次,但我还是不明白,他是怎样把肉丝炒得那样的嫩,把汤做的那样的有味道,那样的浓!

如果你也有种垂涎三尺的感觉,那么还不快去尝一尝这人间美味?

爱吃的北京烤鸭

六、五 袁敏博

去年暑假,我去北京旅游时,妈妈请我吃了正宗的

北京烤鸭,一想起那美味的烤鸭,到现在还让我回味无

穷,我认为北京烤鸭最大的特点就是外酥里嫩。

在北京旅游时,我最大的愿望是能尝到正宗的“全

聚德”烤鸭。现在,就让我来介绍它的色、香、味、形

吧!

北京烤鸭的鸭皮已经烤成了淡棕色,而鸭里面的肉仍然非常细嫩,呈肉色。我听说夏天和冬天的鸭肉最好吃,最嫩。这次来吃北京烤鸭,算是来对了。

开始吃烤鸭了!啊!香喷喷的烤鸭就摆在我面前。我忍不住就想吃一口。妈妈说,吃烤鸭不能肯,得把肉切成一小块一小块的,卷在荷叶饼里吃,还可以蘸点甜酱,好吃葱的人,还可以卷上点葱,轻轻的嚼一口。啊!真香!真酥!真脆啊!有脆脆的鸭皮和嫩嫩的鸭肉混合在一起,还稍微有一点点咸,吃一口,就让人回味无穷!啊我突然在墙上看到这么一行字:“不到长城非好汉,不吃烤鸭真遗憾!”哈哈,我想这次来北京是不会遗憾了!我已经爬了雄伟壮观的长城,也吃了北京有名小吃——烤鸭。啊!不小心,我卷的甜酱太多了,喷了我一脸,哈哈!不过,我已经品尝了美味的烤鸭。

看,这北京的烤鸭这么好吃,你也快来尝尝吧!

简评:写出了烤鸭的特点,再现了一种老北京美味!

面叶蛋花汤

六、五朱镜文

面叶蛋花汤是我奶奶的拿手“小汤”。对于小时候的我来说,面叶蛋花汤是我最美味的记忆。

面叶蛋花汤不仅简单易学,而且看相好,味道也不错:一片片面叶沉入碗底,金灿灿的蛋花散入其中,如果再加上奶奶做的一碟小咸菜,那真让人垂涎三尺!

面叶蛋花汤与其它汤的不同在于清而不淡,香而不腻,还可以管饱。它的做法十分简单: 第一道工序先揉好面,成面团状,然后用擀面杖来擀,擀成薄饼状之后,用刀斜着来切,切成菱形,面叶就算准备好了。

第二道工序就是点火热锅,倒入少许油,放入葱花炒锅,炒至葱花有浓烈的香味冒出,然后加水,盖上锅盖到水煮沸后加入面叶,再将搅好的鸡蛋撒入其中,中火煮三到五分钟即可,一份面叶蛋花汤就诞生了!

我迫不及待的拿着勺子舀了一大碗,心急如焚的等待它慢慢凉下来,还不时的用扇子降降温,然后狼吞虎咽地大口吃了起来,每当这时,奶奶总是在一边吆喝,你妈妈几天没管你饭了,慢点,别噎着„„

色香俱全的香芋饼

六、五王怡菲

“哇!太好吃了!真是太香了!”哈哈,我正在和妈咪在这美丽的西双版纳大吃这人尝人爱、花闻花开地香芋饼呢!停!不要误会!是被它的香味所醉倒。

瞧,正是因为它这诱人的香味、诱人的颜色,才把我吸引到这餐桌上的。

看,它们穿着统一的金黄色的外衣整齐地向我的嘴巴走来。(嚼嚼)太香了!

咬一口,一小口。它们里面穿的是淡紫色的香芋毛衣,最里面的是红色的豆沙衣。也不知道它们吃的啥?你看看,一个个肚子胖得滚圆滚圆的。不过,这味道也差不了,是香芋和豆沙的混合味。

那天,我和妈咪还有在云南认识的朋友:小草、以及她的姑姑、姐姐,去吃饭。我点了香芋饼。香芋饼一端上来,猛吸一大口,香啊!!我“△※❤☆♡◆⊰?!”狼吞虎咽地吃了5个,然后把另外的5个香芋饼分给了其他人。我吃完了香芋饼,觉得实在是太好吃了!!我就装作可怜状得看着妈咪,妈咪立即反应过来,又给我点了一盘香芋饼。(吧唧吧唧吧唧……干嘛!看我干什么!)。妈咪,你真好!

太香了!!亲爱的香芋饼,我爱你!(过来,香芋饼,来,朝我的嘴巴来)❤❤(狂吻香芋饼)!!

刀削面

六、五张翔坤

刀削面是山西著名的风味小吃,也是四大面点之一。

刀削面味好,看想也好。乳的面条弯弯曲曲,好似一朵白云,漂浮在汤里,一粒粒褐色的肉粒伴着淡黄的榨菜,表面浮着几根油菜,五颜六色,真像一副山水画。那滋味,别提多好吃了,真是令人垂涎三尺!

刀削面的做法很简单,但是削面可不简单,削面必须要技艺高超的削面师傅才能做出来,削面的时候,手上放上一块板子,把面放在上面,用小刀片飞快的削,一削,一条条长长的面条就像小蜻蜓一样飞进了锅里,面煮熟后,用漏勺乘到碗里放入几根油菜,撒是肉粒和榨菜,再乘上鸡翅汤,撒上盐和酱油后,一碗色香味俱全的刀削面就做成了。

吃刀削面也挺有意思。吃的时候,我喜欢先吃油菜,油菜吃完了,再吃面条和肉粒。找到面条时,我都是一根根的吃,吹凉后,然后飞快的吸进嘴里,软硬适中,真是爽口呀!喜欢吃辣的朋友,可以浇勺辣油,喜欢吃酸的朋友呢,可以放上几滴醋,还要记住一买来就快吃,要不面就成团。

有一次我吃刀削面的时候,由于太饿了,所以一端上来我就吃,因为太烫了,所以烫的我舌头麻了半天,我又给刀削面取了个别名“烫烫烫嘴!”

美味的糖葫芦

六.五 李颖杰

我最喜欢的小吃是糖葫芦。因为糖葫芦甜里带酸、酸里带甜,吃了它,可以让人回味无穷。

糖葫芦的特点是吃的时候,可以让人感觉到有一种说不出来的美味。吃起来酸酸甜甜的、脆脆的,闻着就是香味迷人。

糖葫芦的颜色是红色的,(因为山楂是红色的)晶莹剔透。

糖葫芦不仅好吃,它的做法也非常简单:首先把山楂洗干净,然后把它用竹签串起来,一次串七八个即可,最后用白糖加上适量的水用小火熬出来的糖浆把山楂串在锅里一滚,山楂串上就全是糖浆了。

糖葫芦的味道非常好,我每次吃的时候总是要 先闻一闻它那清香的气息,再咬一小口

—因为糖葫芦实在是太酸了!

品尝人间美食糖葫芦—乐在其中。

我还给它起了一个听起来就非常好吃的名字—酸甜美食。

美味螺蛳粉

六、五 仉海旭

今年暑假我去柳州找我哥哥玩,柳州不仅风景秀丽,而且有很多美食,最有名的要数螺丝粉了。傍晚,姑姑带我们来到了一家最有名的螺丝粉店,呵,来这家店的人可真是不少啊!我们随便找了个位子坐下开始耐心地等待美味了。

螺丝粉终于端上来了,还没吃我就闻到它

的香味了,而且颜色非常好看。那红红的汤汁

(我以为是西红柿汤),亮晶晶的米粉浸在其

中,绿绿的菠菜和四季豆在米粉上散开,看着就让人垂涎三尺!

我迫不及待地拿起筷子就夹米粉,可是米粉太滑了,夹了好几次都滑下去了,我只好用筷子夹住米粉转一圈再提上来,我吃了一口慢慢觉得有点不对劲,感觉有点辣,再来一口,越来越辣了。不一会,我就被辣得面红耳赤,汗水都出来了。我只好大口大口地喝凉白开,还不住地说:“辣死了,辣死了。”我的狼狈样把姑姑和哥哥逗乐了,姑姑说:

姑姑说,螺蛳粉不是很难做,味道主要是在汤里。把螺蛳洗干净,加作料炒一下,然后加水慢慢炖,美味的汤汁就做好了,把煮过的米粉放入汤内,加入喜欢吃的青菜,一碗色、香、味俱全的螺蛳粉就做好了。

回来后我经常想起柳州,想起柳州的螺蛳粉!朋友们,有时间到柳州去玩吧,别忘了吃一碗柳州的螺蛳粉,可一定要少放辣椒啊!

红烧牛肉面

六、五 张云岩

我非常爱吃拉面,特别是红烧牛肉面那叫一个香啊!真让我回味无穷啊!

红烧牛肉面的外形非常诱人,在淡红的汤里有牛肉,香菜和辣椒在水中漂浮着。看啦就让人垂涎三尺!

拉面的制作方法其实很古老,选择面团是很有讲究,适中的面团来做,用双手抓住面团两侧向木板连续拍打,再拍打过成中,面团由粗到细有细到丝,这种丝状的拉面既嫩滑又筋道。

我吃红烧牛肉面是有一个习惯,我要细细的闻一闻它的香味再吃,当你的舌头触到面是就会有一种滑滑的感觉,你一嚼面条就像在你口中蹦跳一样非常非常的筋道。

红烧牛肉面放在桌上,里面的面条像一条龙在里面游。红烧牛肉面一定要趁热吃,热吃就吃它的香辣,吃的嘴里面很辣的时候就一定要吃牛肉啦。

有一次,我吃红烧牛肉面时,嫌里面不够辣,然后就放啦一勺辣椒油,这一放可把我辣坏啦,但我吃的还是很高兴,我还是很喜欢这时候的 红烧牛肉面。

我非常非常喜欢吃红烧牛肉面。

喜欢吃的元宵。

六、五李慧心

元宵是我吃过最好吃的东西。

只有在每年的正月十五 ,我才能吃上我最喜欢吃的元宵。因为正月十五是元宵节,元宵节当然要吃元宵了。元宵节是一家人团圆的节日。

元宵味好,看向也好。圆圆的,小小的,滑滑的。吃的时候一口一个。哦!我忘了介绍我最喜欢吃的是煎元宵。煎元宵的时候一定要把元宵煎的发金黄色才好吃,(不要煎糊了)一咬满口香。

见院校的做法很简单:从冰箱里拿出来之后,放在阳光底下晒一晒等它们化冻,化冻以后,锅里倒上油,等油熟了,再把这些小汤圆(元宵)下锅。几分钟后小汤圆差不多(要熟了)熟了,然后,拿着锅来回晃,让他们快点熟(我是这样想的)``````

几分钟后元宵熟了(真的熟了),用铲子 (炒菜用的铲子)成进一个漂亮的盘子里,啊!真香啊!香味全都吸进鼻子里了!

接下来我要开吃力!我吃的时候是把盘子放在窗台上站着吃。下一步我就要动嘴了:我是先吃馅,后吃皮儿。如果你整个这样吃那真是满口流汁,而且会很烫,甚至会烫伤舌头。 有一次吃元宵,由于刚出锅太热了,我一咬弄一脸汁,而且烫着舌头了,弄得我不堪狼狈!从此,我给它取了个名——“乐开花”。

简析:

作者善于通过细节描写叙述美味的特色,而不是干巴巴的直抒,使得文章读来生动活泼,把

元宵的热、香写得有声有色。

我的地盘我做主:

为自己喝彩

孙鑫涛

每个人都有为自己喝彩的时候,有时是在运动会上,有时是在足球场上,有时是在教室里,有时是在活动场地上,有时是在„„都能感到为自己喝彩能给自己加油﹑鼓气﹑得到第一名的决心,而且,当我们在为其他人加油的时候,他们也能勇夺第一﹑争得冠军,到那时,我们就感觉和我当上冠军似的,感到非常快乐,别人也会有说不出的感受,这样我们就能显得独一无二,就能团结友爱﹑友好相处。

记得有一次,我被选上了运动员,天天锻炼,每天都想象着当第一的感觉。那时,同学们都来为我喝彩,我会显得多么神气﹑自豪,想到这里,我赶快抓紧训练,眼看着就要开始比赛了,我暗暗的下了决心:自己一定要拿第一。我报了跑步和跳远,紧接着就开始比赛了,比赛开始了,枪声一响,我就飞快地向前跑,希望自己是第一个到达终点的。但是,那些运动员都很出色,几乎全都超过我了,我来不及多想,也来不及看看我后面是否有人,只听见耳边的鼓掌声和呐喊声,我顿时心中燃起了怒火,我几乎把所有的体力耗光了,才得了个第三名。我惭愧地从跑道走过去,同学们似乎都很关心我,不是给我拿水就是给我拿吃的,还问我累不累,没有一个同学嘲笑我。我感到很欣慰。休息片刻后,我又去参加跳远,我决定这次一定要拿第一,我飞快地跑到线上,然后双手摆臂,猛地一跳,1米87,我对这个结果感到还可以,接着其他选手一个个的都跳了过去,我是第一!我顿时高兴地跳了起来,我的梦想终于成真了,我高兴地朝同学跑过去,高兴的说:“我跳远得了第一名。”同学们就如古诗里说的:却看同学愁何在,漫卷诗书喜欲狂那样神采飞扬﹑欢天喜地﹑载歌载舞﹑喜气洋洋,像打了胜仗一样欢乐无比。

然后,我去领奖台领奖,回到家,爸爸妈妈乐的笑开了花,顿时,我有一种说不出的成就感。我以后一定会更加出色,更加努力。我相信我一定会开花结果的,因为我有努力,有自信,才有成功!

加油,女孩!

张云舒

一个普普通通的女孩,今年11岁,我长得胖胖的很可爱。

虽然,我是一名学生,但我也有烦恼,我曾经自卑过,因为我觉得自己赶不上别人。我曾经哭了好多次,但那只因为一个原因,我总觉得自己笨,我觉得自己学习不好。我自卑,但这又能代表什么那?那只能让别人感觉我是一个没有自信心的人。

我试着,去和朋友一起玩,到现在,我那自卑的心理已经无影无踪了。我自己暗暗自喜,天真的以为,这样我就能学习好了,但我苦苦等来的却什么也没有。

我在心里暗暗发誓:一定要把别人超越过去,把别人抛在脑后,于是,我开始了各种各样的训练,我先从文明礼仪做起,因为克服自卑的心理必须要经过坎坷。都快要成功了,为什么不继续下去那?我先已经养成了好习惯。

我要求爸爸妈妈给我报学习班,我要好好练习唱歌,还不忘学习。经过几个月的苦练,我的歌声比以前大有进步。我坚持、坚持、再坚持,经过一年苦苦奋斗,我的歌声比以前有进步了好多。那是因为我坚信,只要想去做并认真地做了,就等于迈出了成功的第一步。 有一天,我的老师对我说:

我快乐了好一阵。但心里还紧张了,生怕自己会让别人笑话,但在别人的鼓励下,我迈上了舞台,一口气唱完了,只听下面掌声都像在给我们加油,合唱结束了,我终于知道不拘谨的感觉了。

在合唱后,我们团得了第一名,老师说:“这还是你的功劳呢!”我为自己骄傲,我为自己自豪我为自己喝彩,我真正从自卑的心理走出来了,从一个害羞的女孩变成了大方的女孩。 今天,回顾过去,看看现在的自己和以前的自己比起来,真是可笑。一个人要从自卑中走出来,那是很难的,但我却做到了,因为我坚信,失败是成功之母。

简评:

不仅写出了这次成功的细节,更让我们看到了一个不一样的女孩!

篇四:教学随笔集_600字

教学随笔集

黄亚平

1:在教学中,没有抽象的学生。

如果你强迫一个身体虚弱的孩子一定要提够20桶,那么这就会损害他的力气,他到明天就什么也干不成了,说不定还会躺到医院里去.学生从事脑力劳动所需要的力量,也是像这样各不相同的.一个学生对教材感知,理解,识记得快,在记忆中保持得长久而牢固;而另一个学生的脑力劳动进行得就完全不同;对教材的感知很慢,知识在记忆中保持得不久而且不牢固.[学生智力的不同并不能用聪明或者不聪明这样简单粗暴的词语加以评判.]

2:不能把教学和教育的所有规律性都机械地运用到学生身上。

不存在有对所有学生都一律适用的教学和教育规律。.学生在学习上的成就这个概念本身就是一种相对的东西:对一个学生来说,

3:能否保护和培养每一个学生的自尊感,取决于教师对这个学生在学习上的个人成绩的看法。

不要向学生要求他们不可能做到的事.【许多时候,我们学生的不满意仅仅只是因为:他的成绩不够使我们满意,没有达到我们想要他达到的合格或者优秀,——虽然,他确实也曾努力过,或者至少尝试过.】

4:教师应当善于确定:要通过怎样的途径,要经历什么样的阻碍和困难,才能引导学生接近课程标准所规定的水平.【有些是接近然后达到,有些是达到然后超越,有些是用很快的时间就能达到,有些则需要你的再三的期待与忍耐:对不同的学生个体来说,这是不相同的】

5:教师和学生要相互关心与相互信任.

学生就不会把教师单纯地看成严厉的监督者,也不会把评分当成一种棍棒.他可以坦率地

对教师说:某某地方我没有做好,某某地方我不会做【他的良心是纯洁的.,他就可能去抄袭别人的作业或者在考试时夹带.他也想树立起自己的尊严.】

篇五:教学随笔集_1300字

教学随笔集

永远都是第一次 同科的一位老师生病了,我代她上一节课。 伴着清脆的上课铃声,我走进教室,喧闹的教室一下子就安静了下来,一张张小脸新鲜地看着我,一双双眼睛活泼泼地传递着这样一个信息:马老师?马老师来给我们上课了!我微笑着和他们问好、请他们坐下后,竟然觉得教室里一下子挺拔了许多,再看看他们挺得笔直笔直的身子,我又笑了,多可爱的孩子啊! 面对这些既熟悉又陌生的孩子,熟悉是因为大部分我叫得上名字,陌生是因为从没给他们上过课,课竟上得异常顺利。我们学的是古诗《所见》,照旧是古诗背诵展示开场,几乎每个同学站起背诵时都有人和着,渐渐地变成了一只只爱炫耀自己的孔雀,抖落出每一根充满诗意细胞的长羽,在这种气氛的感染下,我也背了两首后才开始了正文的学习,诗句很简单,互问互答后就让小组合作,把这首诗用自己独特的方式演绎出来。教室顿时成了排练场,大家热情洋溢地说着、演着,欢乐的声浪一阵阵拍打着空气,震飞了窗外树上驻足停歇的鸟儿。 其中一个个子高大、眉眼俊秀的男孩吸引了我的目光,只见他在小组内指手划脚,高谈阔论,俨然一个久经沙场的指挥官;而小组成员呢,却也俯首贴耳,非常配合。于是,交流展示时我特意挑选了这个组,果然精彩,四个人分工明确:一个诗人,一个牧童,一只蝉儿,一位旁白;道具齐全:诗人手拿书本当折扇,还煞有介事地捋着胡子,牧童站在凳子上权当骑牛;想象丰富:牧童骑在牛背上竟然高声歌唱的是“我骑牛走在郊外的小路上,把那糕点带给外婆尝一尝„„”活脱脱一个中国古典小红帽,蝉儿则夸张地大叫:“难听,难听,哪有我唱得好听,知了,知辽,我什么都知道„„”于是故事开始,最后以诗人吟诵全诗居终。唱读说讲,恰到好处。在同学们的掌声中,我也记住了这个男孩的名字――王航。 接下来的字词学习他就更如鱼得水了,“‘鸣’就是鸟叫的意思,鸟儿一开口就叫了,所以是‘口’字旁,‘鸣’字还有几个成语:自鸣得意、一鸣惊人、鸡鸣狗盗„„”喜得我把一顶顶高帽子接二连三地扣在他头上,“说得太好了!”“你真是个小博士!” 下课了,我哼着小曲美滋滋地回到办公室,赶紧报告他们班的数学老师,“在你们班上课感觉可好啦,发言积极,纪律也好。尤其是那个王航,真聪明。”“哪呀,”数学老师一听到这个名字就撇了撇嘴,说:“绣花枕头大草包,中看不中用,最差了。”“不可能吧!”惊讶使我一时无话可说。 我怎么也不愿意把这样一个聪明的孩子和“草包”联系起来,课堂上的一切已经深深地印入我的脑海,再一遍遍、一点点回味每个细节,蓦地感到,由于已经教了这么多年,接触了这么多学生,我们在潜意识里对教材、对学生、对课堂都有些麻木了,由于熟悉,我们对教材丧失了热情,由于熟悉,我们对学生丧失了关注,由于熟悉,我们对课堂丧失了激情,我们以“止水”的心境对待这原应充满生命活力的课堂,我们的心里,已经下意识地为学生贴上三六九等的标签,我们的目光,那本应是如清辉样的目光啊,也变得狭隘而势力。 请我们每一个教师再回忆一下我们的第一次吧:第一次踏上讲台。第一次听到学生唤出“老师您好”,第一次开讲,第一次为学生的发言“怦然心动”„„ 让我们把每一天、每一课都当作我们的第一次吧,让我们日臻熟练的教学技艺在第一次的背景之下更加闪光,让我们

的精神、脉搏永远和学生一起欢跳。

篇六:邱永随笔集_2600字

学会关注他人

------ 邱永

经过一个单元的教学,调整了心情,觉得语文教学是锻炼自身素质和育人领悟的过程,更需要平时对学生进行评价,因为在新课程理念的指导下,新型的师生关系、评价观念已成为不可忽视的一部分。在接到一年级的这一段时间里,我注意到用新的评价理念来教育评价学生。

一、 让学生看到自己的每一次进步

当一年级的孩子在领语文教科书时,我就为每个孩子准备不同程度的小红花,把学生的每一个精彩点滴都收入囊中,让孩子充分感受成功的喜悦,成长的快乐,让他们明白学习语文成功的标志不是高分,而是每次战胜自我的挑战。

二、关注日常学习生活,及时发现每个学生的闪光点 当我发现每个孩子小小的进步时,在班上我都大力表扬,尤其是班上觉得自己很难跟得上的学生。我们班上有这样很顽皮的学生,上课只知道动手、动口。有一次,我惊奇的发现,他竟然举起了手,大声地朗读出字词,尽管他的声音被同学们盖过,但是我还是请同学们安静下来,让他单独读一遍,并将给他一朵比较大的小红花,可喜的是,我看到他的脸上充满成功的惊奇和喜悦,我想这是我悟出老师是有办法来帮助自己的学生的。

三、不以成绩论英雄

我常常对学生说:不管上个学期的学习成绩有多好或是有多坏,那都成为昨天的故事。只要我们现在每天都有进步,你才是最棒的! 学无止境,正所谓教无止境。每天都有新增的信息填充这个社会,作为新起点的年轻教师——我要时刻保持清醒的头脑,做好接收新事物的准备。

孩子,老师为你有进步感到骄傲

□天小 邱永

陈迅犀在我们班成绩较差,上课老是开小差,作业不认真完成的孩子,为了让他对学习充满信心,我把他从第六组掉到第八组,让陈庆芳同学帮帮他。陈庆芳同学在班上表现良好,工作积极,负责,是老师的小帮手。

起初该生很不情愿,慢慢地从以前怕学语文到喜欢学语文,并且以前最多考十九分,现在居然可以考三十几分。看到他的进步,于是我就找他谈心:

孩子你瞧你多聪明呀!以前你不会,那是你没有用心,现在你会了,说明你认真了,并且你进步还大,不是吗?

该生满意地点了点头,通过这次心与心的交谈,该生对学习有了信心,从以前怕做作业到现在他会主动做作业,进步真大呀!加油吧!孩子,老师为你有进步感到骄傲。

英语教学应注重几点

□ 邱 永

小学英语教学要通过听说读写训练,帮助学生正确的英语发音,具有一定的口头表达能力,它犹如一根主线贯穿英语教学的全过程。其中听说读写极为重要,训练的途径也是多样化的。经过不断探索与实践,我总结出以下几点:

一、用英语组织教学,创设语言环境

1、我在英语教学过程中尽可能少说中文,尽量尝试通过眼神、手势、动作和口令等辅助手段来进行教学。

例如:当某个教学环节要结束时,老师说“one ,two,three”或者以chant的形式“closeyourbook”,让学生一边chant,一边迅速坐端正,sit up straight。

2、我要求学生在公共场合尝试用英语进行交流,如果学生迟到了,就必须说“sorry,I’m late .myⅠcome it?”老师也会有礼貌的回应“comein piease!”

二、创设情境,角色扮演

英语作为一种语言,必须融入一定的情境中。课堂表演就是要创设一定的语言情境给孩子一份自由发展、自由发挥的天地。乌申斯基曾经说过:“儿童是用形象、声音、、色彩和感觉思维的”。而表演正是集形象、声音、色彩和感觉于一体的,它摆脱了死记硬背的旧模式。我在教学中,经常请几人一组运用所学知识进行表演,成效较大。

例如我在教学三年级unit2В let’s talk的重点句型“this is ххх.nice to meet you. Nice to meet you, too”时,先创设b- pirthday party的情境,В来到А的party上,А通过双方介绍让 В与С互相认识,通过学生之间的策划、交流和生动的表演,学生在欢乐愉快的情境中学会了该重点句型,达到了人人能说的目的,是学生在不知不觉中提高了听说的能力。

三、反馈信息,及时巩固

英语的听说训练一定要及时。在教学中,学生对刚学的内容记忆犹新,印象深刻,但如果不及时巩固,不仅会很快遗忘,而且将使学生在学习中的错误与偏差得不到及时纠正。以致形成错误的思

谁说他不在乎

◇ 邱永

万威同学,在全校无人不知无人不晓,这孩子是一个脑瓜好使,很善于应变的人,可能在老师学生心目中,可能就留下了个只会说不会做的印象,其实我们都错了,越是调皮的学生脑瓜都好使,我们应该发现他们的闪光点,寻找突破口,然而面对这样的学生,我们没有必要唠唠叨叨,更多的是做一些尽在无言中让他们感动的事。

这学期我担任的四个班的英语课,说实话太辛苦了,为了使所有的学生都喜欢英语,都认为英语这门学科太重要了,他们不比我们八十年代的人,因此,我下很大的功夫,对各个班级采用不同的评价方式,然而这种方式还是不能激起他们对英语这门学科的兴趣,我叹气过,我悲伤过,我想放弃过,但我在一次课上,对三年级的同学进行卡片奖励,大部分学生高兴极了,于是我干脆就用英语卡片对他们每掌握一小节的内容进行鼓励,让学生在我这里课课读、课课背的形式。这样我的休息时间少了,到处可以听见读英语、背英语的声音,(这只是三至五年级采用这种方式,可六年级我没采用这种方法。)

在一个阳光明媚的下午的课前十分钟,我站在阳台上,四年级的几位同学在我那里背英语,突然我发现了一双明亮的眼睛,他在注视着我发给同学每一张卡片的动作,然后用奇异的目光盯着

我,我感到奇怪,“万威,你在干嘛?发呆了。”万威说“邱老师,为什么他们在你这儿背书,你会发一张卡片给他们,为什么你不发给我们呢?”我说:“可以呀,只要你会背,我同样给你,你认为我怎么不发给你们班的吗?”万威说:“不知道。”我说:“因为你们是学校里的大哥大姐,不需要这种方式鼓励 ,我怕你们不在乎?”“谁说我们不在乎?”万威反驳道。(我喜欢这样的孩子,因为敢说,有胆识)我的脸一下子红了,我说:“那好从现在起,你们班同这几班一样,同等重要。”“邱老师,谢谢你。”然后满意地走了。接着第二天的第二节课就是六年级的一节英语课,我就对他们宣布政策,他们都很幸福,那节课他们听得很专心,“当当当”,下课了,这时我兴高采烈的离开了教室,该生很快从教室里走出来说:“邱老师我想试背一下英语”,没有想到他会背了,一张卡片竟然有这么大的魅力。这时,又来了一个六年级的同学黎应登,看见万威得了一张,他也来背,居然也会背了。

哇!原以为他们不在乎,没有想到他们是那样的在乎呢!

篇七:教师随笔集_32800字

孩子眼中什么样的妈妈最漂亮

在大班时开展三八节活动问孩子喜欢妈妈什么时?大部分孩子都会说喜欢妈妈漂亮,任凭老师启发诱导孩子们只能说到这里了。 今年孩子们长大了,升入大班了,知识面丰富了。说自己的妈妈什么时候最漂亮时都纷纷举手回答:“妈妈温柔的时候最漂亮”“妈妈微笑的时候最漂亮”“妈妈年轻的时候最漂亮”“妈妈结婚的时候最漂亮”“妈妈夏天穿裙子的时候最漂亮”“妈妈出门逛街的时候最漂亮”“妈妈不生气的时候最漂亮”„„平时妈妈们不经意的一举一动,孩子却看在眼里记在心上,用最朴实无华的语言表述出来。当看到这里我想大家心中一定不会平静的。

爱打人的多多

多多是个有名的机灵鬼,她活泼好动,嘴巴特别甜,和陌生人一下子就能相处好,但和小伙伴并不融洽,每天都有小朋友来告状“多多打人了”。在活动中,老师也发现多多的自制力很差,特别表现在上课回答问题时没有一点儿耐心,举手后一定得请她回答,否则她就会闹情绪,在座位上吵闹,影响正常的教学活动。如果老师用小帖画表扬了别的小朋友,她就会小声嘟囔:“这有什么了不起,我才不要呢!”但看她的眼神,又非常地想得到奖励。小朋友们都不喜欢她,她在集体中感很孤单。

分 析

经了解,多多在上托儿所时常常哭着回家告诉爸爸妈妈,有小朋友打她。当老师的爸爸就告诉她,谁要打你,你就打她,这叫“人不犯我,我不犯人,人若犯我,我必犯人”,属于“正当防卫”。由于爸爸妈妈平时工作都比较忙,又没有老人在身边,多多就常常一个人玩。爸爸妈妈心疼多多,常常给她买许多的玩具。多多一会儿玩这个玩具,一会儿又玩那个玩具,显得做事很没耐心,而且非常想和别人交流,“逮”上个人能聊上半天。

对 策

1.做好家长工作。造成多多经常打人的主要原因是受家长所谓的“正当防卫”论的影响,因此,老师必须先和家长取得认识上的一致。我首先和家长进行了交流,指出他们的“正当防卫”论在幼儿园是不适宜的。幼儿由于他们的生理、心理特点,不可能和成人一样能用比较适宜的方法解决日常生活中遇到的问题,有些幼儿只是想和别人表示友好,可是,他的动作给人的感觉就像是想侵犯别人;有些幼儿不太会用语言表达自己的愿望,更多的只能依赖于动作,造成许多理解上的偏差。我列举了许多在平时工作中遇到的事例,让家长非常信服地接受了我的观点。在多多没有耐心的问题上,我提出了许多建设性的意见,如尽可能多地抽出时间陪孩子一起画画。看书,不要边做家务边和孩子交流,这样会让孩子觉得你不重视她,画画时应讲究策略,不要一次给她很多的纸,鼓励她把一幅画画完整,并耐心地涂色,初步培养其耐心。

2.和孩子约法三章。针对多多在活动中缺乏自制力的问题,我和她做了个

小小的约定:老师的问题会回答可以举手,但不是每个问题都要请你回答,如果实在忍不住一定要回答这个问题,请你举左手,老师看到了一定请你回答;但每一次活动,举左手的次数不能超过三次,如果没有请你就抢着回答,就算违反了规定,不能得到小帖画。多多听了,很高兴也很得意,觉得自己受到了极大的重视,因为老师只和她一个人做这样的约定。因此,第一次就遵守了规则,我当然也履行了自己的承诺。看到多多拿到小红花时高兴的模样,我也特别地高兴。有了成功的第一次,多多的信心很足,改掉不少上课不守纪律的坏毛病,自制力有了明显提高。

3.请小朋友帮忙。对于多多比较突出的打人问题,想让她一下子就改过来还真不容易。虽然,随着年龄的增长和相处时间的增多,多多已能判断小伙伴一些动作的含义,但每当小伙伴不小心碰到了她,她还是不依不饶地还手出击,因此大家都不愿和她交朋友,不愿和她一起玩。我便和幼儿一起讨论如何帮助多多的问题,并请小朋友自己商量解决的办法,有几个能力比较强、口语表达比较好的小朋友表示愿意和多多一起玩。我便让他们自己制定游戏规则,如在活动中被别人不小碰倒了,也决不能去打别人!如果违反规定三次,就不欢迎她做游戏伙伴了。有了小伙伴的监督,有了游戏的伙伴,多多打人的坏习惯也在不知不觉中得到了改变。

我们的自然角

背景:

我们的自然角最近好像不太丰富,在我和孩子们的共同商量之下,孩子们决定每人拿一个老姜来种,丰富我们的自然角。第二天早上,孩子们果然都陆续拿着自己的老姜来到幼儿园里来放到了自然角中。

案例:

这时,观察仔细的张思宇小朋友突然问到:“刘老师,小朋友拿来的老姜怎么有的种在泥土里,怎么有的种在黄沙里,有的什么都没有放呢?”说实话,我一下子也不知怎么回答他。突然我灵机一动,这不是我引导孩子们探索,思考的好机会吗?于是我说:“对啊,那你们想一想老姜最喜欢住在哪里,是泥土、黄沙,还是什么也不需要?它住在什么地方长的最好呢?”

我的话音刚落,就引起了孩子们的讨论。“是黄沙。”“是泥土。”“水也可以的,我看见老师在自然角的种土豆什么也用水的。”孩子们的讨论真是热烈的不得了,这时我又说到:“你们都有自己的答案,但是究竟结果会是怎么样呢,老师请你们每天都去发现一下,然后再告诉大家好吗?”于是,孩子们天天去自然角观察,记录。

过了几天,孩子们来找我,刘婷说:“刘老师,我发现我种在黄沙里的老姜最先发了芽所以老姜最喜欢住在黄沙里。”杨宇说:“是的,我种在泥土里的老姜发是发了一点芽,但是比刘雯的小一点。”“我放在水里的也能发芽的。” 葛静文说。只见小杰低着头说:“刘老师,我的老姜就这样干放着它已经像老爷爷一样皮都皱起来了。”孩子们你一言我一语,说着自己这几天观察的结果,最后我问:“那你们找到老姜最喜欢住在哪里了吗?”“找到了,老姜最喜欢的是黄沙,因为黄沙它能留住水分,使老姜的水分不流失,保证老姜能有充足的水分长大。”张思宇头头是道说到。这时,孩子们都点头表示同意认可,因为观察下来的事实证明了张思宇说的是正确的。

反思:

幼儿就是这样,他们一旦碰到感兴趣的事物就会聚在一起谈论,甚至会发生争论。但是幼儿的知识面很狭窄,生活经验少,他们的话在幼儿之间没有一定

说服力,这时教师应该了解他们的所思所想,抓住他们交流中的和困惑来引导他们的自己探索。而二期课改以来我们提倡正要给孩子充分探索的时间和机会,让孩子在自主探索的过程中发现和解决问题。作为教师,我们应关注孩子的生成的活动,把握介入的时机,选用适当的教育策略和指导方式,引导孩子在自主的活动中积极的发展。孩子们的探索欲望真是太可贵了,他们正是在这主动探究的过程中证实了一个又一个问题。作为教师要相信孩子是天生的探索者,教师要支持孩子用自己的方式化解自身的疑问,满足其探索的欲望。

这是假的,老师骗人

案例背景

师幼互动作为幼儿园教育的基本表现形态,存在于幼儿一日生活之中,表现在幼儿园教育的各个领域,对幼儿的发展有着重要的影响。《幼儿园教育指导纲要(试行)》颁布以来,幼儿园的课程形态由传统的分科教学逐步向构建整体的、综合的、生活的课程方向转换。与此同时,对教师如何处理好幼儿学习中的师生互动关系提出了更高的要求。

案例描述

我看了一个案例:活动前,老师带幼儿参观学校周围的垃圾场、菜场等,让幼儿感知塑料袋在生活中无所不在,同时开展了师生共同埋下塑料袋和废纸、做标记等活动。

活动开始,老师出示木偶和立体教具,讲述自编故事:“小兔当当的家门口有一棵小树,长得非常茂盛,小兔把检来的塑料袋全都埋在了树下,以为这样做,能使环境变干净,而且还可以给小树增加营养。一年多过去了,小树的叶子却越变越黄。小兔去请教鸭哥哥,鸭哥哥叫小兔快把地挖开,一看,才知道下去很久的塑料袋一点都没腐烂。”说到这儿,老师佯装挖土,从树下(由纸盒做成,形象逼真,内空,装有准备好的沾有泥巴的旧塑料袋)把塑料袋拉了出来。这时几乎所有的孩子都被故事吸引,他们瞪大了圆圆的眼睛,嘴里还发出了“啊”的惊叹声:“原来塑料袋一点都没烂!”但是下面也冒出了一声不一样的童音:“这是假的!老师骗人!塑料袋装在盒子里,当然不会烂。”

老师似乎显得很尴尬,一看其他孩子听得很投入,而这个孩子的声音也不响亮,就当作没听见带了过去。接下来,通过讨论,大家得出结论:塑料袋埋到地里,不会腐烂,而且会产生有毒的物质。

活动的第二个环节是通过燃烧实验,帮助幼儿了解塑料袋燃烧会污染空气,影响健康。老师提出问题一:除了埋掉塑料袋,有没有其他方法来处理塑料袋? 经过七嘴八舌的讨论,孩子们一致认为可以用火烧掉塑料袋。于是,老师先燃烧废纸,然后提出问题二:纸燃烧时的气味怎样?问题三:废纸燃烧时冒出的

烟的颜色是怎样的?问题四:废纸燃烧后剩下什么?老师引导孩子从这三方面进行重点观察,同时出示了相应的图表进行罗列。大家很快回答出了问题二和问题

四。但在回答问题三时,却争执不下了,于是,老师放下准备好的标志,建议孩子通过实验去比较、发现。等孩子们燃烧好废纸和塑料袋后,回答问题三时,可听到的声音还是:“烟是白色的。”“我认为烟是黑色的,弯弯的。”“我看烟是灰色的。”有的孩子还嚷嚷:“老师,我看不出来!”„„

整个课堂闹哄哄一片。这下老师傻眼了,为了能顺利完成自己的预定计划,她以权威的口气做出论断:“废纸燃烧时的烟是白色的,塑料袋燃烧时的烟是黑灰色的。”

接下来,老师通过讨论、使用标志、图表判断等手段,罗列出塑料袋的危害,使孩子了解了哪些是环保替代品,顺利地完成了整个活动。

案例分析

孩子们在“找风”、“找空气”等游戏中认识过塑料袋,而且喜欢玩,但他们对其危害性知之甚少。教育者选择塑料袋作为环保教育的切入点,是符合中班幼儿的知识经验及认知需要的。

在这个活动中教育者注意到运用故事、实验、图表等多种手段来突破重点、难点,使整个过程动静交替,环环相扣,但在孩子的学习过程中,教师忙于完成自己的预定计划,忽视了孩子对问题的疑问,没有及时给予必要的关注和引导,形成真正有效的师生互动。可见教师要由过去知识的传播者、灌输者转变为今日学习活动的支持者、合作者、引导者,还有相当长的一段路要走。

案例反思

1、师幼互动过程中要关注每一个孩子

在学习过程中,关注每一个孩子是建构积极互动的必要条件。教育者应尊重幼儿在发展水平、能力、学习方式等方面的个体差异,因人施教。

活动过程中,“这是假的”这声质问难倒了执教者。这个男孩没有像其他孩子一样融入故事情境,可能在情绪上一直游离于集体活动之外,所以他不能像其他孩子一样融进角色来理解故事内容。也有可能这个孩子的能力发展已超越了同年龄段孩子的知识水平,这种教学方法对这个孩子来说已不适用。教师过于追求教学过程的圆满,忽视了发出不同声音的孩子,她充耳不闻是不可取的。如果你

是这位执教者,你会以怎样的适当方式进行应答,关注这类孩子呢?

2、师幼互动过程中应善于引导,把握契机

师幼互动中,只有通过幼儿主动和积极参与和回应,才能真正对幼儿的学习产生积极作用。在实验过程中,孩子们观察废纸和塑料袋燃烧的烟雾颜色时,发生了分歧,课堂上产生了激烈的争论。这个偶发事件超出了教师的预想,但也蕴含了新的教育契机,需要教育者以适当的方式应答,积极引导,但遗憾的是教师最终以匆匆给出预定答案来结束这场热烈的讨论。如果这位教师在给出答案的同时说:“废纸和塑料袋燃烧的烟为什么在空气中看不出来呢?那它们在什么地方能看得更清楚呢?你们回去请教一下自己的爸爸妈妈,找一找资料,下次我们再来试一试。”相信幼儿的学习兴趣会更浓,随着他们的主动参与,也就自然生成了新的课程内容。

不喜欢参与团体的孩子

教室里有一位四岁半的男孩,每到团体活动时间或集体游戏时,他总是一个人远离群体不参加活动,显得孤僻对凡事没有兴趣,妈妈很是担心,那么,我们应该如何引导呢?

对于造成孤僻的原因有以下几点:

感觉统合失调:人的感知觉发展分为视觉、听觉、嗅觉、触觉、运动觉及前庭平衡觉。无法参与团体及对事物提不起兴趣的孩子,可能是在这七种感觉当中发生了一些障碍。好比一个触觉系统失调的孩子,他可能会对轻微的触碰感到不舒适,或是对于强烈碰撞丝毫应有的反应。因此,当大家共同去观看事物时,他很可能会因为害怕碰触的不舒服感觉,而不愿意参与。这时,老师可以提供触觉板、听觉筒、味觉瓶,或是利用日常生活中的事物,让孩子多接触不同的感觉刺激,培养其敏感性,并减低他在学习和社会互动过程中可能产生的挫折。

个性害羞胆怯:每个孩子的天生气质皆不相同,有的孩子个性开朗、适应力强;有些孩子内向、羞涩,需要更多时间适应。不愿参与团体的孩子也可能是害羞、胆怯的个性使然,这样的孩子自信心不足,但自尊心非常强烈。老师只能以不强迫的方式引导他,如果他不愿意参加,可以先让他在一旁观看,同时要不断的提醒:“如果你想参加,你可以自己走过来。”当孩子有接触的意愿时,老师再大力支持和鼓励。

缺乏交友技巧:有些孩子很喜欢接触同年龄的朋友,但很可能因为生活习性不同,而使用了多数人无法接受的交友方式。例如:他喜欢拥抱人或用嘴亲人,造成他人抗拒及反感,久而久之,在团体中被孤立。孩子在四到六岁的阶段,生活重心会由自我逐渐转到同侪团体,老师可以由故事书、角色扮演或戏剧演出,来提示孩子该用什么方法结交游伴。

兴趣未被激发:每个人都有不同的潜在兴趣,没有发挥的舞台时,更无法被激发出来。只要有一位孩子在教室中无法参与,老师就应多尝试不同的内容,抓住这个孩子的参与感和注意力。因此,老师可以多元呈现教室的空间安排,如:美劳区、故事扮演区、图画区等。

成人不当的影响:在成人和孩子相处的过程中,成人常会不自觉的带给孩子一些不必要的影响。比如班上有一位患有气喘的孩子,每每到了大肌肉活动的时间,妈妈会不断来电话叮咛孩子:“你有气喘,不可以玩,要多休息。”当孩子独立行动的权利被剥夺时,他当然不会有参与团体的意愿了。

综合以上可能造成的原因和解决方法,老师应该观察范围及计划,观察周期必须是长时间的,这样才能做客观的判断。待确定原因后在协助孩子解决问题,同时由学校和家庭教育着手,更有事半功倍的成效。

小班幼儿教育攻略

十年教学,总是徘徊在一至六年级的孩子之间。有的时候,我极度渴望刚入园时孩子们从早到晚的哭泣声,那是小班孩子的特权,他们可以想哭就哭、想闹就闹;他们可爱、他们调皮、他们似乎更让老师们难以驾驭。但我还是渴望,还是梦想着为一个接一个的“红鼻子们”擦鼻涕、擦眼泪,然后轻轻依偎在孩子们身旁为他们讲大灰狼的故事„„

不知是命运的眷顾,还是其他什么原因,2010年的9月我终于如愿以偿走进了小班,走进了15个孩子的生活中,成为了真正从零开始的小班老师。最初接触这些孩子,虽说只有寥寥25个,却也让我“头疼”、“心疼”的不得了。从入园到离园,整天是哭声不断,安慰了这个,又忙着抚慰那个,吃饭、睡觉更成问题,小手、小脚几乎同一时间全部隐形,就只剩下了一张能自由张合的嘴,要多忙就有多忙,要多烦就有多烦。也就在这时,周围亲朋好友的“幼教欢乐颂”,又不合时宜地响起。纵然心里有许多的懊恼和委屈,却也只能无奈地接受。

无奈过后,心中涌起一种不甘心。怎样让孩子们笑起来,快乐起来呢?我开始调动我所有的潜能,进行“全方位出击”。

首先采用的是“音乐攻略”。在我的印象中,“音乐”的魅力总是让孩子们难以抵挡,即使是最懒、最胖的那个,也会被它俘虏。不是吗?音乐响起,我拍起手,随着音乐节奏的变化,大胆地动起身体。这时,较活泼、外向的孩子笑着起身,边自由地活动小手、小脚,边催促身边的同伴也加入这一行列;胆小的孩子则偷偷看看这个,偷偷瞧瞧那个,一副蠢蠢欲动的样子。你瞧,小胖墩巍巍,也扭起了腰,小手尽力地在腰部、肩部、头顶活动着,小脚跺跺、转个圈,小眼睛眯缝成了一条线。我知道他在感受音乐,他在快乐地尝试接受。我用眼角偷偷观察着他,他害羞得一边看看我,一边慌忙地跟做动作,模样虽然笨拙,但那种投入却深深感动了我。在音乐声中,孩子忘记了离家的忧伤。

在接下来的日子里,我总是播放一些欢快、有趣的曲子来打动孩子们的心。小班的孩子喜欢和同龄人做游戏、交朋友,《找个朋友》正好符合了他们的这种特点、心情,音乐响起,拉起好朋友的手,抱一抱,转一转,孩子们脸上洋溢起

甜美的笑容;“扭扭虫”开始舞蹈了,孩子们投入地学着、跳着,似乎走进了“扭扭虫”的世界,尽情地去感受和表达自己的体验。

一段时间以后,“音乐攻略”初显成效,只要音乐一响起,孩子们便会忘记忧伤,手舞足蹈,沉浸在音乐带给他们的无尽快乐之中。

其次采用的是“角色攻略”。

天天是一个聪明、可爱的小女孩,在老师眼里她很乖巧、很懂事,可就是不愿自己动手吃饭。这不,用午餐了,追着老师非喂不可。我灵机一动,还是请木偶小熊来帮忙。我带上木偶熊轻轻地来到天天身边,以小熊的口吻说:“天天,天天,你是个没有本领的孩子。”这一下天天急了,“我才不是呢,我会唱歌,我还会念好多好多的儿歌呢!”“你就是没本领,你连自己吃饭都不会!”我接着补充说。“谁说的,我会的!”她满脸的自信,还把小嘴翘得高高的。刚说完,天天麻利地拿起碗,三下五除二,一碗饭就这样很快吃进了肚子。说来也怪,打那以后,天天象变了个人似的,每天吃饭总能排前十名,还吃得特别干净呢!第三采用的是“表扬攻略”。

小班的孩子最容易得到满足,有时,我一个微笑的眼神、一个亲昵的动作、一句贴心的话语,就能打动孩子们的心。午餐时,我会送给每位自己动手吃饭的小朋友一个“大拇指”,第一个自己吃完饭的孩子还能得到我热情的拥抱呢;午睡了,自己脱衣,自己盖被的乖孩子都能在枕头下发现一个“五角星”;上课了,孩子们举起的小手总是多得让我数不过来,即使他们的答案还有距离,但依然能得到我最真诚的表扬:“你真行!”“下次一定会更棒!”„„

时间在一天天过去,渐渐地,哭声没了,孩子们快乐的歌声和笑声在教室里飘荡。我的心也在微笑,为自己的努力,更为孩子们的进步和成长!

不经历风雨,怎能见彩虹,只要自己坚持不懈,踏实、认真,努力总归会有所收获。让我们一起用爱心、耐心、事业心、责任心筑就钟爱一生并为之奋斗的幼儿教育事业。

对不起,没有用

“对不起,没有用,没有用 ”孩子们在厕所里围成一团,七嘴八舌地重复着这样的语言。“对不起”应该是和“没关系”连在一起的,为什么会没有用呢?这是怎么回事呢?我顺着孩子们的声音来到厕所,了解到事情的经过:原来是,文文上小便时,不小心将尿,尿到了萧逸的裤子上,文文连忙说,对不起,而这是萧逸说:“没有用,没有用”,正好杨洋听到了也跟着说,“没有用,没有用,已经尿到裤子上了”,旁边围观的孩子也顺势加入了其中„„于是便出现了开始的一幕。

这时,再看看文文,他不断的环顾着周围的小朋友,一脸的无助与无奈,怎么办?已经说对不起了,可是没有用,已经赔礼道歉了,可是人家不原谅。这时我已有点生气了,便问萧逸:“对不起,为什么没有用?难道你不原谅文文?萧逸抬起头眼睛看着我,不说话。那是谁说的,“对不起,没有用”?我的嗓门提高了八度,周围一片寂静„„“是老师说的”(杨洋说)老师说的?“哪个老师,什么时候说过这句话?“就是那天刘俊希咬了闫华铄,你说对不起,有什么用,已经咬出血了,没有用”„„噢!我想起来了,那天刘俊希和闫华铄在争抢玩具,刘俊希在闫华铄背上狠狠地咬了一口,闫华铄哭了,当时我一看到他的背,情绪很激动,而这时刘俊希也很害怕一直说,“对不起,对不起,”当时的我根本没把他的道歉当会事,只顾着闫华铄的背上,道歉有什么用?咬都咬了,说对不起就能好了,没有用„„

当时的我是在气头上,根本没把自己的话当回事,没想到,这样不逊的语言倒让孩子们给吸收了,反思自己的教育行为,作为幼儿园老师面对着这些尚未有自我保护能力的幼儿来说,安全是“重中之重”,当出现孩子的安全受到侵害时,情绪会受到很大的干扰,对自己的语言,自己的所作所为往往是没有知觉,出言不逊,而这样也会在不知不觉中伤害到其他的幼儿,给孩子们形成一种错误的概念,今天,孩子的直言告诉了我,也提醒了我,在这个岗位上自己的一言一行要谨慎,不管遇到什么事情要冷静,心平气和的处理每一件事情,因为,我们经营着是一份特殊的职业。

让孩子成为你的镜子

一、案例背景:

小小班阶段是幼儿园的开始阶段,对刚进幼儿园的小朋友进行常规培养非常重要。因为进行常规的培养关系到孩子以后的各项学习和各项能力的培养,只有做好常规方便的教育,正常的教育教学活动才能得以正常有序地开展。如果常规不好,严重点会影响到孩子日后的生活习惯,礼貌习惯,学习习惯等多方面的素质,直接影响到孩子的一生。因此对于刚入托的新生幼儿来说,培养良好的一日生活常规是相当的重要。本案例描述的是关于搬椅子常规培养的一个真实情境。

二、案例描述:

新学期开始不久,孩子们在寒假休息了大半个月回来后。我发现班上出现了这么一个现象:当孩子们需要移动小椅子进行活动的时候,总是习惯用一只手拎住椅背拖行,或是把椅背夹在腋下,像拄着拐杖一样一摇一晃的行走。每当这个时候教室里总是充斥着一种椅子在地板上敲打磨擦的声音,很是刺耳,也不安全。起先是一两个新生,接着是班上一大半的孩子都有这种行为。由于这学期新加了9个新生,为此,我一方面在课堂教学中对一些行为习惯重新进行了指导,另一方面在平时不断进行强调和纠正。但收到的效果却差强人意,每次孩子们总是要在老师的提醒下才改变搬椅子的姿势。

在一次教学活动中,我要求孩子们把小椅子放在指定地方,有个别孩子的动作很慢,我担心影响教学时间,便伸手帮了一把。正当我一手一把的拎着小椅子时,有个孩子突然开口说:“老师,要两只手搬椅子。”孩子们的目光一下子都集中对了我身上,我一愣,马上把小椅子放了下来,用双手搬起了一把椅子。下课的时候,我在指导孩子们搬动小椅子的时候,自己先用双手把小椅子搬了起来。不需要太多的语言,更没有平时的大喊大叫,孩子们安静的用规范的动作把小椅子搬到了指定地方,并且没有一个孩子拖椅子。

三、案例反思:

(一)孩子的模仿从细节开始

托班孩子模仿性强,思维具体形象,教师、家长的言谈举止、行为习惯都是他们学习模仿的榜样。孩子感受着周围所发生的一切,他们不仅看在眼里、记

在心里,还会像镜子一样在行动上一板一眼地表现出来。而托班教师是孩子在一天之中接触最多的,因此他们模仿的最直接的对象便是教师,对教师的言谈举止,观察最细,感受也最强,而且会不加选择地模仿教师的言行。像是上述的例子,每天我们都在告诉孩子们要这样做,要那样做,那我们自己又是怎么做的呢?我们一直在强调要两只手搬椅子,但我们自己却常常在孩子们面前把小椅子随手一拖或一拎。这些看似不起眼的小细节都会对他们的行为习惯培养造成一定的影响。

(二)教师的言行需从细节做起

对于幼儿,教师的言行可以说是“标准模板”,教师不雅的一句话,一个动作,却往往容易误导到幼儿。因此我们首先要注意从自身做起,严于律己;凡要求孩子们做的,自己首先做到;不让孩子做的,自己千万不能违反,一旦违反,要在孩子们面前勇于承认错误。记得有一次课间,我看见有两位小朋友爬到桌子上,坐在上面玩耍。我当场批评了他们,过后其中的一位孩子悄悄的说:“老师也坐在桌子上。”他的话让我大吃一惊,仔细一想,自己也确实有过这样的现象。我就对这位小朋友说:“老师也做错了,我们一起来改正这个坏毛病,好吗?”

正如古人所言:“言教不如身教,其身正,不令而行;其身不正,虽令不从。”很多时候,老师无需用很多语言要求孩子,只要你自己做到了,就不必担心孩子做不到了。因此教师首先要严格要求自己,做孩子的表率,来影响孩子、教育孩子,平时能够很好地注意自己的言行举止,就往往能够起到潜移默化的作用。

学会等待——不仅仅是孩子

记得有一位记者采访一个获得诺贝尔奖的科学家,“教授,您人生最重要的东西是在哪儿学到的呢?” “在幼儿园。在那里,我学到了令我终身受益的东西,比如说,有好东西要与朋友分享,谦让,吃饭前要洗手„„”的确,当孩子迈着蹒跚的步伐迈进幼儿园大门,就意味着幼儿新的学习生活的开始。而幼儿园的学习往往是孩子走向独立的开始阶段。

进入幼儿园这个世界,发现孩子们喜欢模仿,他们会模仿着并且很认真的学习老师的一些动作和生活技能,看起来都是“傻头傻脑”又费劲的样子,但也让人感觉特别稚气、可爱。但是他们总是比老师的指令要慢一拍,或者不能理解老师的意图,有时候心急的老师只好亲自“上阵”。古语有云:心急吃不了热豆腐。早期教育更是如此。当老师要学好等待,因为当你的手伸出去以后,可能无形中就剥夺了孩子学习的机会。下面几个片段是我们经常见到的。 片段一:

幼儿园的吃饭时间,饭桌上色香味俱全的美味佳肴,孩子的兴趣却在别处,一会儿看看这个,一会儿玩玩那个,心不在焉地进行用餐。老师见了,一边不住的教育孩子:吃饭怎么能玩啦?饭都冷了!为了避免孩子因为吃了凉的饭菜引起不适,拿起孩子面前的饭菜,一口一口地喂。“快点吃,吃的慢的小朋友就不能得到五角星了!”

【分析】

喂完了,孩子得到了五角星,有意义吗?老师经常抱怨这个孩子能力不够强,这个孩子动手能力太弱。现在我们回想一下自己在孩子的成长道路上阻碍了他们什么。

托班的孩子在自理能力和动手能力没有得到很好的发展,这是孩子小肌肉发展还不完善,自控能力差,手眼协调能力还不够,但是自理能力的发展又是幼儿更快融入集体生活的好方法,所以幼儿园的进餐时间,其实是孩子进行锻炼的很好机会,虽然老师的做法是从幼儿的身体健康出发,但是我们为什么不能给他换一些热乎乎的饭菜,然后等等孩子呢?

意大利的教育家蒙台梭利女士认为:动作教育是日常生活练习的课程之一,其主要目的是培养幼儿的自我管理能力,培养其责任感及良好的生活习惯。我们在等待孩子,孩子却在发展着他们小肌肉、精细动作、手眼协调,还有自我服务能力,同时也增强了他们的自信,就让他们继续为自己加油。

片段二:

午睡起床时间,这是一天中最让老师忙活的时候,老师一会儿帮助已经醒的孩子赶紧穿上衣服,一边还要想想哪件衣服穿里面。有些孩子正在自己努力地穿鞋子,因为能力有限,穿的缓慢而且很吃力,而且还穿反了„„终于忍不住了,老师伸手拿过了孩子的鞋子,“刷刷”两下,搞定了!孩子一边皱着眉头,一边“享受”着老师的服务,最终鞋子也不是自己穿的。

【分析】

等到哪一天,孩子进行穿鞋子比赛的时候,又会被指出能力不足,这时候老师有没有想过,那天如果你等一等,今天的冠军也许就是他。如果我们总是在孩子努力想办法去够到成功的时候,及时的将孩子高高“抱起”,但有一天我们“抱不动”的时候,孩子怎么办?

一般来说,因为家庭养护方面的原因,孩子很少在家中学习这些方面的东西,很多孩子进入幼儿园后才开始学习这些技能,刚开始学习的时候肯定会出现很多不足。当然将鞋子分清左右并穿在正确的小脚上,确实有点难。在平时教育的时候,我们先要鼓励孩子成功,帮助他们发现错误的存在,告诉孩子鞋子的左右特征,让孩子自己去纠正错误,然后再等等孩子,等他们自己完成。当然,最重要的一点就是要做到与家长及时沟通,通过家园合作,共同培养孩子。在以后的日子里,他们会更喜欢自己去动手,更愿意接受挑战并且克服它,而且脸上还会有成功的喜悦,这是老师无法给他们的。

片段三:

集体教学活动:涂鸦时间。老师制作了漂亮的底图,孩子只要按老师的要求进行就可以了,看来简单的东西,总是会有这么几个孩子,在用无助的眼神求助着,“该出手时就出手”,老师的出现,孩子如释重负,完成了,放学时又可以得到妈妈的物质奖励了。

【分析】

涂鸦从一岁半开始会持续到三、四岁,托班的孩子刚好在这个发展阶段上,涂鸦可以发展托班幼儿想象力和创造力,孩子会在操作的过程中对自己的已有经验进行组合和再现。同时涂鸦还能发展孩子动手能力和语言方面共同发展,让孩子体验成功的快乐。。

有时候,为了在展示作品的时候有更好的效果,老师们经常会帮助孩子,但是如果老师一手包办了,还要孩子们干什么呢?

我们除了为孩子提供丰富的操作材料,提高孩子的参与积极性外,最应该做的就是等等,再等等,让孩子再看看老师的范例,再听听老师的讲解,再熟练一下手中的操作工具,给予孩子自主表现的空间,让孩子放手去涂出自己的世界。 等待孩子,孩子在他们自己操作的时间里学会了观察事物、认识了事物的构造、感受了线条的美妙、领略了色彩的丰富„„最后孩子自己的作品就会呈现,不管好不好看,这是孩子自己的成长轨迹,没有任何修饰,是最美的东西。

等待,往往需要教师付出更多的耐心。但对于托班的老师们来说,我们的短暂等待却为孩子们提供了提高的空间。“惰师出勤徒”,听起来有点怪,但是成长是一件需要自己去完成的事情,给孩子一些能够做力所能及事情的时间,他们能成长的更快。让我们等等他们,看着他们不断跃上新的高度,实现自我的成长。 在孩子们长大以后,幼儿园会是模糊的一些片段,或者家长口中的故事,还会是什么都没有,但是老师的正确教养方法却在潜移默化中,为孩子在成长道路中的发展,奠定了必要的基础,指明了更好的方向。“热心”的老师们,请学会等待吧!

等等孩子

户外活动时间到了,今天轮到我们班玩“游乐场”,孩子们三三两两结伴在大型器械上玩着。我们班有几个孩子特别喜欢玩荡秋千,可荡秋千的器械只有两个,只见李想和几个小朋友都抢着玩,我们两位老师灵机一动,对孩子们说,“这样吧,我们轮流玩荡秋千,想玩的小朋友你们就排好队,给在玩荡秋千的小朋友数数,从一数到十,秋千上的小朋友就自动停下来,让给下一位小朋友,这样每个小朋友就都能玩了,好吗?”“好。”就这样,孩子们轮流玩着秋千,其他小朋友帮着数数,孩子们都很遵守这个规则,当数到十时都自动停下来让其他小朋友。

轮到李想小朋友玩了,她似乎不想让其他小朋友,当其他孩子已经数到十了,她还是坐在秋千椅上,并没有有让位的意思。我见状就过去和她讲道理,可是无论我怎么和她讲道理,她都不让,也不说话,我心理是知道她很喜欢玩“秋千”,但是也不能因为她一个人而破坏刚才的规则啊,但是如果把她强硬地抱下来,她肯定地会大闹,会影响她的情绪。于是我走过去说:“老师知道你爱玩‘秋千’,但是其他小朋友也很爱玩呀,你这样做法不好吧。”她还是不说话,。于是我让这组的小朋友排到了另一组的后面,继续接着玩,看她有什么反应。我是想看看她的反应然后再跟她谈。只见她荡了几下,就不动了,也许是再没有小朋友给她数数了,也许是旁边一组的小朋友玩得好开心,她目不转睛地看着旁边一组的小朋友,似乎有点眼红了,这时,站在我旁边的李锦涛小朋友问我:“李想怎么不让我们玩呢?”我让他自己去问她,只见涛涛走过去问:“能让我玩玩好吗?”她还是不吭声,她是一个平常在集体面前不大愿意多开口的女孩,但很有个性,如果她不愿意去做那件事,那她就一定不会去做。于是我转身问孩子们:“你们说应该不应该让其他小朋友呢?”“应该的。”孩子们异口同声地说。“幼儿园里的玩具要大家一起玩的。”岚岚小朋友抢着说。我看了看还是不想让位的李想说:“我知道李想小朋友很懂事的,我们就让她再想一想好吗?”就这样我们就没有再去要求她什么。继续让她看另一组小朋友玩。希望另一组小朋友们互相数数、互相轮流玩的那种场面能够多给她一点诱惑吧,让她感受到虽然她一个人抢占了一个器械,但没有人和她玩是没劲的。过了一会儿,她的眼神告诉我,她很

想和孩子们一起玩,因为她坐在秋千上根本不在玩,而是眼睛一眨不眨地看着旁边一组的小朋友玩。但最终她还是没让给其他小朋友。我想这没有关系。我们可以等等孩子。

我会找机会继续观察她并和她聊。我相信她!

爱使教育更简单

——爱使我们感同身受

男孩于畅有一个恼人的坏习惯。

大家排着队去散步了。从教室走向大门的时候,于畅挥着拳,落在同伴的身上。我看见了,生气地说:“你别去游玩了!”他有些紧张。

大家随老师走出了教室,落下了于畅和我。

我无奈地说:“算了。外出,打出什么事就麻烦了,真的别去了。”

他开始落泪:“不行!我会改的。”我知道,这样的承诺只是一阵风,所以坚持:“你不能去。”

听着小朋友们在操场上的声音,他急了:“我不去,怎么可以?怎么办?”我用安慰的口吻:“别怕,我也不去,陪你。”

我很沮丧地在桌子边坐下:“唉!真没劲,看,我也不能去了。” “我知道,你够朋友!”他眼睛盯着外面的同伴,手拉着我,我忍不住想笑。 他开始摇我的双臂:“你这样,是为了爱我!但是我会改的„„”

我一把揽他入怀,为了不让他看见我忍不住的大笑:“你什么都懂,就是做不到。”

“不是的!我一定用实际行动改!”他泪已成行。

都说这话了,再不让他出去就太没有人情味了„„

以后,也看见几次于畅挥起过拳头,但没有落在同伴的身上。照他的话是“像应老师一样够朋友”,于是,大家都成了朋友。

反思:

所以,面对孩子的“顽习”,我总会谨慎地选择现实生活中,孩子最在乎或最喜欢的事物,作为违背社会规则的体验背景,这样的情感冲击会比较强烈一些。

有时候,我们的教育,痛心痛肺、脸红脖子粗地,倒不如在一个合适的情景中,以强烈的环境和事件的发展,让孩子自然地体验人们相处的规则;以教师的感同身受、同舟共济,让孩子体会老师的情谊。这时,教育双方因为站在非对立面,而使教育变得生动有效,更简单。那么,合适的情景在哪里?要相信,生活中并不缺少情景,只是缺少发现它的敏感的心。可以说,我们每天都会遇到这样的情况。

爱让我们积极应对

在一次小班的“蔬菜宝宝”的活动中,孩子从布袋里摸出番茄、黄瓜等,刚听老师说:“请你摸一摸„„”一个男孩就将番茄放在嘴里。

我想起一个老师在执教时,遇到同样的情况,有些急恼地问:“怎么能放嘴里呢?”老师的话音刚落,其他的小班孩子纷纷将手中的蔬菜凑近嘴边„„ 于是,我眼睛看着大家:“谁都很喜欢自己的蔬菜宝宝的„„你是蔬菜宝宝的哥哥姐姐,你要保护好它。”只见男孩将番茄吐在手心,抹净湿湿的唾液,宝贝似地捧着。

集体看的活动时,总有一、二个人或低头、或左顾右盼。如果我们明指:“臧言箴小朋友,你在干什么?”即刻会导致所有的孩子头转向另一边。如果我们暗示:

“大家都已经看着了。”就会致使那一、二个孩子抬起头来。

怎么会这样呢?

因为,前者的明指,激起所有的孩子好奇“他在干什么”,而后者的暗示却鼓励一、二个孩子“我也已经看着了”。

同样,老师的“怎么放嘴里”的批评,提醒小班的孩子尝试“将蔬菜放嘴里”,结果方阵大乱。

所以,正面的引导,可以使我们的教育在孩子互相影响、相互教育中,积极生效。负面的说教,只能使我们的教育平添枝节、徒增烦恼。

所以,在发现孩子不足的时候,还是更细致地去赏识并发扬孩子的长处吧,这样会使教育更简单。

爱使我们接受关怀

真是难受!喉痛鼻塞的,感冒真是难受。

午睡,我依然要讲故事。于是,向孩子坦白:“我好象病了,声音发不出。” 轻轻地但依然是满怀情谊地讲述,孩子们很着迷。讲完后,我依然是轻轻地说:“好,睡了。如果还要我多说话,那就是在欺负我了。”

尚斌躺在床上,有些害羞地说:“我已经爱上你了,我不会欺负你。”这小孩,因为我亲了他肥肥的肚子,就喜欢上了我。

孩子们纷纷表示:“我也不会欺负你的。”

我正吃力地想张口,超超说:“(睡觉)那么响,就是欺负应老师了。” 一下子,所有的孩子都缩进被子。一时间,卧室里静静的,孩子们松弛地躺着„„整个午睡时间果然没有让我多说一句话。

我感动得一塌糊涂!

反思:

在和孩子相处的过程中,当我们不再处于强势,孩子就会在“强者”的情绪体验中,主动地生活和学习。

在和孩子的相处过程中,当我们不再颐指气使,孩子就会在感受尊重中,主动地理会我们的要求。

当孩子的行为变得主动,教育就会更简单。

所以,爱如果可以使我们放低自己于孩子之间,爱如果可以使我们敏感又宽容,爱如果可以使我们处于“弱势”,或许,教育会更简单。

培养和保护孩子的自尊

每个孩子都是一个独立的、有思想的个体,他们有自尊心,渴望得到他人或集体的尊重。我在工作中非常理解孩子的这种心理需要,给予他们更多的理解、更多的关心和爱护,温暖他们幼小的心灵。在日常的教育活动中,处处注意尊重孩子的人格,重视培养和保护他们的自尊心,所以我班的孩子形成了一种活泼向上的积极情感和良好的个性品质。那怎么会形成这样一种良好的品质的呢?下面我就两个方面来说:

一、尊重孩子的人格,不主观臆断

每个到幼儿园来的孩子,内心都怀着当个“好孩子”的真诚愿望,希望得到老师的爱护和肯定,因此我在评价孩子的行为时,是非常慎重的,尤其是对少数缺点比较突出的孩子,更不能凭印象做出判断。

我班的崔俊豪小朋友平时比较散漫,常常跟不上集体的“步伐”,总喜欢溜达溜达,找点事磨蹭磨蹭。一天,小朋友刚排好队,他又走出来了。我暗想:都提醒过多少遍了,怎么总是不改呀!心里不免有些冒火,但这时我要求自己保持冷静,先看看他究竟想干什么。只见他轻轻地搬了把椅子请我坐下来,然后又回到队伍站好。我不禁很内疚,责备自己差点错怪了他。从这件小事上,我深切地感受到不能凭主观轻易判断孩子的行为。

又有一次,我有些感冒、咳嗽,刚到盥洗室吐痰,就听到活动室里吵了起来,是平时纪律较差的梁修俊引起的。几个高嗓门的小姑娘说:“就是梁修俊不对,随便离开座位,还打人。”梁修俊不服气地说:“谁随便离开座位了?谁打人了?”我让孩子们静下来慢慢说。梁修俊说:“我看见张老师(她)在咳嗽,想去茶桶里倒点茶给她吃,李凡武拉我的手,我一甩手就碰到了未良蕊。”原来是大伙误解了他的一片好心。幸亏我没早下结论,否则会因为我的主观臆断或不恰当的处理方法,就可能不经意地扼杀了他关心别人的美好情感。

二、尊重孩子的自尊心,不生硬粗暴

无论何时何地,都应坚持正面教育,利用幼儿本身的积极因素去克服其消极因素。即使对待经常做错事的孩子,也应该保护他们心灵深处最敏感的角落――自尊、自爱之心,要设身处地地替他们着想,让他们昂起头来做人。在实践中,

我深深体会到以下几点是非重要的。在班级里,经常会表现出某种不良行为,而每出现一次,不良行为就会得到一次强化,久而久之便会形成不良习惯。所以,我为孩子创设重复良好行为的情景,把工作做在前面。

如苏冉的伙伴关系比较差。在一次看木偶戏时,他正好与另一个伙伴关系也比较差的小朋友坐得很近。我想他俩在一起容易引起争执,应该设法以不伤他们自尊的方法把他们调开。我就利用苏冉爱画画的特点,对他说:“今天叔叔演木偶戏,有很多布景。咱们班也正在排木偶戏,你很会画画,我们一起看看布景上有些什么,以后请你给我们班画布景好吗?”他高兴地在我旁边坐下来了。这样既保护了苏冉的自尊心,又避免了不良行为的发生。 当孩子做错事的时候,老师千万不能生硬粗暴地批评孩子,而要通过讲道理,引导幼儿认识错误,并将已懂得的道理转化为实际行动。

一次自由活动时,曹依岩正在玩小塑料人,李凡武玩踢沙包,一不小心碰到了小塑料人。他赶紧跑过去把小塑料人扶起来,还主动向曹依岩道歉,可曹依岩还是狠狠地朝李凡武后背捶了一拳。

为了帮助曹依岩认识错误,我及时组织全班小朋友针对这个问题进行讨论。曹依岩理由十足地说:“他把我的小塑料人碰倒了。”李凡武是个很能谅解、同情别人的孩子,他马上承认自己的不小心,并如实地讲了事情的经过。当时我也请小朋友评论了这件事谁错谁对,并说说怎么做才是正确的。我要求小朋友以友好的态度,针对事实进行评论,不要用“他(她)经常欺负人”“他(她)最讨厌”这一类话。孩子们一致认为曹依岩做得不对。曹依岩也认识到了自己刚才没讲道理,及时地向李凡武承认了错误,并保证以后再也不打人了。

留有余地

幼儿园的孩子具有言行不一、行为反复的特点,这主要是因为幼儿年龄小,自我控制能力差。因此我觉得不能操之过急,应根据实际情况对幼儿的缺点或错误行为给予适当的谅解和宽容,给幼儿自我改正的余地。

王可已经两天没在地上打滚了。这天快要吃午饭了,他又想在地上滚爬。我赶紧

走过去,用体谅、爱护的语气,小声地对他说:“怎么?憋不住了,想在地板上滚一滚了?那好,我带你到一个没有小朋友的地方去滚,只让我看见,别让其他小朋友看见,因为小朋友都知道王可进步了。如果再退步,多不好意思啊!”王可马上意识到了自己的问题,他不好意思地说:“张老师,我不想再滚了。”参加幼教工作已二十多年了,我越来越热爱自己的这份工作了,同时我觉得对幼儿在生活、运动、游戏、学习等方面碰到的一些突发事件,处理的方法越来越多,越来越得心应手,也深受孩子和家长的喜欢。

对一个被忽视幼儿的个案研究

苗苗为什么不受欢迎――对一个被忽视幼儿的个案研究

一、问题的提出

幼儿园是幼儿的乐园,可是并非“乐园”里的每一位孩子都是快乐的。比如,往往有这么一类孩子,他们是班级里的“嫌弃儿”,遭到同伴甚至老师的冷落和遗忘,因而,他们的情感愈加消极压抑,他们并不快乐。针对此现象,本文选取一个被忽视幼儿为个案研究对象,运用同伴提名法、观察法、访谈法收集资料,继而详细分析该幼儿被同伴忽视的原因,并为该幼儿的教师及家长提供几点建议,以期改善该幼儿的同伴接纳水平。

二、研究对象

苗苗,女,5岁,某幼儿园大班幼儿。该幼儿从不主动与同伴或教师互动,对参与合作性游戏也不感兴趣,表现得羞怯、自卑、离群、退缩。家庭状况:苗苗一岁时,其父失业,后以卖菜为生。两岁时,母亲因外遇离家出走。孩子现在跟父亲还有年迈的祖母生活在一起。

三、研究方法

同伴提名法苗苗所在班级共有18名幼儿,本系列调查随机抽取15名幼儿为被试。所有的同伴提名都是在研究对象苗苗来园期间做的。研究者坐在教室某拐角的小椅子上,将被试一一请到身边,先后单独问被试两个问题:“你最喜欢班上哪三个小朋友?”“你最不喜欢班上哪三个小朋友?”并及时记录被试的回答。“最喜欢”的幼儿计入正面提名,“最不喜欢”的幼儿计入负面提名。根据“最喜欢”和“最不喜欢”这两个极端的提名,研究者将幼儿分成三类:正面提名多,负面提名少,属“受欢迎的幼儿”;正面提名少,负面提名多,属“被拒绝的幼儿”;正面提名少,负面提名少,属“被忽视幼儿”。 观察法一方面,研究者深入研究对象所在班级对其进行了十次非参与式观察;另一方面,研究者主动与研究对象苗苗的家长就孩子同伴关系不良问题进行了沟通,经家长同意,去其家中对孩子进行了为期两天的参与式观察。

访谈法研究者随机访谈了研究对象的班级同伴、老师、父亲、祖母及其本人。

四、讨论与分析

同伴提名结果显示,苗苗的正面提名O次,负面提名1次,结合观察、访谈等得出结论:苗苗是一个严重被同伴忽视的幼儿。导致该幼儿几乎得不到同伴注意的原因是什么?

(一)幼儿的体貌特征影响其同伴认可度

研究者对苗苗班级同伴所做的随机访谈结果显示,苗苗被同伴忽视的浅层原因是她的体貌特征没有引起同伴的偏好。粉儿说:“苗苗呀,老流鼻涕,脏兮兮的,讨厌死了。”娜娜说:“苗苗头发好难闻,她还把头发放在嘴巴牙齿上面咬。”即使是在熟悉的幼儿之间,他们的受欢迎程度与相互评价也与相貌的吸引力有关,这种“以貌取人”的倾向在女孩子之间表现得更为强烈。

班上其他小朋友相比,苗苗像是一只丑小鸭,因为她头发凌乱、不讲卫生。体貌特征的局限使苗苗在同伴交往中容易遭到同伴的消极评价和忽视。

(二)幼儿的先天气质和社会行为影响其同伴关系

苗苗的父亲曾说:“我平时话少,这孩子大概遗传了我的性格,小时候就不哭不闹也不笑,特安静。”根据托马斯、切斯的气质三类型说,苗苗以前是一个迟缓型婴儿,情绪低落、安静甚至退缩。人的气质具有稳定性,在婴儿期情绪消极、不易对新鲜事物产生兴趣的苗苗,进入中班后,其气质仍偏向于黏液质和抑郁质。正如班级老师所说,苗苗自卑、内向、孤僻、离群、焦虑、注意力不集中、不理会老师的指示和要求。某次户外自由游戏,其他幼儿都在结伴玩耍,只有苗苗羞怯地站在操场某角落,远观滑滑梯的小朋友。她似乎有跑过来跟同伴一起玩的冲动,但似乎又害怕或不知道怎样融入同伴群体。显然,害羞的气质特性使苗苗恐惧与同伴交往,因而从不主动发起与同伴的互动,即使难得偶尔有同伴找她,她却又表现得过于“自我中心”。某次晨间活动,坐在苗苗对面的伦伦正在搭“浴霸”,搭到最后一步缺了一个雪花片,伦伦看了看苗苗,跟她说:“借我一个雪花片好吗?”苗苗一下子紧张起来,用手护住筐子,小声说:“这是我的。”伦伦撇了撇嘴,朝苗苗大吼:“小气鬼!”苗苗眼眶红了。据研究,被忽视幼儿在进行社会交往活动时,往往以“自我中心”和“物品所有权”来解释社交策略,他们不愿意与同伴分享。同时,害羞的气质特性与幼儿的利他行为之间也存在关系,不爱社交的幼儿比爱社交的幼儿表现出的

利他行为要少得多。可见,被忽视幼儿不恰当的社会行为也会加剧同伴对他们的忽视程度。

(三)家庭的不良因素

亲子依恋是幼儿社会化的起点,其质量对幼儿的社会化尤其是同伴关系影响深远。母爱缺失使苗苗没有建立安全型亲子依恋,上幼儿园后,孩子将不安全的亲子依恋关系延伸到同伴关系中来,从而对同伴抱有不信任甚至畏惧心理,不相处导致被忽视。

祖母会怜惜苗苗:“多听话的孩子,那女的怎么舍得扔?”她也会埋怨苗苗:“天天操心你。我造的什么孽!”也会恐吓苗苗:“别哭,再哭老拐子就来啦。”祖母的负性情感表达,使苗苗内心充满无助、创伤和自责。家访时,孩子曾问研究者:“阿姨,奶奶昨天又骂我了。是不是别人都不喜欢我?你喜欢我吗?”其实,被忽视幼儿并非从未产生交往动机,只是,自卑故不敢,不敢故沮丧,负面情绪与不良社交行为相互交织,严重威胁孩子身心健康。

此外,父亲与祖母的教养态度不当且不一致,也造成苗苗与同伴相处时的被动退缩。父亲处处严厉,祖母凡事包办。这种教养方式使苗苗日渐孤僻,日渐被同伴忽视。

(四)教师的不公平对待

教师A说:“苗苗就坐那儿不说话,省心。调皮捣蛋的孩子得关注,不然班上就乱了。聪明可爱的孩子那我肯定喜欢了。像苗苗这样的孩子,也不是说不喜欢,她让人省心,不要管。”如果教师只关注被拒绝的幼儿和受欢迎的幼儿,而忽视被同伴忽视的幼儿,那在这类孩子身上不就存在教育不公平现象吗?不能因为他们“乖”“省心”就可以不关注他们。被同伴忽视的幼儿首先就被教师所忽视。教师对他们的不关注引起同伴对其不关注。教师B的回答是:“苗苗注意力不集中,上课我说什么她也听不太懂,问她肯定不知道的,不问反而保留孩子的自尊。一般园里上公开课啊、排节目啊我都不让她上。”教师B随意给幼儿贴标签,面对幼儿表现出注意力不集中的现象,不但不与该幼儿家长沟通,反而以此为理由剥夺孩子受教育和展现自我的机会。面对来自不同家庭背景、长相性格各异的幼儿,从职业道德出发,教师要尽量做到公平对待每一位幼儿,尤其对类似苗苗这样的孩子要给以更多关爱。

五、建议

在幼儿社会化过程中,同伴作为“重要他人”,其作用是成人所无法替代的。与同伴之间不良的人际关系,是被忽视幼儿社会性能力低水平发展的外在表现,同时也是其社会性发展的障碍。教师和家长必须共同努力改善被忽视幼儿的社交地位,否则这些孩子今后很可能出现人格缺陷从而难以适应社会生活。针对苗苗的处境,研究者为其家长及老师提供以下几点建议:

首先,家长和教师要积极配合,及时了解苗苗在幼儿园和在家中的近期表现。如果出现教师和家长对幼儿评价不一致的情况,要调查确认并分析原因,使家园合作改善幼儿社交地位的工作更加有的放矢。

其次,虽然个体的气质具有稳定性,但气质也是可变的。苗苗的家长应增强对孩子照料的敏感性,为孩子的成长提供一个温暖、信任、安全的环境,那么苗苗的沮丧、焦虑等消极情绪会逐渐消退,这有利于改善孩子的同伴关系。同时,家长还要有意识为苗苗创造同伴交往机会,邀请邻里或朋友的孩子尤其是性格活泼开朗且与苗苗同龄的孩子来家里玩,期间成人还要对苗苗的社交策略进行一定的正确引导,让孩子体验与同伴友好相处的乐趣以及与同伴分享食物、玩具的乐趣,增强孩子社交信心。

最后,教师要给苗苗以更多关注。在日常生活与教学中,教师应当主动增加与苗苗的互动频率,关心和肯定孩子的点滴进步。教师也可以通过角色扮演等游戏让苗苗体验同伴交往的乐趣,并给苗苗同伴交往行为以正强化,增强孩子同伴交往信心,使孩子逐渐融入同伴群体。

同时,研究者在对苗苗做进一步的追踪研究过程中,会运用移情训练等方法与教师、家长合作,对该幼儿进行社交行为矫正研究。

“小鱼向前游“

案例背景:

大班幼儿已具备一定的自我约束能力,基本形成了常规意识。为了进一步培养幼儿的个人荣誉感、自信心和竞争意识,我和小朋友共同设计了“小鱼向前游“的评比活动,每个幼儿拥有一条小鱼,在小鱼上写上幼儿的名字,我们又一起制定了“小鱼向前游“评比活动的评比规则,比如:活动中积极发言的幼儿送一颗小小星,贴在幼儿名字的旁边,积满十颗星的幼儿可以挑选一份自己喜爱的小奖品。 案例片断一:

早晨7:30,二宝和小川已早早的来上幼儿园,问过老师早之后,他们主动相约比赛,把桌上的小椅子放整齐„„早餐过后,我和小朋友围坐在桌旁边,讲述了早上发生的事,小朋友纷纷表示应该送小小星给他们,这时的他们早已绽放出骄傲的笑容。

案例片断二:

星期五――我们每周的评比时间又到了,文文说:“早上我看见小悦把摔倒的小班小朋友扶起来了,还为那个小朋友擦眼泪,应该送小小星给她。”怀智争着说:“纳婧画的画真棒!我想她应该得一颗。”孟伊说:“怀智这个星期能和小朋友友好相处,不抢玩具了,送他一颗。”„„

案例片断三:

自由活动时,俊希跑到我跟前对我说:“刘老师,我今天上课时举了两次手回答问题,可以给我两颗星吗?”站在一旁的怀智接着说:“我当了值日生,我也应该得一颗。”„„

案例分析:

“小鱼向前游“的评比活动开展了近一学期,在活动中我改变了以往教师单方面评价幼儿的旧模式,通过幼儿自己评价,相互评价,我们教师的引导,增强了幼儿的自信心,同时在评价的过程中树立了正面,直观的榜样,比教师单方面的简单说教效果好的多。因此,幼儿参加活动的积极性,主动性非常高,幼儿遵守规则的意识明显提高,同时,幼儿的个人荣誉感;自信心和竞争意识也得到进一步培养。但随之而来的问题也出现了,一些幼儿为了得到小奖品,得到表扬,才

做好孩子,才帮助他人,使活动的真正初衷有些小小的偏离,作为教师这时的引导非常关键。我们注意了评比的频次,评比的标准因人而异,评比的规则等问题。发现每个幼儿的闪光点,使每个幼儿都能得到发展,在这一过程中让幼儿学会相互学习对方的优点,学习相互尊重,从而淡化物质奖励带来的负面影响。 措施:

1、评比的频次:坚持实事求是,适度表扬,切忌过于频繁的评比,一周一次到两次,特殊事件特殊对待。10颗星星换一个小红旗,看谁的红旗多,谁的小鱼就往前游!

2、评比的标准因人而异:根据大班幼儿的年龄特点和心理特点,不必事事表扬,应围绕主题来评比,主题如:“学习有进步的小朋友”、“团结友爱的小朋友”、“乐于助人的小朋友”„„

3、评比的规则:评比的规则由教师和小朋友共同制定,有奖也有罚,根据具体实施情况可改动,小朋友之间相互监督,教师积极引导。

“文明的自助餐”系列活动

进餐教育,需要结合幼儿的年龄特点和实际情况确定适宜的培养目标。例如小班幼儿的自理能力比较弱,那么教育的重点就定位在培养独立进餐的能力上;到了中班,幼儿已具备一定的自我服务意识和能力,但挑食、偏食等问题仍是层出不穷,因此,教育的重点就定位在培养幼儿健康、营养的进餐习惯上,帮助幼儿理解进餐对于自身健康成长的重要意义,初步改善幼儿不良的进餐习惯;升入大班后,幼儿的交往空间越来越广泛,那么掌握良好的进餐礼仪则逐渐成为幼儿社会性培养的一个主要内容。当我们外出到公共场所进餐时,时常会发现一些在餐厅里大声喧哗、嬉戏打闹的孩子;在餐桌上,我们也会发现吃饭咂嘴、不会使用公共餐具的孩子。再从家长方面来看,家长大多对这一现象不以为然,在一次调查问卷的信息反馈中,我们了解到,一些家长并没有注意到培养幼儿在公共场所文明进餐的良好习惯的重要性。有的家长觉得,平时都是在家吃饭,偶尔到外面吃饭对于孩子和大人来讲都是一种休闲的方式,何必苛求孩子呢?当然也有些家长觉得带孩子到外面吃饭是件令人头疼的事情,孩子很容易激动,不是大呼小叫就是东跑西藏,有时还会影响其他人进餐,不知道应该怎样处理。针对家长的问题和困惑,我们组织了“文明的自助餐”系列活动。

首先,我们召开了一次小型家长会,针对培养幼儿文明进餐礼仪的重要性及实施的方法策略展开了热烈的讨论。大家开始意识到文明进餐教育的重要性,经协商,我们决定组织孩子们集体去吃一次自助餐。

接下来我们请家长和孩子一起收集各种有关自助餐的资料。超超的爸爸在饭店工作,他用照片向孩子们展示了自助餐的场景,孩子们通过观看照片,知道了自助餐厅里的各种食物都是分区、分类摆放的,客人们可以按照自己的口味、食量自取食物。许多孩子都在家长的帮助下一起上网搜索“怎样文明吃自助”,查找到了很多吃自助餐时应该注意的事项,比如排队有序、正确卫生地使用公共餐具、营养搭配、少盛多添、避免浪费、避免暴饮暴食等等。

收集资料初步了解自助餐的过程大大吊起了孩子和家长们的“胃口”,于是我们便在活动区设置模拟自助餐厅让孩子们提前进行体验,积累一些经验。孩子们给这个小餐厅起名为“娃娃自助餐厅”,而且还设计了宣传海报。孩子们在老

师的指导下用各种玩具材料制作了丰富的“饭菜”,并分区、分类摆放整齐。游戏时,有的小朋友扮演服务员、有的扮演厨师、有的扮演客人,玩得高兴极了。在“客人们”尝试使用“公共餐具”自取食物的时候,有两个小朋友为争抢“公共餐具”发生了争执。两个人都说是自己先拿到餐具的,互不相让,振振有辞,孩子们的注意力都被集中在争抢餐具的两个人身上,模拟游戏也由此被打断。见此情况,我并没有急于给出评判,而是请其他小朋友们一起来讨论。孩子们都积极地响应起来,纷纷发表自己的意见:应该谦让!应该排队!可以先去人少的地方,一会儿再回来„„对啊,懂得谦让分享、排队有序地取餐,这样才是文明的自助餐啊!孩子们就这样自己把问题纠纷排解了,很快又投入到了有趣、有序的游戏当中。

模拟游戏后,老师和孩子们一起总结了进行自助餐时应该遵守的文明礼仪,并且创编了一首名为“文明吃自助”的简单且琅琅上口的小儿歌,这首小儿歌还被收在了孩子们设计的小小宣传单上,准备在真实体验吃自助餐的时候,由我们的文明进餐小使者发放给餐厅里就餐的客人们。

活动当天,老师和家长并没有给孩子过多的指导和干涉,孩子们自取自放,没有跑来跑去,也没有大呼小叫,能够安静地排队,耐心地等候,在模拟游戏中曾经争抢玩具的那两个小朋友竟然还主动互相照顾、谦让起来,进步真是不小。用餐后,孩子们还大胆地把自己亲手制作的小传单发放给陌生的客人们,看来,他们还时刻记着自己的宣传使命呢。当天的客人也非常友好,他们认真倾听孩子们的讲解,并对孩子们的做法给予了充分的肯定。活动回来后,孩子和家长们一起制作了精美的展板,用图文并茂的方式再现了活动过程中的精彩点滴。每当大家从这里走过,总会驻足细细地回味一下,孩子们更是争着互相讲述当时的场景,乐此不疲。家长们也体会到了自助餐活动对孩子的教育意义,齐齐的爸爸还把孩子们创编的小儿歌打印出来,分发给了单位里有孩子的同事们;小雨的妈妈还让小雨在家庭聚餐上宣传文明进餐,把准备好的小贴画奖励给进餐文明的亲朋好友,受到了全家的认可。

在这次活动中,家长真正地参与到了我们的活动中,从活动的设计、准备、实施、延伸到总结经验、品味收获都有家长的身影。作为幼儿园老师,我充分地利用了家长资源,同时也在家长身上学到了很多;对于家长而言,这次活动,大

大鼓舞了他们参加幼儿园活动的积极性,也使他们更加深刻地了解和更加密切地配合幼儿园的工作。正是基于此,孩子才能获得一致的教育,才能获得真正的成长。

幼儿教师心得――爱的互动

教师是辛勤的园丁,教师是蜡烛,教师是孩子的引航,教师是社会改造的领导者„„记得爱尔维修曾经说过:“人生下来时都一样,仅仅由于环境,特别是幼儿时期所处的环境不同,有的人可能成为天才,有的人则变为凡夫俗子。即使普通的孩子只要教育得当也会成为不平凡的人。”

当风华正茂的我,踏入艺术实验小学幼儿园时,曾被活动室里那些稚嫩的话语所感动“老师夸我好宝宝,我说老师像妈妈。”当我带小班的孩子,孩子们都很喜欢我,我的心被拨动了。用眼睛捕捉着,每个纯真的心灵。暗自发下誓言:“我一定能当好你们的老师,你们的妈妈,你们最好的朋友。”

记得有一次,当我给孩子们上完课后,身体很不舒服,感到全身无力坐在那休息。突然,我的背上有一双小手在敲,我的心里一阵怒火:“是谁这么胆大竟然爬到老师头上来了。”我往后一看,原来是那个平时文静不善于说话的雯雯。她看到我往后看,轻轻地说了声:“我喜欢你,我看你很累,我给你敲敲背”刚才的怒火顿时消失了,我被激动得无话可说,我为自己刚才的冲动而伤害到那颗善良的心感到自责。在我们默默无语时,我听到了那有点“专业”的啪啪的声音。此时,我感到这是世界上最美的音乐,传递着师生之间的情感。

爱是世界上最动人的语言,孩子对老师的爱是一种最原始充满真诚的爱。它蕴含在孩子为我们所做的一切微不足道的事情中,使我们无时无刻不感受到这种爱的真诚。老师感受到孩子们的爱,我们的工作就有取之不尽的源泉,工作就有动力。孩子们是多么可爱的,他会想办法回报给你。慢慢地,我感受到当你真正进入童心世界时,你就会爱了,你就会耐心地倾听了,细心的引导了,你就会平心静气地做好每一件事情了。因为你的付出得到了许多的回报。当看到孩子们一颗颗善良的心,一张张纯真的笑脸时,我笑了,因为我不仅是我,而是孩子们最好的朋友,最喜爱的老师。

会变漂亮的青菜粥

尚诗琪最爱吃荤类食物,不太爱吃蔬菜。挑食现象比较严重,每次以碰到菜里加蔬菜的,尚诗琪都不爱吃,喜欢用勺把蔬菜一一挑出来或者在我们不注意下悄悄把倒掉,这写举动引起我们特别关注尚诗琪的吃饭情况。在转变中发生很多趣事,我想,要让她在短时间内从讨厌到喜欢不是一件很容易的事,光靠说理和强迫是达不到预期的效果,尽可能从她的需要出发;在适当的时机下巧妙运用一些小技巧!

情景一;有到点心时间,尚诗琪看着这碗绿油油的青菜粥,手拿勺在碗里剥来剥去,最后皱着眉头很失望的对我说:“刘老师,我不要吃青菜!”看着她一动不动的样子。我也就附和着她说:“哦,那就别吃了!”她以听惊讶的看着我,顿了一下,我对着其他小朋友说“这么好吃的青菜,吃了会变的皮肤白白地,难怪晓语长的那么好看”说玩还抱着晓语亲了以下,其他小朋友一听也都附和起来,转头古装无意的问尚诗琪“你还要吃吗,不吃的话给晓语吧,她还想吃呢?”二宝提着勺子缓慢在碗里搅着,心里在犹豫,最后舀起来,又放下了。但我还是当着她的面将点心分给了晓语,她看了一会儿,有点失落的离开。 分析:

在之前,我们一直采取说理或强迫她一定要吃完,在自尊心强的情况下反而产生让她产生抵触情绪,就是咬着牙不肯动。今天,突然以轻描淡写的态度对待她,反而在她接受下,虽然她没有吃,但从她舀其放下的动作可以看出她心里已经在动摇了,说明利用她爱漂亮的心理来暗示,并借助同伴的言语的力量以在她心里投下一块石头,已打破了冰山的一脚。在接下来的过程中,仍借同伴的力量和奖励机制并存,进行饮食习惯的改善。

情境二、今天青菜面片,看她依然在挑挑拣拣,但挑的面片,虽然夹着星星点点青菜,不过也没那么抗拒地全部吐出来。10分钟左右,她骄傲的喊道:“刘老师,我还要。”看着她碗里剩着一点青菜,我兴奋的表扬她:“尚诗琪,我发现你有点白了,原来是你把青菜也吃了啊,下次我也要像你一样,多吃点青菜,变的漂亮一点”这一听,她乐的是在我以面前舀了以大勺放进嘴里。最后,吃完的时候,青菜剩下比前一次少了。大宝、二宝,马上就趴在她面前说“尚诗琪变漂

亮了”为此在餐后,我也特地旧这个事件拿来讨论,特别的好好夸奖了尚诗琪一番,还奖励了两颗五角星,乐的前以个下午都美滋滋的,在每次进出的教室门口的镜子旁,逗留好一会儿。傍晚,她拉着妈妈看五角星,我趁热打铁再次表扬,并提出在家要吃蔬菜,并让妈妈留个美丽照给老师看,一个星期有两次,就在星期五给小晓语身上贴上五角星。她很乐意的带应,并牵着妈妈的手兴奋的离开„„

分析:

这次的用餐中,一开始教师没有干预,借上次的投影效果,她在主动地改变,(青菜由桌子到碗里,勺子舀动的频率有加快)特别在盛第二碗时,她情绪是愉悦的,言语中也没有提及“不要吃青菜”的话语,这些说明她在改变。最后,我在看到碗里剩下的一点青菜时,我也没有硬性规定她必须吃完,只是强调下次吃完变的会更漂亮,她也是积极的回应。在小朋友的称赞中,她情绪明显高涨,从照镜子的次数和逗留的时间就可以看出来。傍晚,我又趁热打铁对此提出要求,家园一致的奖励措施,帮助她彻底改善饮食习惯。

经过以个多月的努力,现在的尚诗琪会主动用餐,而且经常说着“我最喜欢吃青菜粥”在自己很快吃玩后,还会去喂别的小朋友变为边说:“多吃青菜会变的很漂亮的。”看到她的转变,很欣慰但更多是改变过程中的各种感触。最成功的一点是,能感受和观察幼儿行为的心理的活动,也会从幼儿的角度去慢慢引导幼儿从被动慢慢转向主动。现在我慢慢能体会“没有教育的教育是最好的教育”!

跟依恋物说“再见”

刚进幼儿园的孩子,除了有焦虑的情绪带进幼儿园以外,还会有很多不良的习惯带进幼儿园,比如:依恋物。

我们班里共有四个孩子进幼儿园时带来了自己的依恋物:毛巾、巧虎、毛绒狗、抱枕和尿布。有两个孩子是在睡觉时需要,有两个是需要依恋物一直在身边,连上厕所、喝水、玩玩具也不能离开。

在幼儿入园前,我们已经事先了解了这些孩子的情况,但我们还是建议家长先把依恋物拿来,为的在入园时能减弱孩子焦虑的情绪。在但一个星期过去了,孩子的情况逐渐趋于稳定,也出现了弊端:拿着手里的依恋物,幼儿在玩桌面玩具、大型玩具时都会有阻碍,也较慢进入到活动中来。于是我开始考虑如何“戒掉”依恋物。

首先,观察幼儿,了解孩子对依恋物需求的程度。

我先通过对孩子抱依恋物的动作、拿依恋物的时间、对依恋物的需求度等进行观察,然后对幼儿进行分类,确定对孩子采取不同的措施对依恋物说“再见”。比如班里有两个女孩子是在睡觉时才抱依恋物,而两个男孩子则是从早上到幼儿园开始,就一直抱着到下午家长来接,就连进厕所也不肯让依恋物离开自己半步。同时,孩子在抱依恋物时对依恋物的需求也是不一样的,比如抱巧虎玩偶的女孩子,她喜欢睡觉时抱着巧虎的尾巴;拿毛巾的男孩子喜欢用大拇指按揉毛巾接口;抱抱枕与尿布的孩子是喜欢上面的味道等。

其次,分析幼儿、针对不同孩子采取的措施。

每个孩子对依恋物需求的程度不一,方式不一,所以我在采取幼儿与依恋物分离时的方式是因人而异。

1、逐渐疏远的分离方式。

通过观察,根据幼儿的对依恋物的需求程度的不同,我针对抱毛绒狗的女孩子采取了“逐渐疏远”的方式。主要是在睡觉时,前两天,让她抱着毛绒狗睡觉;第三天,在熟悉老师的情况下,我试着跟她交流,争得她的同意:让老师陪在身边,轻轻的拍一拍,毛绒狗就放在枕头边。在尝试成功后,我又调整了方式,让毛绒狗慢慢逐步的远离她的枕头、床铺、午睡室,直到现在没有毛绒狗也能安静

地入睡。

2、以物代物的分离方式。

对于抱巧虎玩偶的孩子,我发现她是属于手指的依恋,因此在午睡时采取了以物代物的方式:睡觉时让孩子左右手相握搭在胸口,这样让每个手指都有触碰感,手臂也有拥抱感。这样的方式效果很好,只要老师静静地陪着五分钟,就能安静的入睡了。这样的方式坚持了一个星期,孩子即使没有巧虎玩偶,也能安静地睡着了。

3、分层次的分离方式。

对于全天抱着依恋物的孩子,我根据不同的活动分层次进行孩子与依恋物的分离措施:先从日常的生活活动开始,如小便、洗手、喝水等活动中,劝说幼儿把依恋物放到一边,以免把依恋物弄脏。孩子对于老师合理的要求,是比较容易接受与配合的,并能逐渐的信赖老师。在此之上,我慢慢过渡到玩桌面玩具与大型玩具时把依恋物放到固定的地方,能让幼儿眼睛看到,给孩子一个心理环境上的安全感。再到上课短时间的离开幼儿的视野范围,最后在到睡觉前的完全分离。孩子与依恋物的分离,是有层次、有阶段的,让幼儿慢慢适应与依恋物分离的过程

依恋物只是孩子情感的依赖、安全的寄托,不要看的那么的不可脱离。只要老师细心地观察孩子、分析孩子,了解不同孩子的特点。并积极、耐心地与幼儿建立安全的依恋关系,用各种活动分散孩子的注意力,积极地营造愉悦的心情,就能帮助孩子顺利地跟依恋物说“再见”。

从孩子排队抢排头想到的

我们班的孩子有好大一部分只要听到排队的信号,就会争先恐后的抢排头,所以每一次只要信号一发出就会来抢,有的孩子非常上心,她们很会观察老师的举动,感觉到差不多老师快要发出信号前,提前做好自己的事情,这样来抢第一是很能成功的。有的孩子没有抢到就很不甘心的来插队,于是又是一阵挤,好多次把老师的脚也踩了,如果不制止的话孩子们会越挤越来劲的,有时候老师还制止不了,非要生气了才管用的。我曾经对孩子们说过,排队排在前面、后面都是没有关系的,耳朵灵一点的小朋友都是可以排在前面的,排队总有个先后顺序的,来的晚了只能排在后面了。给孩子讲这样的道理真的是一点也不管用的,你说你的,他们照样争抢着。

分析了原因:孩子们感觉每次排在第一可以牵老师的手,近距离的和老师接触,很是开心的,没有了师生间的距离。抢排头是想跟老师亲热、有些孩子会时不时摸摸老师的衣服、和老师说长道短的。后面的孩子看了以后心里很是羡慕的,所以也总想和老师亲热。

为了改变这种抢排头现象,满足每个孩子们的心愿,想出了一个办法。站队前,我对孩子们说:“请把你们的小手伸出来”,孩子们高兴的伸出自己的小手,我走到他们身边,一一握一下他们的手,亲切地在他们的耳边说一句:“你的小手真干净”。或者说:“你的小手热乎乎的„„”孩子们笑了,高兴的也在我耳边说一声:“你的手也热乎乎的。”或者说:“你的手和我妈妈的手一样大。”“我爸爸的手比你的大„„.”随后脸上露出得意和满足的表情。我说:“站队吧!”话声刚落,孩子们个个忙着找位置,很快就站好了对,没有抢排头的了。

经过反思后,我感悟到孩子们抢排头,主要是想站在老师身边和老师亲近,引起老师的注意,通过皮肤接触,感受老师对自己的关爱。所以关爱孩子该体现在日常生活中的方方面面,某个环节上一疏忽,就会有出乱子的可能。此时此刻,我对一句话有了更深的认识,这句话就是“一个好的教育家,应该是半个心理学家。”

老师,你炒的菜太好吃了

去年在种植园里我们和孩子一起亲手种下了青菜,每天散步的时候孩子们都要去看看,时刻关注着它的变化。经过一个寒假,新学期开始时,发现我们的青菜长得特别的茂盛,远远望去那绿油油的一片着实可爱,让人忍不住想采回来吃,为了让孩子们体验收获的喜悦,我们利用午饭前的时间带领孩子们到田里去亲手采摘,然后回到教室清洗,切段。等一切准备工作做好后,我就在教室前面用电磁炉亲自炒给他们吃,在操作的时候我让孩子们先认识了各种调料以及炒菜需要用的一些工具,孩子们兴奋极了,不停地问“老师,锅好象在冒烟了,是不是要放油呀?”“老师,你怎么要放糖呀?”“老师,我闻到香味了”“老师,你真好,你等会多分点给我吃好不好?”“老师,-----”看着孩子们那“猴急”的样我忍不住大笑起来,一边解释一边继续操作,为了保持菜的味道,我分四次才把摘回来的菜炒结束,当我宣布可以分吃时,孩子们都忍不住欢呼了起来,保育员奶奶用点心盘子把青菜分到了每桌,一人一把勺子,有部分孩子还没等老师说“小朋友请吃”就偷偷地吃了起来,听到“请吃”口令之后,孩子们三下五除二就用抢的速度把盘子里的菜都吃光了,朱森泽一边吃一边说:“张老师,你炒的菜太好吃了!”陈一凡说“张老师,你太好了,我还想吃”徐昊诚说“张老师,我爱你,你下次还炒给我们吃好不好?”看着孩子们狼吞虎咽的样子,我的心里甭提有多开心。

后记:

那一次的炒青菜我发现班里平日从不吃蔬菜的小朋友都抢着往嘴里塞,那津津有味的样子让我很感动,在感动之余我领悟到——孩子们喜欢吃的原因出了菜本身的美味之外,还有一个重要的原因就是这是孩子们自己种的菜,自己摘的菜,自己洗的菜,一切的过程都有孩子们的亲自参与所以孩子们才会觉得特别好吃。由此我想到有的家长经常来反映孩子在家不喜欢吃蔬菜,看来我可以给他们一个好的建议了。

为什么捣蛋的总是他们

下午,我请孩子们分组上来拿点心,可第三组的孩子就是不拿,还用力拍桌子,大声尖叫。我非常生气,就走过去严厉地对他 们说:“你们怎么又捣蛋了,不要吵了,快去拿点心吧!”用过点心 后,当我在分发小组的操作材料 时,第三组的孩子竟然起来走动 了,我又一次严厉地批评了他们。 在教学活动结束后,我请孩子们 收拾好自己组的材料,其他组的 都已经收拾好了,可第三组的孩 子把材料收起来,又倒在地上,再 收再倒„

整个下午我都很纳闷:为什么捣蛋的总是他们呢?吃了晚饭,我拿起一本杂志来看,其中有一个小故事让我很受启发。故事是这样的:一个乞丐站在路旁边卖橘子边行乞;一名商人路过,向乞丐面前的纸盒里投入几枚硬币就匆匆忙忙地赶路了。过了一会儿,商人回来取橘子,说:“对不起,我忘了拿橘子, 因为毕竟你我都是商人。”几年后,这位商人参加一次高级酒会, 遇见了一位衣冠楚楚的先生向他敬酒致谢,并告诉他自己就是当初那个卖橘子的乞丐。而他生活的改变完全得益干商人的那句话:你我都是商人。

其实这些都是心理暗示的效应,那位商人说你我都是商人。

乞丐便受到心理暗示,觉得自己应该是个商人,于是就朝这个目标努力,最后取得成功。而我总是批评那些所谓的爱捣蛋的孩子使他们受到心理暗示,认为自己什么都做不好,永远也改不了。所以也就不会想到去改变自己的行为。我想如果我不是一味地批评、指责他们,而是信任他们,告诉他们怎样做是对的,怎样做是不对的,那么孩子们的表现就会有很大的改观。

一个孩子表现的好坏有时在某种程度上取决于教师对他的评价,教师的定位能决定孩子的表现,更能改变孩子的表现,所以教师尽量不要给孩子消极的心理暗示,让他朝积极、健康的方向发展.

自然真实才是让人心动的力量

今天的大班语言活动内容是学习诗歌《进城怎么走法》。这首三句体的诗歌幽默、浪漫,并不太难,我把活动重点放在进城动作的创编及完整的语言描述上。我绘制了一幅色彩鲜艳的城堡图,以吸引孩子们的注意,激发他们创编诗歌的兴趣。

在句式安排上,我没作特别要求,试图给孩子充分的想象和创编的空间。在进城走法的动作设计上,我预设了左右脚高低变换以及骑马等幽默、滑稽的动作,以拓展孩子的思维。但令我惊讶的是,我的那些预设动作根本没有派上用场。 当我问及孩子想怎样进这个美丽的城堡时,马上有孩子举手:“我乘9路车去。”这个答案和预设的答案相去甚远,我愣了一下:该怎么转换孩子的思维,引出我需要的答案呢?我突然想起9路车是孩子们所在生活区域到市区的专用公交车,这个答案对于孩子来说是最自然和真实的。

瞬间,我改变了自然真实才是让人心动的力量路,非常肯定地认可了孩子的回答。看着孩子满足的微笑,我豁然开朗。就因为这句平实但真切的“我乘9路车去”,孩子们接下来的创编活动进行得很顺利,创编的内容也都和生活有关,如:“我乘飞机去。”“我乘火车去。”虽然简单平实,却朗朗上口,真实易懂。 尽管这些诗句并没有我想象中那么优美和幽默,但我分明感觉到孩子们小小的情怀被一种叫做浪漫的东两充盈着。

十几年或者几十年之后,当他们中有人成了真正的诗人时,也许他们会记得创作源自这句“我乘9路车去”。其实,创作本就源于平实的生活,创作是对生活的记录和真实情感的表达,自然、真实才是让人心动的力量。

抢椅子之后

集合的音乐声响起,孩子们忙着搬起椅了一坐下来。先拿到椅子的孩子很满足地坐在位置上,但也有孩子还在与别人争抢椅子。我看到洋洋正和明明在抢一张椅子,洋洋用力拉住椅子不停地喊着:“这是我的椅子,是我先拿到的。”明明也不甘示弱,一再强调是他先拿到的,谁都不肯放手。最后小朋友建议他俩用“石头剪刀布”来解决。

为什么孩子们时常会发生抢椅子的事情呢?我想原因之一是当集合的音乐声响起时,有些孩子会去搬靠自己最近的椅子,有些孩子则会搬自己原先坐过的椅子,因此就产生冲突了;原因之二是孩子们缺乏谦让意识或灵活性,要么执意争抢一张椅子,要么看不到其他椅子。针对这样的情况,我组织孩子讨论:“有什么办法可以让大家每次都能找到自己的椅子?”孩子们七嘴八舌地议论开了,有的说:“如果真的找不到椅子,可以看看边上有没有多出来的椅子。”有的说:“可以采用游戏‘石头剪刀布’来决定。”还有的说:“可以在椅子上写上名字。”最后孩子们决定给椅子设计制作标签。

自从孩子们为椅子贴上标签后,争抢椅子的情况就没再发生。但一段时间后新的问题又出现了。自由活动时,孩子们经常会互相欣赏、抚摸椅背上的标签,没过多久标签就破损了。怎么办?我又把问题交给孩子们去讨论,孩子们认为可以定期更换椅背上的标签,并且每次的设计可以不同。于是,我们又开展了“我为椅子穿新衣”的活动。为了使孩子们学会更好地保护自己的椅子,我.们还开展了“我为椅子洗个澡”(学习擦小椅子)等活动。

争抢椅子事件引发了一连串的活动,不但有效地制止了争抢椅子的现象,还让孩子们学习了如何保护自己的物品,增强了他们的自我管理能力和责任感。

收玩具纠纷引发的教育

一天,在小班收玩具环节,杨老师突然听到憨憨边哭边说:“我不要你收。”接着又听到格格说:“老师说要互相帮助的。”话未说完,格格就将憨憨的积木收了起来。憨憨立刻大哭起来,嘴上还不停地说着:“我不要你收,我不要你收„„”这一幕常常发生在很多幼儿园小班收玩具环节,很多教师对此可能司空见惯,认为它不是什么大事。可杨老师不这么认为,在收拾好玩具后,她立即向全班幼儿叙述了这一事件,并引导他们讨论分析。

一 向别人表达要求时不能带哭腔

由于此时憨憨还是一直在哭,教师问他话时依然带着哭腔,于是教师和幼儿有如下对话,让幼儿明白了如何向别人表达自己的愿望。

教师:你们能听清楚他说的话吗?

幼儿:听不清楚,听到的是“哭话”。

教师:那么应该怎么办呢?

幼儿:不能说“哭话”。

教师:憨憨,你现在能不哭说话吗?

憨憨点点头。

教师:那么你用不哭的声音把刚才对格格说的话说给大家听,好吗?憨憨(努力克制住,没有带哭腔):请你不要帮我收玩具。教师:这次大家听清楚了吗?

幼儿:听清楚了。

教师:当你们不愿让别人帮助时,你们会说这句话吗?请你们一起说说看

二 当别人说不需要帮助时,要尊重别人的意愿

我们经常教育幼儿要互相帮助。因此,一些手脚麻利的幼儿总是代替另一些相对“弱”或一慢一拍“的孩子做事,使他们习惯于被别人帮助。而那些经常帮助别人的幼儿则认为自己比其他幼儿能干,处处将自己的想法强加给别人,不知道尊重别人。今天的事恰好提醒我们要关注被帮助者的心理感受,这是一个教育幼儿学会尊重别人的契机。因此,教师继续引导幼儿讨论。通过以下分析和练习,幼儿知道了什么是尊重别人,明白了要帮助别人必须先征询他的意见,然后尊重

他的意愿。

教师:格格,憨憨不喜欢别人帮助他,他想自己收玩具。他说不要你帮忙时,你应该怎么做呢?

格格:我就不要去帮他了。

教师:对了。有的人喜欢别人帮忙,有的人不喜欢别人帮忙。别人对我们说不要帮忙时,我们就要听他的,这就叫尊重他。

教师:你们会尊重别人吗?

幼儿:会。

教师:如果你想帮助别人,可又不知道别人喜不喜欢你帮忙,怎么办呢?幼儿:可以先问问他。

教师:怎么问呢?

幼儿:我可以以帮助你吗?

教师:说得真好。我们一起说说看。,(幼儿集体说一遍。)

教师:如果别人说不要你帮忙,你就要怎么做?

幼儿:听他的,就不帮他了。

教师:现在我们知道了,在帮助别人之前要先问“我可以帮助你吗”,等到别人答应后,才能帮助他,这就叫尊重。

教师:格格,你想帮助憨憨,应该先怎样做呢?(教师将憨憨和格格请上来,请格格学习如何询问憨憨。大家为格格的进步鼓掌。)

三 提高自己收玩具的速度

教师:我们不能因为一个人玩具收得慢而影响大家洗手、吃饭,憨憨不想别人帮忙,你们有什么好办法可以将玩具收得快些吗?

幼儿(边做动作边说):像这样快快收。

教师:噢,就是这样快快地收。你们会吗?

幼儿:会。

教师:现在我们像他„样,一起来快快地收。(带领幼儿一起练习。)教师:除了一只手快快地收,还有其他方法吗?

幼儿:用两只手一起收,将大积木放F面,小积木放上面,这样可以一次送很多玩具;将玩具筐搬到桌前,就可以把玩具一下子都放进去„.

教师将幼儿说的方法一一演示给幼儿看并带领幼儿空手练习,让他们不只是听一下方法,更重要的是让幼儿知道具体怎么做。这恰恰是小班幼儿需要学习的,也最符合小班幼儿的特点——不仅要会说,更要通过练习掌握具体的做法。接着,教师又问:“除了有这么多好方法,还要注意什么?”幼儿同答:“老师‘说收玩具,就要停止游戏,快快收.”

这时,教师抓住幼儿的话,让幼儿知道,要较快地收拾好玩具不仪要注意方法,还要有正确的态度.

由于年龄差异,有些小年龄的幼儿动作确实较慢,他们往往不太愿意接受别人的帮助,常常影响班级其他环节的顺利开展,最后,教师又提出:“如果经过了练习,暂时还是收不怏怎么办?”

经过讨论,幼儿明白了个道理:为了不让大家等待,有时也需要接纳别人的帮助这是一个发生在幼儿收玩具环节的常见的纠纷事件教师敏感地发现了其中蕴藏的教育价值,并立即将其生成为一个教育活动,使幼儿学会了什么是尊重,怎样才能快快收拾玩具,什么时候可以接受别人的帮助等。它的作用胜过教师精心设计的集体教学活动,况且如此真实的情境不是教师能设计出来的。它体现了教师对于幼儿行为问题的即时指导性,实现了一日生活皆课程的幼儿园课程观。

就爱跟你“过不去”

老师的眼睛就象万花筒,在这个万花筒里,藏着各种各样的孩子,有的调皮、有的乖巧、有的活泼、有的文静、有的懂事、有的就爱跟你“过不去”。但作为我们老师,往往只会去欣赏那些聪明漂亮的孩子,关注那些活泼懂事的孩子,而嫌弃那些所谓的喜欢捣乱的就爱跟你“过不去”的孩子。作为一名普通教师的我来讲也不例外。从事了十年幼教工作以来,发现每年带班的班中总有那么几位特别聪明,惹人喜爱的孩子,也有那么几位特别爱“干坏事”的孩子,近来我经常在思考这个问题:这些孩子难道天生就是不惹人喜爱吗?还是有其他的什么原因?

我班就有一位集以上四点都有的孩子,名叫邵紫霞,从小由外婆带,已养成饭来张口,衣来伸手,见谁都不怕的习惯,由于父母不和,外婆不愿带孩子,只能由已离异的爷爷和奶奶带,所以只能转园来,中班插到我班,脑袋聪明,但就爱捣乱,老师越批评我越起劲,看你老师拿我怎么办。对于这个孩子,确实让我伤了一阵子的脑筋,尤其在玩区角游戏时,他到哪里,哪里就会弄得鸡犬不宁。就在一次偶然的机会,我教幼儿玩插塑——飞机,我预测到只要一会儿须尧肯定会把积木弄得一地都是,于是我突发其想,让她做“班长”,边插积木边看那位小朋友掉积木,掉了积木就要赶快提醒他们拣起来,结果半小时下来,地上没有一片积木,这是从来没有过的,那天我狠狠地表扬了他,还奖了他一朵小朋友最想得到的笑脸花。这下可把她美坏了,逢人便说:“老师表扬我的”“你看,老师给我的笑脸花”而且那一天的表现都非常好,一直到我跟前来说:“老师,我帮你把书理理好的。”“老师,我今天洗手没弄水。”在接下来的日子里,我便经常表扬他,虽然他偶尔还会犯些小错误,但整个人都变了,变得活泼了,变得有上进心了。也变得不再使我头疼了。

在我带班的这一年里,我把这种办法用到了其他小朋友的身上,效果都非常的明显,所以我认为,只有用我们的爱才能去改变孩子,才能使那些爱跟你“过不去”的孩子跟你“过得去”。

培养有创意的孩子

孩子是好模仿的,在孩子的世界里,可以说每时每刻、每分每秒都在模仿--模仿父母、模仿邻里、模仿同伴、模仿社会、模仿动物世界、模仿大自然。孩子总是在模仿中成长发展、在模仿中活跃思维的。孩子的一对小耳朵,好比一台录音机,孩子的一双小眼睛,好比一台录像机,日久天长地模仿着。

所以在进行艺术教育时,要让孩子不模仿这是办不到的。在一次绘画活动《小鸟的飞机》中,我引导幼儿将原有的小鸟放大几十倍,把它们当作飞机,里面坐人,我画了两幅范画,强调幼儿要发挥自己的想象力,和我画的不一样,可是活动刚刚开始,孩子们都凑到前面来照着我的画,我很担心这样不能提高他们的绘画水平,就把范画拿走了,但是过后,我看到的是孩子根本不会画,尤其是坐在飞机里的人,最后我还是把范画给他们看。在活动后我想了想,我们不必过分害怕孩子的简单模仿,以为孩子过于死板,因为在不断的模仿中,孩子也会去除、简略、夸大、重建,虽然孩子都是画的同一种内容,但是每个人交上来的作品是各有千秋,其中已经包含了他们多多少少的创造性。

要培养孩子的独创性思维能力,作为我们应该让孩子获得丰富的感性知识。对孩子用直观的方法,如观察自然和社会现象,游览各种景观,多看书画、电视,多听故事、音乐等来丰富孩子的感性知识。并在进行活动时向孩子提出各种问题,启发孩子进行大胆的创造性思维。避免在日常生活当中出现的:大多数的家长、教师不是害怕孩子的模仿,而是害怕孩子过于“越轨”。在教孩子绘画,要与范例一模一样,孩子按自己的思维多画了东西,就会受到责备,孩子长期被干涉、命令、保护,到头来只会事与愿违,变得循规蹈矩、毫无生气,哪还会有独创性?

篇八:随笔集and 语录_2500字1.行行百里者半九十。

2.聪明难糊涂更难。

3.地低是海,人低是王。

4.有容乃大,无欲则刚。

5.有悟性者,一俯一仰而知人生,一进一退而懂得做人。一得一失而明哲理,一点一滴而有启发。

6.孟子曰:“生于忧患,死于安乐。”

7.周恩来:“与有胆肝人共事,从无字句宠物字句读书。”

8.世界以痛吻我,我要报之以歌。

9.人生最大的敌人是自己。

10.人,要活得“巧而少拙,智而少愚,明而少悔,清而少浊。”

11.人生之悟,当如竹为节,树为轮。每一节每一轮堪为一悟,堪为对生长阶段的一次回眸思考一次年终总结。省悟一次就拔高一节,扩大一轮。节越多竹越壮,轮越多树越高大。

12.天之涯,地之角,知交半零落。

13.It's my great honor to have all love you here!

14.Even whithout the sun,sunflower can still simell.

15.It's time to rock and roll!

16Now make some voice!

17.Please bollow me your shoulder on.

18.The best way to make happy money is to make money your hobby and not your god.

19.You do not play the price of success,you enjoy the price of scuccess.

20.太阳从东边悄悄挪到西边,终于找到一条缝隙,投射明媚的阳光。

21.穿过落英的缝隙,来时的那条曲径已迷失星河,徒留满地芬芳。

22.红尘不易,存慈悲心,感恩,惜福。

23雨过天晴终有时,只要你别让心变得潮湿。

24.原以为日光即将融化一切,然而影子却呆呆地躺在那里。

25.把您给予的昨天,折叠成记忆的小船,任其飘荡在心湖。

25.谁路过你的青春,悄悄为你未开的花掸去灰尘。

26知识是你最可信赖的人生伙伴。

27.在任何时候都要记住:你扮演的是你自己。

28.花间一壶酒,独酌无相亲;举杯邀明月,对影成三人。——《月下独酌》李白

29.天地之间,只有一种东西无法阻挡,它就是时间。

30.时间迎面而来,无声无息。

31.时间把过去的一切,都凿刻成了雕塑。

32.哲人的诗句可以将时间描绘成流水,而流水也有停滞的时候。时间更像是光,在黑暗中一闪而过。

33.我们可以欣赏时间的雕塑,却无法和逝去的时间重逢。

34.时间如同空气,无时不在,无处不在,我们的世界永远是现在进行时。

35.在我的周围,我每时每刻都听见时间有条不紊的脚步声。

36.在······,我目睹着时间正在实施它改变世界的计划。

37.···的···,都是时间的呼吸。

38.珍惜时间,就是爱生活,爱生命,爱人。

39.有所期待的人生,总是美好的。

40.我想对未来的时间说:“你来吧,我们等着!”

41.有些徒劳无功是最美的。

42.你最伟大的作品,在你面前等着你完成

43.断弦续不得,声声响不停。

44.君子淡以亲,小人甘以绝。

45.精卫衔微木,亦可填沧海。

46.曾经瀚海同游,哪怕今日鱼缸相守。

47.黑暗很可怕,但人性要保有尊严,就必须穿越它。

48.最好的创意如刀锋。闪耀锋锐之芒。

49.用简单的心,种朴素的籽,得丰硕的果。

50.有多少白日做梦,就有多少羞愧难眠。

51.生命一如朝阳,人人皆须仰视。

52.非上上智,无了了心。

53.生活有无数件外衣,有些乱人眼,有些乱己心。

54.我们的生命还有希望,因为在黑暗之外,有微光。

55.工欲善其事,必先利其器。

56.如果你还能活一分钟,你会做什么?——我会把握好每一分钟。

57.真是“压力山大”

58.不怕神一样的对手,就怕猪一样的队友。

59.We are the champions.No time for losers.Because we are the champions of the world.

60.我在哭泣,你却看不见我的眼泪,因为我是大海。

61.舌头变短,手指变长。

62.有一句广为传播的名言:天才是1%的天赋加上99%的汗水。这话你只知道一半,其实后面一段话被“别有用心的人”给掐了,后面一句话是:没有那1%是万万不行的。国际重大比赛也是同样的道理,有99.9%的运动员付出了100%的努力与汗水,可冠军只有一个名额。

63.强队遇上弱旅,偏偏得势不得分,又或者总有球队怕死了点球决战。究其原因无非在于心理层面,整个球队陷入集体无意识状态,一时间无法调整以至于阴沟里翻船。

64.不要让需要你的人觉得你太好,而是要让他觉得这个世界很美好。

65.要靠自己才有尊严。

66.以常人人性对待他人,这个社会反而正常,要求别人都做圣人,这个社会就老出小人。

67.没有麦当劳,肯德基的汉堡不会这么好吃;没有可口可乐,百事也不会这么壮大;没有狮子,羚羊永远也跑不快。——真正激励一个人,不断成功的是对手。

68.你无法判断别人是好人还是坏人,但你可以自己做一个好人。

69.人生就是你身边睡着一只老虎,你会恐惧、逃避,如果你不知道这一切是幻象就成问题其。你要骑在它上面抚顺它的毛,人生的目的是要和老虎睡觉。

70.大家面对同样的时代,却找出不同的借口,每个人都在窗前看这个世界,有些人看见的只是镜子,有些人伸手不见五指。

71.记住:冠军不打酱油。

72.人生就如心电图,一帆风顺就证明你挂了。

73.师傅领进门,修行在个人。

74.古今之成大事者,非唯有超世之才,亦必有坚韧不拔之志。

75.拼过才会有“爽”的感觉。

76.I'm the boy with beautiful dreams,I believe with the dream I can fly higher and higher.

77.丢脸是为了以后把所有的脸,全都

挣回来。

78.梦想是需要演练的。

79.只要你不那样自我催眠,他就不会成为“事实”……

80.

篇九:教育随笔集_5000字

湟源县幼儿园教师教育随笔

《让幼儿自己创编》

在大班的舞蹈教学中,一般教法是将教师已创编好的动作示范给幼儿,幼儿模仿学习。我们大班的小朋友乐感较好,思维活跃。我分析后,感觉舞蹈课中选用的歌词直观形象,幼儿能理解。所以我决定让幼儿自己创编舞蹈。在我的启发引导下,幼儿积极性很高,给每句歌词都编出了三、四种甚至更多的动作。大家一起讨论取哪一种,最后才决定出最恰当的,有的动作比老师创编的还要优美。当我把小朋友自己创编的舞蹈动作完整的做一遍后,孩子们都高兴地欢呼雀跃,一个个喜气洋洋。

这样子的教学,使我深深地感悟到:幼儿教师要善于调动幼儿的积极性,发挥他们的创造力。让孩子做活动的真正主人。这样才会是舞蹈教学活动得到最大的收获。

在舞蹈教学中, 更要突出幼儿的主体性。不断培养和加强幼儿自主创编的能力。在艺术的培养中要达到幼儿园艺术领域的总体目标。让幼儿能够主动地感受美、发现美并创造美。

《幼儿园舞蹈教学的问题与策略》

由于受到传统舞蹈教学方式的制约和教师在舞蹈认知方面自身的局限,当前幼儿园舞蹈教学存在以下问题:一是忽略了对幼儿舞蹈兴趣的培养。另一方面,教学方法陈旧,教学效果不明显。那么,如何有效解决舞蹈教学中存在的问题呢?

一、 引导幼儿在艺术美的滋养中成长。

艺术活动是幼儿表达自己认识和情感的重要方式。教师应使幼儿大胆的表达自己的情感、理解和想象。

二、 激发幼儿学习舞蹈的能动力。

1、 激发幼儿学习舞蹈的兴趣。

幼儿园舞蹈教学内容要适合幼儿年龄特点,避免成人化。动作要简明、活泼、形象。

2、 激发幼儿学习的能动性。

幼儿舞蹈教学一般采用模仿性教学方式。即:示范——模仿——练习的模式。这种学习方式效率较低,教师需用其他手段吸引幼儿注意力,以保证参与活动的延续性。所以要教师启发进行联想、回忆、理解。从而用形体表现出来。

3、 激发幼儿学习的领悟力。

4、 激发幼儿学习的创造力。

三、 采用多种幼儿舞蹈教学的具体方法。

1、 语言讲解法。

2、 动作示范法。

3、 动作编排法。

4、 游戏法。

《不经意的洗手》

今天带孩子户外活动回来后,像往常一样,我请孩子们入厕、洗手,同时,我又重复对孩子说;“洗手的时候,要把袖子卷起来,擦好肥皂手心搓搓、手背搓搓,十个手指交叉搓搓,肥皂冲掉甩甩干。”大部分孩子都随着我的口令进行正确的洗手流程。我也在旁边进行个别孩子的指导。经过一段时间,大部分孩子陆续的离开了洗手间,这时,我也开始走到水龙头下开始了自己的洗手“程序”。当我快速洗完手后正准备离开时,门口响起一个稚嫩的声音;“老师,你没有手背搓搓、也没有甩甩干。”突然之间听到孩子认真的说出这句话,我呆了!一时之间不知道该怎么回答,只能尴尬的笑笑说:“哦,老师的手不是很脏,稍微洗一下就可以了。”孩子听了我的解释,似懂非懂的点点头做开了。等我安静下来后,我越想越觉得不对,这样的回答会给孩子造成不良的榜样的。于是,在第二天的晨间谈话中,我在全班小朋友面前勇敢的承认了自己的错误,有个别孩子还拍手说:“我们原谅你了,下次不能这样了。”

通过这次风波,我认识到老师要求孩子做到的,自己首先要做到,要时刻为孩子做好榜样,言传身教。

《试着爱不好的孩子》

每天面对教室里三十多名孩子,作为老师也许会更多的喜欢那些聪明的、能干的、听话的、守纪律的孩子。而对于那些所谓调皮的、不守纪律的、爱讲话的“不好”的孩子,则会另眼相看,区别对待。其实所谓“好孩子”与“不好的孩子”这只是个别老师从自己的喜好角度错误的把孩子区分成两个等级。伟大的教育学家苏霍姆林斯基说过一句话:“爱不好的号子才是真正的爱”。

刚开学没多久,我就发现班上的米海洋小朋友总往门外张望,可有时只要老师稍不留神,她就会独自一个人离开队伍向大门外跑去,抓住栏杆不停的大声说话。刚开始,我认为她是经过一个假期还没有适应开学生活,总是安慰她,讲一些“爸爸、妈妈要上班,好孩子要上幼儿园”的道理。可是又一次她的回答却震惊了我,让我深深地反思自己的教育行为,重新审视了自己的教育观念。我深深地体会到了老师对每个孩子平等的爱是多么的重要,多么伟大。她说“老师和小朋友都说我是不好的孩子。”

此时此刻,我想起了教育工作者,周弘说过的一句话“没有赏识就没有教育,人性中最本质的需求就是得到尊重和欣赏,不是好孩子需要欣赏,而是欣赏是他们变得越来越好。”我深知自己对眼前这个还在还没有完全了解,没有完全走进他们的童心世界。其实,每个孩子都有自己的优势,他们都渴望老师的关注和大家的承认。只要我们给予他们更多的爱和鼓励,他们一样会变得很优秀。

《如何看待吸手指的幼儿》

“老师,轩轩又在吸手指。”小朋友跑来跟我告状。轩轩一直有一个吸手指的坏习惯,很让人头疼。在家里,他的父母也想了很多办法,可都不管用。这都快大班毕业了,这个毛病还是没有改掉。这对他以后的身体健康会造成很大的影响。用什么方法可以改掉这个毛病呢?真巧我们学过一首歌曲《我的身体》随即我就向孩子们问“这是什么呀?”(小手)“小手上面还有什么呀?”(手指)我给自己的每根手指画上五官,并起上名字。让孩子们和手指娃娃做好朋友,还要爱护他们,不能咬或者吸它们。否则手指娃娃会不舒服的。接着,我有启发孩子们手指娃娃都有哪些本领?孩子们争先恐后的回答出很多答案,当轩轩沉默后坐在那里时,我向轩轩说了很多手指哇哇的本领,并问他手指娃娃做了很多事情后身体脏不脏?告诉他指甲里藏着很多许多我们小朋友肉眼看不到的细菌,这些细菌如果吃到嘴里,就会生病。因此,我们一定要及时给手纸娃娃洗澡。做个讲卫生的好孩子。

从此以后,我细心的发现轩轩有了一些变化,他吸手指的频率越来越少,虽然他还没有彻底的改掉这个坏毛病,但我相信,通过老师和家长的细心引导,轩轩一定能改掉这个毛病。

湟源县幼儿园教师教学反思

《如何让幼儿爱上舞蹈》

我是一名幼儿老师,非常喜欢跳舞,也非常喜欢教孩子跳舞。从事舞蹈教学也有一定的时间了,以前是在假期里去青少年艺术活动中心聘幼儿舞蹈老师,现在教学对象发生了一些变化,就是从专业舞蹈训练的孩子变成了幼儿园中、大班年级的孩子,这些孩子里,有以前接触过舞蹈的,也有从来没有接触过舞蹈的和更本不许换舞蹈的。通过这段时间的教学,我有了很多的感悟。

通过和孩子共同活动,我渐渐明白,要想获得好的教学效果,老师一定要和孩子做朋友。学会欣赏孩子,尊重他们的想法和行为。

记得每次上课,我都会教孩子们一些新的舞蹈动作和形体训练,一段时间过后,我发现孩子们对这种学习形式并不太感兴趣,有些孩子老是心不在焉。孩子们的表现让我很困惑,怎样才能提高孩子们的学习兴趣呢?

在接下来的日子里,我尝试在舞蹈课中对于枯燥无味的形体训练加入一些游戏的元素在里面,比如:在弯腰练习和侧旁踢的时候,我不会再让他们单纯的做弯腰或旁踢练习,而是以游戏的形式,把“弯腰”说成是用身体“变月亮”来做游戏,“侧旁踢”说成是“开飞机”,这样不仅让孩子练习了基本形体动作,还大大提高了孩子们的学习兴趣。很多孩子都有了明显的变化,课堂上也能积极地参与进来。和孩子做朋友,和孩子一起把舞蹈“玩”起来,你真的会看见奇迹。

《幼儿素质发展中的舞蹈教育》

幼儿舞蹈教学是音乐教育中不可或缺的组成部分,它对幼儿身心的健康、情操的陶冶和智力的开发都有着重要的作用。在形象、生动、优美的音乐启迪下,通过科学系统的舞蹈教学训练,将有助于幼儿动作、节奏感等多方面的发展。它对幼儿走、跑、跳基本动作的协调、灵活和动作的美感有着良好的促进作用。

因此,在以后的舞蹈教学中:

一、 增强幼儿舞蹈的趣味性。

(一) 精心选材,以曲动人。

1、 选些具有鲜明特点,容易被孩子接受的音乐。比如他们经常听

到的儿歌、流行音乐、动画影视歌曲。

2、 用心启迪,以情感人。

(二) 慎重选材,以趣引入。

开设特色课堂不光是一味的练习基本功,我们可以以活动、竞赛、表演的方式完成系列教学。把日常生活中的喜怒哀乐全都用上,让他们知道舞蹈来源于生活。

二、 巧妙设计、激活幼儿舞蹈的创造性。

1、 展现情景性。

2、 加强趣味性。

3、 形式多样性。

4、 突出情感性。

如何激发幼儿剪纸的兴趣

今天上午的第三节课是纸工,在介绍完作品后,又给孩子们示范了一下作品的制作方法,如何使用剪刀等等。可在孩子闷得实际操作中,大部分孩子手法很不熟练,“三分钟热度”。起初还在认真的剪,但当作品不小心被剪坏后,孩子们不敢再往下剪了,请求老师帮助。有些孩子开始干别的事情,对剪纸完全失去了兴趣。有些剪得简直是不堪入目。

对此,我觉得要想使幼儿的剪纸技巧得到快速的发展,重要的是激发其兴趣。“兴趣是最好的老师”,如果幼儿对剪纸有了浓厚的兴趣,他们就会主动用感官去看、去想、去动脑、去动手、积极探索,这样就能促进其剪纸潜能得到很好的发展。那么,怎样才能积分幼儿剪纸的兴趣呢?

一、 布置“民间剪纸”墙

平时经常带领幼儿欣赏一些我国著名剪纸艺人的作品,感受浓郁的民族气息氛围,感受剪纸艺术的魅力。

二、 展示剪纸大师作品

带领幼儿一同观看录像中剪纸大师的作品,由于将幼儿自由剪出来的作品向孩子们展示,并让他们拿在手里看,通过观察和对实物的直接接触,更加激发了孩子的好奇心,调动了幼儿对剪纸的兴趣。

三、 收集常见的剪纸作品

四、 创设自由的精神环境

五、 循序渐进的开展活动

六、 尊重幼儿的剪纸成果

图形组合辨识

这堂课是一堂情景数学课,活动的目标是对分解后的图形进行涂色。使幼儿进一步提高对不同颜色图形的辨识和对应能力。 在课堂中,幼儿通过练习已经对颜色的辨识能力和面积的大小有了一定的感知,这堂课是要求幼儿辨识图形被分解后的颜色。 在布题时,我就以小朋友最为熟悉的事物举例。像小朋友穿了几件衣服,分别是什么颜色的,让抽象的数学感念具体形象。看到小朋友兴趣很浓,我又接着问今天图形宝宝也穿了非常漂亮的衣服,但不知道是什么颜色的,请你们帮它们分一分。然后我出示图形让幼儿观察,图形中有几种颜色,分别是那个图形上的?然后让幼儿为每个图形宝宝穿上自己的衣服,因为有了具体事物的感知,所以他们都能给分解后的图形图上正确相应的颜色。

通过这堂课,我深刻的感受到,布题环节很重要,如果在布题时老师讲不清楚内容,布题实思路模糊,幼儿就无法理解,那就将无法达到这堂课真正的教育目的和效果。

《自编应用题》教学反思

随着幼儿数能力的逐步发展,自编10以内的口头加减应用题也慢慢成为了他们的学习内容。

“自编10以内的口头加减应用题”目的在于让幼儿学习讲述10以内数的口头加减应用题,积累加减法的感性经验,尝试根据给出的条件自编10以内数的加减应用题。尝试应用数的运算方式解决生活中遇到的问题。

但自编应用题是首次尝试,这对幼儿本身就是一种挑战。这要求幼儿具有较好的抽象概括能力,将数转化成抽象的事物,实现转化。既能促进幼儿把我数量关系的实质,又能进一步培养幼儿抽象、概括的思维能力。

通过教学活动及幼儿的课堂反应,我总结到要学好口述应用题就,就必须先进行结构训练。因为应用题都是由情节和数量关系这两个方面组成,情节和数量是组成一道应用题的结构框架。幼儿要解答口述应用题,必须对题的情节和数量进行分析,了解构成要素的概貌,然后进行解答。

湟源县幼儿园教师教学案例分析

观察对象:中班全体幼儿

·案例描述及策略和措施:

在本周星期二的舞蹈课上,我还是按平时的常规要求孩子们训练基本站姿,然后是一些形体训练,最后是教授新舞。可在教授新舞的环节上,孩子们 在跳第一遍的时候还有些兴趣,几乎每名幼儿都能积极的参与到活动中来,,可在反复练习了几遍以后,我发现大多数孩子的注意力已经不集中了,有些东张西望,有些开始自己干自己的事情,完全没有了刚开始学习是的那种积极、热情的反应。于是在接下来的班级上课的时候,介于上节课的经验总结,我运用了小鸭子的头饰,由于新授的舞蹈叫《小鸭嘎嘎》,这次在教完舞蹈后,我采用游戏的方式告诉小朋友,“老师是鸭妈妈,你们是鸭宝宝,鸭妈妈要领几只小鸭子去童话王国里参加舞会,现在我来看看哪个鸭宝宝跳的最好?我要请跳得最好的几只小鸭子去参加舞会。

·教育效果:

通过这种游戏和故事情节的导入,并应用头饰,让幼儿融入到角色中,使得这次舞蹈活动中,幼儿的积极性和趣味性大大提高,也保证了幼儿的心理参与和实际参与。每个幼儿都想去参加舞会,所以在新舞蹈的教授中,幼儿都能够积极。认真的去学习。

篇十:培根随笔集_243900字

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FrancisBacon

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FrancisBaconBacon(1561-1626)FrancisFrancisBaconBacon(1561-1626)1561年培根出生在英国伦敦的一个贵族家庭,父亲是女王的掌玺大臣,母亲也是贵族出身。培根小时候身体很弱,经常生病,但他却很爱学习,喜欢阅读比他的年龄应读的书更为高深的书籍,13岁时便进入英国著名的剑桥大学读书。培根只在剑桥住了3年。当时的剑桥受“经院哲学”的统治,不重视科学研究,而注重研究神学,用繁琐的方法来证明宗教教条的正确。培根对此非常反感,于是便离开了那里。1620年,培根总结了他的哲学思想,出版了《新工具》一书。在书中他响亮地提出了“知识就是力量”的观点。他指出,要想控制自然,利用自然,就必须掌握科学知识。他认为真正的哲学必须研究自然,研究科学。为此,他十分重视科学实验,认为只有经过实验才能获得真正的知识。

《新工具》一书的出版,得到了全欧洲学者的极大赞赏,因为这种思想既是对反动的经院哲学的有力批判,也是对人们探索自然的鼓励。

培根不仅是一位著名的哲学家,还是一位杰出的散文作家。在他的一生中,虽然有繁杂的事务分心,可他在写作上从来没有懈怠过,他一生写下了不少光辉的著作,其中最著名的传世之作是1624年出版的《论说文集》。

《论说文集》最能体现培根的写作风格:文笔优美、语言凝练、寓意深刻。这本书中的文章从各种角度论述了他对人与社会、人与自己、人与自然的关系的许多独到而精辟的见解,使许许多多人从这本书中获得熏陶指导。如:“一个自身无德的人见别人有德必怀嫉妒”。

“没有友谊,则世上不过是一片荒野”。

“最能保人心神健康的预防药,就是朋友的忠言规谏”。“思想中的疑心就好象鸟中的蝙蝠一样,永远是在黄昏中飞的。疑心使君王倾向专制,丈夫倾向嫉妒,智者倾向寡断和忧郁。”

“狡猾就是一种阴险邪恶的聪明。一个狡猾人与一个聪明人之间,确有一种很大的差异,这差异不但是在诚实上,而且是在才能上的。”“顺境的美德是节制;逆境的美德是坚忍。这后一种是较为伟大的一种德性。”

培根一生在学问上成就很大,然而作为政客他饱尝了仕途之艰辛。做女王掌玺大臣的父亲去世后,他一直未得到女王的重用。直到詹姆斯一世当政,他才逐渐得到升迁,先后担任过法院院长、检察长、掌玺大臣等,还被封男爵、子爵等贵族尊号。然而,后来他又被免除了一切官职。成为平民之后,培根将全部的精力投入到学问研究中,他最终成为中世纪英国著名的唯物主义哲学创始者。1626年4月培根离开了人世.

EssaysofFrancisBacon

ESSAYSORCOUNSELS,CIVILANDMORAL,OFFRANCISLd.VERULAMVISCOUNTST.ALBANSTHETHEESSAYSORCOUNSELS,COUNSELS,CIVILCIVILANDMORAL,OFOFFRANCISFRANCISLd.Ld.VERULAMST.ALBANS

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20TotheDukeofBuckinghamOfTruthOfDeathOfUnityinReligionsOfRevengeOfAdversityOfSimulationandDissimulationOfParentsandChildrenOfMarriageandSingleLifeOfEnvyOfLoveOfGreatPlaceOfBoldnessOfGoodnessOfNobilityOfSeditionsandTroublesOfAtheismOfSuperstitionOfTravelOfEmpire2122232425262728293031323334353637383940OfCounselOfDelaysOfCunningOfWisdomforaMan'sSelfOfInnovationsOfDispatchOfSeemingWiseOfFriendshipOfExpenseOftheTrueGreatnessofKingdomsandEstatesOfRegimentofHealthOfSuspicionOfDiscourseOfPlantationsOfRichesOfPropheciesOfAmbitionOfMasquesandTriumphsOfNatureinMenOfCustomandEducation4142434445464748495051525354555657585960OfFortuneOfUsuryOfYouthandAgeOfBeautyOfDeformityOfBuildingOfGardensOfNegotiatingOfFollowersandFriendsOfSuitorsOfStudiesOfFactionOfCeremoniesandRespectOfPraiseOfVain-GloryOfHonorandReputationOfJudicatureOfAngerOfVicissitudeofThingsOfFame

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http:///essays-of-francis-bacon-1.htmlhttp:///bacon/duke.html

ofBuckinghamTotheDukeDukeof

HonorableToTheRightRightHonorable

VeryGoodLordMyMyVery

ofBuckinghamtheDukeDukeof

LordHisGrace,Grace,Lord

HighAdmiralofEnglandHighAdmiralofEngland

ExcellentLord:

SALOMONsaies;AgoodNameisasapreciousoyntment;AndIassuremyselfe,suchwilyourGracesNamebee,withPosteritie.ForyourFortune,andMeritboth,havebeenEminent.AndyouhaveplantedThings,thatareliketolast.IdoenowpublishmyEssayes;which,ofallmyotherworkes,havebeenemostCurrant:Forthat,asitseemes,theycomehome,toMensBusinesse,andBosomes.Ihaveenlargedthem,bothinNumber,andWeight;SothattheyareindeedaNewWorke.Ithoughtitthereforeagreeable,tomyAffection,andObligationtoyourGrace,toprefixyourNamebeforethem,bothinEnglish,andinLatine.ForIdoeconceive,thattheLatineVolumeofthem,(beingintheUniversallLanguage)maylast,aslongasBookeslast.MyInstauration,IdedicatedtotheKing:MyHistorieofHenrytheSeventh,(whichIhavenowalsotranslatedintoLatine)andmyPortionsofNaturallHistory,tothePrince:AndtheseIdedicatetoyourGrace;BeingofthebestFruits,thatbythegoodEncrease,whichGodgivestomyPenandLabours,Icouldyeeld.GodleadeyourGracebytheHand.

YourGracesmostObligedandfaithfullServant,

FR.ST.ALBAN

OfTruthOfTruth

WHATistruth?saidjestingPilate,andwouldnotstayforananswer.Certainlytherebe,thatdelightingiddiness,andcountitabondagetofixabelief;affectingfree-willinthinking,aswellasinacting.Andthoughthesectsofphilosophersofthatkindbegone,yetthereremaincertaindiscoursingwits,whichareofthesameveins,thoughtherebenotsomuchbloodinthem,aswasinthoseoftheancients.Butitisnotonlythedifficultyandlabor,whichmentakeinfindingoutoftruth,noragain,thatwhenitisfound,itimposethuponmen’sthoughts,thatdothbringliesinfavor;butanatural,thoughcorruptlove,ofthelieitself.OneofthelaterschooloftheGrecians,examineththematter,andisatastand,tothinkwhatshouldbeinit,thatmenshouldlovelies;whereneithertheymakeforpleasure,aswithpoets,norforadvantage,aswiththemerchant;butforthelie’ssake.ButIcannottell;thissametruth,isanaked,andopenday-light,thatdothnotshowthemasks,andmummeries,andtriumphs,oftheworld,halfsostatelyanddaintilyascandle-lights.Truthmayperhapscometothepriceofapearl,thatshowethbestbyday;butitwillnotrisetothepriceofadiamond,orcarbuncle,thatshowethbestinvariedlights.Amixtureofaliedotheveraddpleasure.Dothanymandoubt,thatifthereweretakenoutofmen’sminds,vainopinions,flatteringhopes,falsevaluations,imaginationsasonewould,andthelike,butitwouldleavetheminds,ofanumberofmen,poorshrunkenthings,fullofmelancholyandindisposition,andunpleasingtothemselves?

Oneofthefathers,ingreatseverity,calledpoesyvinumdaemonum,becauseitfireththeimagination;andyet,itisbutwiththeshadowofalie.Butitisnottheliethatpasseththroughthemind,buttheliethatsinkethin,andsettlethinit,thatdoththehurt;suchaswespakeofbefore.Buthowsoeverthesethingsarethusinmen’sdepravedjudgments,andaffections,yettruth,whichonlydothjudgeitself,teacheththattheinquiryoftruth,whichisthelove-making,orwooingofit,theknowledgeoftruth,whichisthepresenceofit,andthebeliefoftruth,whichistheenjoyingofit,isthesovereigngoodofhumannature.ThefirstcreatureofGod,intheworksofthedays,wasthelightofthesense;thelast,wasthelightofreason;andhissabbathworkeversince,istheilluminationofhisSpirit.Firsthebreathedlight,uponthefaceofthematterorchaos;thenhebreathedlight,intothefaceofman;andstillhebreathethandinspirethlight,intothefaceofhischosen.Thepoet,thatbeautifiedthesect,thatwasotherwiseinferiortotherest,saithyetexcellentlywell:Itisapleasure,tostandupontheshore,andtoseeshipstosseduponthesea;apleasure,tostandinthewindowofacastle,andtoseeabattle,andtheadventuresthereofbelow:butnopleasureiscomparabletothestandinguponthevantagegroundoftruth(ahillnottobecommanded,andwheretheairisalwaysclearandserene),andtoseetheerrors,andwanderings,andmists,andtempests,inthevalebelow;soalwaysthatthisprospectbewithpity,andnotwithswelling,orpride.Certainly,itisheavenuponearth,tohaveaman’smindmoveincharity,restinprovidence,andturnuponthepolesoftruth.

Topassfromtheological,andphilosophicaltruth,tothetruthofcivilbusiness;itwillbeacknowledged,evenbythosethatpractiseitnot,thatclear,androunddealing,isthehonorofman’snature;andthatmixtureoffalsehoods,islikealloyincoinofgoldandsilver,whichmaymakethemetalworkthebetter,butitembasethit.Forthesewinding,andcrookedcourses,arethegoingsoftheserpent;whichgoethbaselyuponthebelly,andnotuponthefeet.Thereisnovice,thatdothsocoveramanwithshame,astobefoundfalseandperfidious.AndthereforeMontaignesaithprettily,whenheinquiredthereason,whythewordofthelieshouldbesuchadisgrace,andsuchanodiouscharge?Saithhe,Ifitbewellweighed,tosaythatamanlieth,isasmuchtosay,asthatheisbravetowardsGod,andacowardtowardsmen.ForaliefacesGod,andshrinksfromman.Surelythewickednessoffalsehood,andbreachoffaith,cannotpossiblybesohighlyexpressed,asinthatitshallbethelastpeal,tocallthejudgmentsofGoduponthegenerationsofmen;itbeingforetold,thatwhenChristcometh,heshallnotfindfaithupontheearth.OfDeath

MENfeardeath,aschildrenfeartogointhedark;andasthatnaturalfearinchildren,isincreasedwithtales,soistheother.Certainly,thecontemplationofdeath,asthewagesofsin,andpassagetoanotherworld,isholyandreligious;butthefearofit,asatributedueuntonature,isweak.

Yetinreligiousmeditations,thereissometimesmixtureofvanity,andofsuperstition.Youshallread,insomeofthefriars’booksofmortification,thatamanshouldthinkwithhimself,whatthepainis,ifhehavebuthisfinger’sendpressed,ortortured,andtherebyimagine,whatthepainsofdeathare,whenthewholebodyiscorrupted,anddissolved;whenmanytimesdeathpasseth,withlesspainthanthetortureofalimb;forthemostvitalparts,arenotthequickestofsense.Andbyhimthatspakeonlyasaphilosopher,andnaturalman,itwaswellsaid,Pompamortismagisterret,quammorsipsa.Groans,andconvulsions,andadiscoloredface,andfriendsweeping,andblacks,andobsequies,andthelike,showdeathterrible.Itisworthytheobserving,thatthereisnopassioninthemindofman,soweak,butitmates,andmasters,thefearofdeath;andtherefore,deathisnosuchterribleenemy,whenamanhathsomanyattendantsabouthim,thatcanwinthecombatofhim.Revengetriumphsoverdeath;loveslightsit;honoraspirethtoit;grieffliethtoit;fearpreoccupatethit;nay,weread,afterOthotheemperorhadslainhimself,pity(whichisthetenderestofaffections)provokedmanytodie,outofmerecompassiontotheirsovereign,andasthetruestsortoffollowers.Nay,Senecaaddsnicenessandsatiety:Cogitaquamdiueademfeceris;morivelle,nontantumfortisautmiser,sedetiamfastidiosuspotest.Amanwoulddie,thoughhewereneithervaliant,normiserable,onlyuponawearinesstodothesamethingsooft,overandover.Itisnolessworthy,toobserve,howlittlealterationingoodspirits,theapproachesofdeathmake;fortheyappeartobethesamemen,tillthelastinstant.AugustusCaesardiedinacompliment;Livia,conjugiinostrimemor,viveetvale.Tiberiusindissimulation;asTacitussaithofhim,JamTiberiumviresetcorpus,nondissimulatio,deserebant.Vespasianinajest,sittinguponthestool;Utputodeusfio.Galbawithasentence;Feri,siexresitpopuliRomani;holdingforthhisneck.SeptimiusSeverusindespatch;Adestesiquidmihirestatagendum.Andthelike.CertainlytheStoicsbestowedtoomuchcost

upondeath,andbytheirgreatpreparations,madeitappearmorefearful.Bettersaithhe,quifinemvitaeextremumintermuneraponatnaturae.Itisasnaturaltodie,astobeborn;andtoalittleinfant,perhaps,theoneisaspainful,astheother.Hethatdiesinanearnestpursuit,islikeonethatiswoundedinhotblood;who,forthetime,scarcefeelsthehurt;andthereforeamindfixed,andbentuponsomewhatthatisgood,dothavertthedolorsofdeath.But,aboveall,believeit,thesweetestcanticleis’,Nuncdimittis;whenamanhathobtainedworthyends,andexpectations.Deathhaththisalso;thatitopeneththegatetogoodfame,andextinguishethenvy.–Extinctusamabituridem.

inReligionOfUnityUnityin

RELIGIONbeingthechiefbandofhumansociety,itisahappything,whenitselfiswellcontainedwithinthetruebandofunity.Thequarrels,anddivisionsaboutreligion,wereevilsunknowntotheheathen.Thereasonwas,becausethereligionoftheheathen,consistedratherinritesandceremonies,thaninanyconstantbelief.Foryoumayimagine,whatkindoffaiththeirswas,whenthechiefdoctors,andfathersoftheirchurch,werethepoets.ButthetrueGodhaththisattribute,thatheisajealousGod;andtherefore,hisworshipandreligion,willendurenomixture,norpartner.Weshallthereforespeakafewwords,concerningtheunityofthechurch;whatarethefruitsthereof;whatthebounds;andwhatthemeans.

Thefruitsofunity(nextuntothewellpleasingofGod,whichisallinall)aretwo:theone,towardsthosethatarewithoutthechurch,theother,towardsthosethatarewithin.Fortheformer;itiscertain,thatheresies,andschisms,areofallothersthegreatestscandals;yea,morethancorruptionofmanners.Forasinthenaturalbody,awound,orsolutionofcontinuity,isworsethanacorrupthumor;sointhespiritual.Sothatnothing,dothsomuchkeepmenoutofthechurch,anddrivemenoutofthechurch,asbreachofunity.Andtherefore,whensoeveritcomethtothatpass,thatonesaith,Ecceindeserto,anothersaith,Ecceinpenetralibus;thatis,whensomemenseekChrist,intheconventiclesofheretics,andothers,inanoutwardfaceofachurch,thatvoicehadneedcontinuallytosoundinmen’sears,Noliteexire,-Gonotout.ThedoctoroftheGentiles(theproprietyofwhosevocation,drewhimtohaveaspecialcareofthosewithout)saith,ifanheathencomein,andhearyouspeakwithseveraltongues,willhenotsaythatyouaremad?Andcertainlyitislittlebetter,whenatheists,andprofanepersons,dohearofsomanydiscordant,andcontraryopinionsinreligion;itdothavertthemfromthechurch,andmakeththem,tositdowninthechairofthescorners.Itisbutalightthing,tobevouchedinsoseriousamatter,butyetitexpressethwellthedeformity.Thereisamasterofscoffing,thatinhiscatalogueofbooksofafeignedlibrary,setsdownthistitleofabook,TheMorris-DanceofHeretics.Forindeed,everysectofthem,hathadiverseposture,orcringebythemselves,whichcannotbutmovederisioninworldlings,anddepravedpolitics,whoareapttocontemnholythings.

Asforthefruittowardsthosethatarewithin;itispeace;whichcontainethinfiniteblessings.Itestablishethfaith;itkindlethcharity;theoutwardpeaceofthechurch,distillethintopeaceofconscience;anditturneththelaborsofwriting,andreadingofcontroversies,intotreatiesofmortificationanddevotion.

Concerningtheboundsofunity;thetrueplacingofthem,importethexceedingly.Thereappeartobetwoextremes.Fortocertainzealants,allspeechofpacificationisodious.Isitpeace,Jehu,?Whathastthoutodowithpeace?turntheebehindme.Peaceisnotthematter,butfollowing,andparty.Contrariwise,certainLaodiceans,andlukewarmpersons,thinktheymayaccommodatepointsofreligion,bymiddleway,andtakingpartofboth,andwittyreconcilements;asiftheywouldmakeanarbitramentbetweenGodandman.Boththeseextremesaretobeavoided;whichwillbedone,iftheleagueofChristians,pennedbyourSaviorhimself,wereintwocrossclausesthereof,soundlyandplainlyexpounded:Hethatisnotwithus,isagainstus;andagain,Hethatisnotagainstus,iswithus;thatis,ifthepointsfundamentalandofsubstanceinreligion,weretrulydiscernedanddistinguished,frompointsnotmerelyoffaith,butofopinion,order,orgoodintention.Thisisathingmayseemtomanyamattertrivial,anddonealready.Butifitweredonelesspartially,itwouldbeembracedmoregenerally.

OfthisImaygiveonlythisadvice,accordingtomysmallmodel.Menoughttotakeheed,ofrendingGod’schurch,bytwokindsofcontroversies.Theoneis,whenthematterofthepointcontroverted,istoosmallandlight,notworththeheatandstrifeaboutit,kindledonlybycontradiction.For,asitisnoted,byoneofthefathers,Christ’scoatindeedhadnoseam,butthechurch’svesturewasofdiverscolors;whereuponhesaith,Investevarietassit,scissuranonsit;theybetwothings,unityanduniformity.Theotheris,whenthematterofthepointcontroverted,isgreat,butitisdriventoanover-greatsubtilty,andobscurity;sothatitbecomethathingratheringenious,thansubstantial.Amanthatisofjudgmentandunderstanding,shallsometimeshearignorantmendiffer,andknowwellwithinhimself,thatthosewhichsodiffer,meanonething,andyettheythemselveswouldneveragree.Andifitcomesotopass,inthatdistanceofjudgment,whichisbetweenmanandman,shallwenotthinkthatGodabove,thatknowstheheart,dothnotdiscernthatfrailmen,insomeoftheircontradictions,intendthesamething;andacceptethofboth?Thenatureofsuchcontroversiesisexcellentlyexpressed,bySt.Paul,inthewarningandprecept,thathegivethconcerningthesame,Devitaprofanasvocumnovitates,etoppositionesfalsinominisscientiae.Mencreateoppositions,whicharenot;andputthemintonewterms,sofixed,aswhereasthemeaningoughttogoverntheterm,thetermineffectgoverneththemeaning.Therebealsotwofalsepeaces,orunities:theone,whenthepeaceisgrounded,butuponanimplicitignorance;forallcolorswillagreeinthedark:theother,whenitispiecedup,uponadirectadmissionofcontraries,infundamentalpoints.Fortruthandfalsehood,insuchthings,areliketheironandclay,inthetoesofNebuchadnezzar’simage;theymaycleave,buttheywillnotincorporate.

Concerningthemeansofprocuringunity;menmustbeware,thatintheprocuring,orreuniting,ofreligiousunity,theydonotdissolveanddefacethelawsofcharity,andofhumansociety.TherebetwoswordsamongstChristians,thespiritualandtemporal;andbothhavetheirdueofficeandplace,inthemaintenanceofreligion.Butwemaynottakeupthethirdsword,whichisMahomet’ssword,orlikeuntoit;thatis,topropagatereligionbywars,orbysanguinarypersecutionstoforce

consciences;exceptitbeincasesofovertscandal,blasphemy,orintermixtureofpracticeagainstthestate;muchlesstonourishseditions;toauthorizeconspiraciesandrebellions;toputtheswordintothepeople’shands;andthelike;tendingtothesubversionofallgovernment,whichistheordinanceofGod.Forthisisbuttodashthefirsttableagainstthesecond;andsotoconsidermenasChristians,asweforgetthattheyaremen.Lucretiusthepoet,whenhebeheldtheactofAgamemnon,thatcouldendurethesacrificingofhisowndaughter,exclaimed:TantumReligiopotuitsuaderemalorum.

Whatwouldhehavesaid,ifhehadknownofthemassacreinFrance,orthepowdertreasonofEngland?HewouldhavebeenseventimesmoreEpicure,andatheist,thanhewas.Forasthetemporalswordistobedrawnwithgreatcircumspectionincasesofreligion;soitisathingmonstroustoputitintothehandsofthecommonpeople.LetthatbeleftuntotheAnabaptists,andotherfuries.Itwasgreatblasphemy,whenthedevilsaid,Iwillascend,andbelikethehighest;butitisgreaterblasphemy,topersonateGod,andbringhiminsaying,Iwilldescend,andbeliketheprinceofdarkness;andwhatisitbetter,tomakethecauseofreligiontodescend,tothecruelandexecrableactionsofmurtheringprinces,butcheryofpeople,andsubversionofstatesandgovernments?SurelythisistobringdowntheHolyGhost,insteadofthelikenessofadove,intheshapeofavultureorraven;andset,outofthebarkofaChristianchurch,aflagofabarkofpirates,andassassins.Thereforeitismostnecessary,thatthechurch,bydoctrineanddecree,princesbytheirsword,andalllearnings,bothChristianandmoral,asbytheirMercuryrod,dodamnandsendtohellforever,thosefactsandopinionstendingtothesupportofthesame;ashathbeenalreadyingoodpartdone.Surelyincounselsconcerningreligion,thatcounseloftheapostlewouldbeprefixed,IrahominisnonimpletjustitiamDei.Anditwasanotableobservationofawisefather,andnolessingenuouslyconfessed;thatthosewhichheldandpersuadedpressureofconsciences,werecommonlyinterestedtherein.,themselves,fortheirownends.

OfRevenge

REVENGEisakindofwildjustice;whichthemoreman’snaturerunsto,themoreoughtlawtoweeditout.Forasforthefirstwrong,itdothbutoffendthelaw;buttherevengeofthatwrong,putteththelawoutofoffice.Certainly,intakingrevenge,amanisbutevenwithhisenemy;butinpassingitover,heissuperior;foritisaprince’sparttopardon.AndSolomon,Iamsure,saith,Itisthegloryofaman,topassbyanoffence.Thatwhichispastisgone,andirrevocable;andwisemenhaveenoughtodo,withthingspresentandtocome;thereforetheydobuttriflewiththemselves,thatlaborinpastmatters.Thereisnomandothawrong,forthewrong’ssake;buttherebytopurchasehimselfprofit,orpleasure,orhonor,orthelike.ThereforewhyshouldIbeangrywithaman,forlovinghimselfbetterthanme?Andifanymanshoulddowrong,merelyoutofill-nature,why,yetitisbutlikethethornorbriar,whichprickandscratch,becausetheycandonoother.Themosttolerablesortofrevenge,isforthosewrongswhichthereisnolawtoremedy;butthenletamantakeheed,therevengebesuchasthereisnolawtopunish;elseaman’senemyisstillbeforehand,anditistwoforone.Some,whentheytakerevenge,aredesirous,thepartyshouldknow,whenceitcometh.Thisisthemoregenerous.Forthedelightseemethtobe,notsomuchindoingthehurt,asinmakingthepartyrepent.Butbaseandcraftycowards,arelikethearrowthatfliethinthedark.Cosmus,dukeofFlorence,hadadesperatesayingagainstperfidiousorneglectingfriends,asifthosewrongswereunpardonable;Youshallread(saithhe)thatwearecommandedtoforgiveourenemies;butyouneverread,thatwearecommandedtoforgiveourfriends.ButyetthespiritofJobwasinabettertune:Shallwe(saithhe)takegoodatGod’shands,andnotbecontenttotakeevilalso?Andsooffriendsinaproportion.Thisiscertain,thatamanthatstudiethrevenge,keepshisownwoundsgreen,whichotherwisewouldheal,anddowell.Publicrevengesareforthemostpartfortunate;asthatforthedeathofCaesar;forthedeathofPertinax;forthedeathofHenrytheThirdofFrance;andmanymore.Butinprivaterevenges,itisnotso.Nayrather,vindictivepersonslivethelifeofwitches;who,astheyaremischievous,soendtheyinfortunate.

AdversityOfOfAdversity

ITWASanhighspeechofSeneca(afterthemanneroftheStoics),thatthegoodthings,whichbelongtoprosperity,aretobewished;butthegoodthings,thatbelongtoadversity,aretobeadmired.Bonarerumsecundarumoptabilia;adversarummirabilia.Certainlyifmiraclesbethecommandovernature,theyappearmostinadversity.Itisyetahigherspeechofhis,thantheother(muchtoohighforaheathen),Itistruegreatness,tohaveinonethefrailtyofaman,andthesecurityofaGod.Veremagnumhaberefragilitatemhominis,securitatemDei.Thiswouldhavedonebetterinpoesy,wheretranscendencesaremoreallowed.Andthepoetsindeedhavebeenbusywithit;foritisineffectthething,whichfiguredinthatstrangefictionoftheancientpoets,whichseemethnottobewithoutmystery;nay,andtohavesomeapproachtothestateofaChristian;thatHercules,whenhewenttounbindPrometheus(bywhomhumannatureisrepresented),sailedthelengthofthegreatocean,inanearthenpotorpitcher;livelydescribingChristianresolution,thatsailethinthefrailbarkoftheflesh,throughthewavesoftheworld.Buttospeakinamean.Thevirtueofprosperity,istemperance;thevirtueofadversity,isfortitude;whichinmoralsisthemoreheroicalvirtue.ProsperityistheblessingoftheOldTestament;adversityistheblessingoftheNew;whichcarrieththegreaterbenediction,andtheclearerrevelationofGod’sfavor.YetevenintheOldTestament,ifyoulistentoDavid’sharp,youshallhearasmanyhearse-likeairsascarols;andthepenciloftheHolyGhosthathlaboredmoreindescribingtheafflictionsofJob,thanthefelicitiesofSolomon.Prosperityisnotwithoutmanyfearsanddistastes;andadversityisnotwithoutcomfortsandhopes.Weseeinneedle-worksandembroideries,itismorepleasingtohavealivelywork,uponasadandsolemnground,thantohaveadarkandmelancholywork,uponalightsomeground:judgethereforeofthepleasureoftheheart,bythepleasureoftheeye.Certainlyvirtueislikepreciousodors,mostfragrantwhentheyareincensed,orcrushed:forprosperitydothbestdiscovervice,butadversitydothbestdiscovervirtue.

OfSimulationandDissimulation

DISSIMULATIONisbutafaintkindofpolicy,orwisdom;foritaskethastrongwit,andastrongheart,toknowwhentotelltruth,andtodoit.Thereforeitistheweakersortofpolitics,thatarethegreatdissemblers.

Tacitussaith,Liviasortedwellwiththeartsofherhusband,anddissimulationofherson;attributingartsorpolicytoAugustus,anddissimulationtoTiberius.Andagain,whenMucianusencouragethVespasian,totakearmsagainstVitellius,hesaith,WerisenotagainstthepiercingjudgmentofAugustus,northeextremecautionorclosenessofTiberius.Theseproperties,ofartsorpolicy,anddissimulationorcloseness,areindeedhabitsandfacultiesseveral,andtobedistinguished.Forifamanhavethatpenetrationofjudgment,ashecandiscernwhatthingsaretobelaidopen,andwhattobesecreted,andwhattobeshowedathalflights,andtowhomandwhen(whichindeedareartsofstate,andartsoflife,asTacituswellcalleththem),tohim,ahabitofdissimulationisahinderanceandapoorness.Butifamancannotobtaintothatjudgment,thenitislefttobimgenerally,tobeclose,andadissembler.Forwhereamancannotchoose,orvaryinparticulars,thereitisgoodtotakethesafest,andwariestway,ingeneral;likethegoingsoftly,byonethatcannotwellsee.Certainlytheablestmenthateverwere,havehadallanopenness,andfrankness,ofdealing;andanameofcertaintyandveracity;butthentheywerelikehorseswellmanaged;fortheycouldtellpassingwell,whentostoporturn;andatsuchtimes,whentheythoughtthecaseindeedrequireddissimulation,ifthentheyusedit,itcametopassthattheformeropinion,spreadabroad,oftheirgoodfaithandclearnessofdealing,madethemalmostinvisible.

Therebethreedegreesofthishidingandveilingofaman’sself.Thefirst,closeness,reservation,andsecrecy;whenamanleavethhimselfwithoutobservation,orwithoutholdtobetaken,whatheis.Thesecond,dissimulation,inthenegative;whenamanletsfallsignsandarguments,thatheisnot,thatheis.Andthethird,simulation,intheaffirmative;whenamanindustriouslyandexpresslyfeignsandpretendstobe,thatheisnot.

Forthefirstofthese,secrecy;itisindeedthevirtueofaconfessor.Andassuredly,thesecretmanhearethmanyconfessions.Forwhowillopenhimself,toablaborababbler?Butifamanbethoughtsecret,itinvitethdiscovery;asthemorecloseairsuckethinthemoreopen;andasinconfession,therevealingisnotforworldlyuse,butfortheeaseofaman’sheart,sosecretmencometotheknowledgeofmanythingsinthatkind;whilemenratherdischargetheirminds,thanimparttheirminds.Infewwords,mysteriesareduetosecrecy.Besides(tosaytruth)nakednessisuncomely,aswellinmindasbody;anditaddethnosmallreverence,tomen’smannersandactions,iftheybenotaltogetheropen.Asfortalkersandfutilepersons,theyarecommonlyvainandcredulouswithal.Forhethattalkethwhatheknoweth,willalsotalkwhatheknowethnot.Thereforesetitdown,thatanhabitofsecrecy,isbothpoliticandmoral.Andinthispart,itisgoodthataman’sfacegivehistongueleavetospeak.Forthediscoveryofaman’sself,bythetractsofhiscountenance,isagreatweaknessandbetraying;byhowmuchitismanytimesmoremarked,andbelieved,thanaman’swords.

Forthesecond,whichisdissimulation;itfollowethmanytimesuponsecrecy,byanecessity;sothathethatwillbesecret,mustbeadissemblerinsomedegree.Formenaretoocunning,tosufferamantokeepanindifferentcarriagebetweenboth,andtobesecret,withoutswayingthebalanceoneitherside.Theywillsobesetamanwithquestions,anddrawhimon,andpickitoutofhim,that,withoutanabsurdsilence,hemustshowaninclinationoneway;orifhedonot,theywillgatherasmuchbyhissilence,asbyhisspeech.Asforequivocations,ororaculousspeeches,theycannotholdoutlong.Sothatnomancanbesecret,excepthegivehimselfalittlescopeofdissimulation;whichis,asitwere,buttheskirtsortrainofsecrecy.

Butforthethirddegree,whichissimulation,andfalseprofession;thatIholdmoreculpable,andlesspolitic;exceptitbeingreatandrarematters.Andthereforeageneralcustomofsimulation(whichisthislastdegree)isavice,usingeitherofanaturalfalsenessorfearfulness,orofamindthathathsomemainfaults,whichbecauseamanmustneedsdisguise,itmakethhimpractisesimulationinotherthings,lesthishandshouldbeoutofuse.

Thegreatadvantagesofsimulationanddissimulationarethree.First,tolayasleepopposition,andtosurprise.Forwhereaman’sintentionsarepublished,itisanalarum,tocallupallthatareagainstthem.Thesecondis,toreservetoaman’sselfafairretreat.Forifamanengagehimselfbyamanifestdeclaration,hemustgothroughortakeafall.Thethirdis,thebettertodiscoverthemindofanother.Fortohimthatopenshimself,menwillhardlyshowthemselvesadverse;butwillfairlethimgoon,andturntheirfreedomofspeech,tofreedomofthought.AndthereforeitisagoodshrewdproverboftheSpaniard,Tellalieandfindatroth.Asiftherewerenowayofdiscovery,butbysimulation.Therebealsothreedisadvantages,tosetiteven.Thefirst,thatsimulationanddissimulationcommonlycarrywiththemashowoffearfulness,whichinanybusiness,dothspoilthefeathers,ofroundflyinguptothemark.Thesecond,thatitpuzzlethandperplexeththeconceitsofmany,thatperhapswouldotherwiseco-operatewithhim;andmakesamanwalkalmostalone,tohisownends.Thethirdandgreatestis,thatitdeprivethamanofoneofthemostprincipalinstrumentsforaction;whichistrustandbelief.Thebestcompositionandtemperature,istohaveopennessinfameandopinion;secrecyinhabit;dissimulationinseasonableuse;andapowertofeign,iftherebenoremedy.

OfParentsandChildrenandChildren

THEjoysofparentsaresecret;andsoaretheirgriefsandfears.Theycannotuttertheone;northeywillnotuttertheother.Childrensweetenlabors;buttheymakemisfortunesmorebitter.Theyincreasethecaresoflife;buttheymitigatetheremembranceofdeath.Theperpetuitybygenerationiscommontobeasts;butmemory,merit,andnobleworks,arepropertomen.Andsurelyamanshallseethenoblestworksandfoundationshaveproceededfromchildlessmen;whichhavesoughttoexpresstheimagesoftheirminds,wherethoseoftheirbodieshavefailed.Sothecareofposterityismostinthem,thathavenoposterity.Theythatarethefirstraisersoftheirhouses,aremostindulgenttowardstheirchildren;beholdingthemasthe

continuance,notonlyoftheirkind,butoftheirwork;andsobothchildrenandcreatures.

Thedifferenceinaffection,ofparentstowardstheirseveralchildren,ismanytimesunequal;andsometimesunworthy;especiallyinthemothers;asSolomonsaith,Awisesonrejoiceththefather,butanungracioussonshamesthemother.Amanshallsee,wherethereisahousefullofchildren,oneortwooftheeldestrespected,andtheyoungestmadewantons;butinthemidst,somethatareasitwereforgotten,whomanytimes,nevertheless,provethebest.Theilliberalityofparents,inallowancetowardstheirchildren,isanharmfulerror;makesthembase;acquaintsthemwithshifts;makesthemsortwithmeancompany;andmakesthemsurfeitmorewhentheycometoplenty.Andthereforetheproofisbest,whenmenkeeptheirauthoritytowardsthechildren,butnottheirpurse.Menhaveafoolishmanner(bothparentsandschoolmastersandservants)increatingandbreedinganemulationbetweenbrothers,duringchildhood,whichmanytimessortethtodiscordwhentheyaremen,anddisturbethfamilies.TheItaliansmakelittledifferencebetweenchildren,andnephewsornearkinsfolks;butsotheybeofthelump,theycarenotthoughtheypassnotthroughtheirownbody.And,tosaytruth,innatureitismuchalikematter;insomuchthatweseeanephewsometimesresemblethanuncle,orakinsman,morethanhisownparent;asthebloodhappens.Letparentschoosebetimes,thevocationsandcoursestheymeantheirchildrenshouldtake;forthentheyaremostflexible;andletthemnottoomuchapplythemselvestothedispositionoftheirchildren,asthinkingtheywilltakebesttothat,whichtheyhavemostmindto.Itistrue,thatiftheaffectionoraptnessofthechildrenbeextraordinary,thenitisgoodnottocrossit;butgenerallythepreceptisgood,optimumelige,suaveetfacileilludfacietconsuetudo.Youngerbrothersarecommonlyfortunate,butseldomorneverwheretheelderaredisinherited.

OfMarriageandSingleLife

HETHAThathwifeandchildrenhathgivenhostagestofortune;fortheyareimpedimentstogreatenterprises,eitherofvirtueormischief.Certainlythebestworks,andofgreatestmeritforthepublic,haveproceededfromtheunmarriedorchildlessmen;whichbothinaffectionandmeans,havemarriedandendowedthepublic.Yetitweregreatreasonthatthosethathavechildren,shouldhavegreatestcareoffuturetimes;untowhichtheyknowtheymusttransmittheirdearestpledges.Somethereare,whothoughtheyleadasinglelife,yettheirthoughtsdoendwiththemselves,andaccountfuturetimesimpertinences.Nay,therearesomeother,thataccountwifeandchildren,butasbillsofcharges.Naymore,therearesomefoolishrichcovetousmen,thattakeapride,inhavingnochildren,becausetheymaybethoughtsomuchthericher.Forperhapstheyhaveheardsometalk,Suchanoneisagreatrichman,andanotherexcepttoit,Yea,buthehathagreatchargeofchildren;asifitwereanabatementtohisriches.Butthemostordinarycauseofasinglelife,isliberty,especiallyincertainself-pleasingandhumorousminds,whicharesosensibleofeveryrestraint,astheywillgoneartothinktheirgirdlesandgarters,tobebondsandshackles.Unmarriedmenarebestfriends,bestmasters,bestservants;butnotalwaysbestsubjects;fortheyarelighttorunaway;andalmostallfugitives,areofthatcondition.Asinglelifedothwellwithchurchmen;forcharitywillhardlywatertheground,whereitmustfirstfillapool.Itisindifferentforjudgesandmagistrates;foriftheybefacileandcorrupt,youshallhaveaservant,fivetimesworsethanawife.Forsoldiers,Ifindthegeneralscommonlyintheirhortatives,putmeninmindoftheirwivesandchildren;andIthinkthedespisingofmarriageamongsttheTurks,makeththevulgarsoldiermorebase.Certainlywifeandchildrenareakindofdisciplineofhumanity;andsinglemen,thoughtheymaybemanytimesmorecharitable,becausetheirmeansarelessexhaust,yet,ontheotherside,theyaremorecruelandhardhearted(goodtomakesevereinquisitors),becausetheirtendernessisnotsooftcalledupon.Gravenatures,ledbycustom,andthereforeconstant,arecommonlylovinghusbands,aswassaidofUlysses,vetulamsuampraetulitimmortalitati.Chastewomenareoftenproudandfroward,aspresuminguponthemeritoftheirchastity.Itisoneofthebestbonds,bothofchastityandobedience,inthewife,ifshethinkherhusbandwise;whichshewillneverdo,ifshefindhimjealous.Wivesareyoungmen’smistresses;companionsformiddleage;andoldmen’snurses.Soasamanmayhaveaquarreltomarry,whenhewill.Butyethewasreputedoneofthewisemen,thatmadeanswertothequestion,whenamanshouldmarry,-Ayoungmannotyet,aneldermannotatall.Itisoftenseenthatbadhusbands,haveverygoodwives;whetheritbe,thatitraiseththepriceoftheirhusband’skindness,whenitcomes;orthatthewivestakeaprideintheirpatience.Butthisneverfails,ifthebadhusbandswereoftheirownchoosing,againsttheirfriends’consent;forthentheywillbesuretomakegoodtheirownfolly.

OfEnvy

THEREbenoneoftheaffections,whichhavebeennotedtofascinateorbewitch,butloveandenvy.Theybothhavevehementwishes;theyframethemselvesreadilyintoimaginationsandsuggestions;andtheycomeeasilyintotheeye,especiallyuponthepresentoftheobjects;whicharethepointsthatconducetofascination,ifanysuchthingtherebe.Weseelikewise,theScripturecallethenvyanevileye;andtheastrologers,calltheevilinfluencesofthestars,evilaspects;sothatstillthereseemethtobeacknowledged,intheactofenvy,anejaculationorirradiationoftheeye.Nay,somehavebeensocurious,astonote,thatthetimeswhenthestrokeorpercussionofanenviouseyedothmosthurt,arewhenthepartyenviedisbeheldingloryortriumph;forthatsetsanedgeuponenvy:andbesides,atsuchtimesthespiritsofthepersonenvied,docomeforthmostintotheoutwardparts,andsomeettheblow.

Butleavingthesecuriosities(thoughnotunworthytobethoughton,infitplace),wewillhandle,whatpersonsareapttoenvyothers;whatpersonsaremostsubjecttobeenviedthemselves;andwhatisthedifferencebetweenpublicandprivateenvy.

Amanthathathnovirtueinhimself,everenviethvirtueinothers.Formen’sminds,willeitherfeedupontheirowngood,oruponothers’evil;andwhowanteththeone,willpreyupontheother;andwhosoisoutofhope,toattaintoanother’svirtue,will

seektocomeatevenhand,bydepressinganother’sfortune.

Amanthatisbusy,andinquisitive,iscommonlyenvious.Fortoknowmuchofothermen’smatters,cannotbebecauseallthatadomayconcernhisownestate;thereforeitmustneedsbe,thathetakethakindofplay-pleasure,inlookinguponthefortunesofothers.Neithercanhe,thatmindethbuthisownbusiness,findmuchmatterforenvy.Forenvyisagaddingpassion,andwalkeththestreets,anddothnotkeephome:Nonestcuriosus,quinidemsitmalevolus.

Menofnoblebirth,arenotedtobeenvioustowardsnewmen,whentheyrise.Forthedistanceisaltered,anditislikeadeceitoftheeye,thatwhenotherscomeon,theythinkthemselves,goback.

Deformedpersons,andeunuchs,andoldmen,andbastards,areenvious.Forhethatcannotpossiblymendhisowncase,willdowhathecan,toimpairanother’s;exceptthesedefectslightuponaverybrave,andheroicalnature,whichthinkethtomakehisnaturalwantspartofhishonor;inthatitshouldbesaid,thataneunuch,oralameman,didsuchgreatmatters;affectingthehonorofamiracle;asitwasinNarsestheeunuch,andAgesilausandTamberlanes,thatwerelamemen.

Thesameisthecaseofmen,thatriseaftercalamitiesandmisfortunes.Fortheyareasmenfallenoutwiththetimes;andthinkothermen’sharms,aredemptionoftheirownsufferings.

Theythatdesiretoexcelintoomanymatters,outoflevityandvainglory,areeverenvious.Fortheycannotwantwork;itbeingimpossible,butmany,insomeoneofthosethings,shouldsurpassthem.WhichwasthecharacterofAdriantheEmperor;thatmortallyenviedpoets,andpainters,andartificers,inworkswhereinhehadaveintoexcel.

Lastly,nearkinsfolks,andfellowsinoffice,andthosethathavebeenbredtogether,aremoreapttoenvytheirequals,whentheyareraised.Foritdothupbraiduntothemtheirownfortunes,andpointethatthem,andcomethoftenerintotheirremembrance,andincurrethlikewisemoreintothenoteofothers;andenvyeverredoublethfromspeechandfame.Cain’senvywasthemorevileandmalignant,towardshisbrotherAbel,becausewhenhissacrificewasbetteraccepted,therewasnobodytolookon.Thusmuchforthose,thatareapttoenvy.

Concerningthosethataremoreorlesssubjecttoenvy:First,personsofeminentvirtue,whentheyareadvanced,arelessenvied.Fortheirfortuneseemeth,butdueuntothem;andnomanenvieththepaymentofadebt,butrewardsandliberalityrather.Again,envyiseverjoinedwiththecomparingofaman’sself;andwherethereisnocomparison,noenvy;andthereforekingsarenotenvied,butbykings.Neverthelessitistobenoted,thatunworthypersonsaremostenvied,attheirfirstcomingin,andafterwardsovercomeitbetter;whereascontrariwise,personsofworthandmeritaremostenvied,whentheirfortunecontinuethlong.Forbythattime,thoughtheirvirtuebethesame,yetithathnotthesamelustre;forfreshmengrowupthatdarkenit.

Personsofnobleblood,arelessenviedintheirrising.Foritseemethbutrightdonetotheirbirth.Besides,thereseemethnotmuchaddedtotheirfortune;andenvyisasthesunbeams,thatbeathotteruponabank,orsteeprisingground,thanuponaflat.Andforthesamereason,thosethatareadvancedbydegrees,arelessenviedthanthosethatareadvancedsuddenlyandpersaltum.

Thosethathavejoinedwiththeirhonorgreattravels,cares,orperils,arelesssubjecttoenvy.Formenthinkthattheyearntheirhonorshardly,andpitythemsometimes;andpityeverhealethenvy.Whereforeyoushallobserve,thatthemoredeepandsobersortofpoliticpersons,intheirgreataess,areeverbemoaningthemselves,whatalifetheylead;chantingaquantapatimur!Notthattheyfeelitso,butonlytoabatetheedgeofenvy.Butthisistobeunderstood,ofbusinessthatislaiduponmen,andnotsuch,astheycalluntothemselves.Fornothingincreasethenvymore,thananunnecessaryandambitiousengrossingofbusiness.Andnothingdothextinguishenvymore,thanforagreatpersontopreserveallotherinferiorofficers,intheirfulllightsandpre-eminencesoftheirplaces.Forbythatmeans,therebesomanyscreensbetweenhimandenvy.

Aboveall,thosearemostsubjecttoenvy,whichcarrythegreatnessoftheirfortunes,inaninsolentandproudmanner;beingneverwell,butwhiletheyareshowinghowgreattheyare,eitherbyoutwardpomp,orbytriumphingoveralloppositionorcompetition;whereaswisemenwillratherdosacrificetoenvy,insufferingthemselvessometimesofpurposetobecrossed,andoverborneinthingsthatdonotmuchconcernthem.Notwithstanding,somuchistrue,thatthecarriageofgreatness,inaplainandopenmanner(soitbewithoutarrogancyandvainglory)dothdrawlessenvy,thanifitbeinamorecraftyandcunningfashion.Forinthatcourse,amandothbutdisavowfortune;andseemethtobeconsciousofhisownwantinworth;anddothbutteachothers,toenvyhim.

Lastly,toconcludethispart;aswesaidinthebeginning,thattheactofenvyhadsomewhatinitofwitchcraft,sothereisnoothercureofenvy,butthecureofwitchcraft;andthatis,toremovethelot(astheycallit)andtolayituponanother.Forwhichpurpose,thewisersortofgreatpersons,bringineveruponthestagesomebodyuponwhomtoderivetheenvy,thatwouldcomeuponthemselves;sometimesuponministersandservants;sometimesuponcolleaguesandassociates;andthelike;andforthatturnthereareneverwanting,somepersonsofviolentandundertakingnatures,who,sotheymayhavepowerandbusiness,willtakeitatanycost.

Now,tospeakofpublicenvy.Thereisyetsomegoodinpublicenvy,whereasinprivate,thereisnone.Forpublicenvy,isasanostracism,thateclipsethmen,whentheygrowtoogreat.Andthereforeitisabridlealsotogreatones,tokeepthemwithinbounds.

Thisenvy,beingintheLatinwordinvidia,goethinthemodernlanguage,bythenameofdiscontentment;ofwhichweshallspeak,inhandlingsedition.Itisadisease,inastate,liketoinfection.Forasinfectionspreadethuponthatwhichissound,andtaintethit;sowhenenvyisgottenonceintoastate,ittraducetheventhebestactionsthereof,andturneththemintoanillodor.Andthereforethereislittlewon,byinterminglingofplausibleactions.Forthatdotharguebutaweakness,andfearofenvy,

whichhurtethsomuchthemore,asitislikewiseusualininfections;whichifyoufearthem,youcallthemuponyou.

Thispublicenvy,seemethtobeatchieflyuponprincipalofficersorministers,ratherthanuponkings,andestatesthemselves.Butthisisasurerule,thatiftheenvyupontheministerbegreat,whenthecauseofitinhimissmall;oriftheenvybegeneral,inamanneruponalltheministersofanestate;thentheenvy(thoughhidden)istrulyuponthestateitself.Andsomuchofpublicenvyordiscontentment,andthedifferencethereoffromprivateenvy,whichwashandledinthefirstplace.

Wewilladdthisingeneral,touchingtheaffectionofenvy;thatofallotheraffections,itisthemostimportuneandcontinual.Forofotheraffections,thereisoccasiongiven,butnowandthen;andthereforeitwaswellsaid,Invidiafestosdiesnonagit:foritiseverworkinguponsomeorother.Anditisalsonoted,thatloveandenvydomakeamanpine,whichotheraffectionsdonot,becausetheyarenotsocontinual.Itisalsothevilestaffection,andthemostdepraved;forwhichcauseitistheproperattributeofthedevil,whoiscalled,theenviousman,thatsowethtaresamongstthewheatbynight;asitalwayscomethtopass,thatenvyworkethsubtilly,andinthedark,andtotheprejudiceofgoodthings,suchasisthewheat.

OfLove

THEstageismorebeholdingtolove,thanthelifeofman.Forastothestage,loveisevermatterofcomedies,andnowandthenoftragedies;butinlifeitdothmuchmischief;sometimeslikeasiren,sometimeslikeafury.Youmayobserve,thatamongstallthegreatandworthypersons(whereofthememoryremaineth,eitherancientorrecent)thereisnotone,thathathbeentransportedtothemaddegreeoflove:whichshowsthatgreatspirits,andgreatbusiness,dokeepoutthisweakpassion.Youmustexcept,nevertheless,MarcusAntonius,thehalfpartneroftheempireofRome,andAppiusClaudius,thedecemvirandlawgiver;whereoftheformerwasindeedavoluptuousman,andinordinate;butthelatterwasanaustereandwiseman:andthereforeitseems(thoughrarely)thatlovecanfindentrance,notonlyintoanopenheart,butalsointoaheartwellfortified,ifwatchbenotwellkept.ItisapoorsayingofEpicurus,Satismagnumalteralteritheatrumsumus;asifman,madeforthecontemplationofheaven,andallnobleobjects,shoulddonothingbutkneelbeforealittleidol,andmakehimselfasubject,thoughnotofthemouth(asbeastsare),yetoftheeye;whichwasgivenhimforhigherpurposes.Itisastrangething,tonotetheexcessofthispassion,andhowitbravesthenature,andvalueofthings,bythis;thatthespeakinginaperpetualhyperbole,iscomelyinnothingbutinlove.Neitherisitmerelyinthephrase;forwhereasithathbeenwellsaid,thatthearch-flatterer,withwhomallthepettyflatterershaveintelligence,isaman’sself;certainlytheloverismore.Fortherewasneverproudmanthoughtsoabsurdlywellofhimself,astheloverdothofthepersonloved;andthereforeitwaswellsaid,Thatitisimpossibletolove,andtobewise.Neitherdoththisweaknessappeartoothersonly,andnottothepartyloved;buttothelovedmostofall,exceptthelovebereciproque.Foritisatruerule,thatloveiseverrewarded,eitherwiththereciproque,orwithaninwardandsecretcontempt.Byhowmuchthemore,menoughttobewareofthispassion,whichlosethnotonlyotherthings,butitself!Asfortheotherlosses,thepoet’srelationdothwellfigurethem:thathethatpreferredHelena,quittedthegiftsofJunoandPallas.Forwhosoeveresteemethtoomuchofamorousaffection,quittethbothrichesandwisdom.Thispassionhathhisfloods,inverytimesofweakness;whicharegreatprosperity,andgreatadversity;thoughthislatterhathbeenlessobserved:bothwhichtimeskindlelove,andmakeitmorefervent,andthereforeshowittobethechildoffolly.Theydobest,whoiftheycannotbutadmitlove,yetmakeitkeepquarters;andseveritwhollyfromtheirseriousaffairs,andactions,oflife;forifitcheckoncewithbusiness,ittroublethmen’sfortunes,andmakethmen,thattheycannowaysbetruetotheirownends.Iknownothow,butmartialmenaregiventolove:Ithink,itisbutastheyaregiventowine;forperilscommonlyasktobepaidinpleasures.Thereisinman’snature,asecretinclinationandmotion,towardsloveofothers,whichifitbenotspentuponsomeoneorafew,dothnaturallyspreaditselftowardsmany,andmakethmenbecomehumaneandcharitable;asitisseensometimeinfriars.Nuptiallovemakethmankind;friendlyloveperfectethit;butwantonlovecorrupteth,andembasethit.

PlaceOfGreatGreatPlace

MENingreatplacearethriceservants:servantsofthesovereignorstate;servantsoffame;andservantsofbusiness.Soastheyhavenofreedom;neitherintheirpersons,norintheiractions,norintheirtimes.Itisastrangedesire,toseekpowerandtoloseliberty:ortoseekpoweroverothers,andtolosepoweroveraman’sself.Therisinguntoplaceislaborious;andbypains,mencometogreaterpains;anditissometimesbase;andbyindignities,mencometodignities.Thestandingisslippery,andtheregressiseitheradownfall,oratleastaneclipse,whichisamelancholything.Cumnonsisquifueris,nonessecurvelisvivere.Nay,retiremencannotwhentheywould,neitherwillthey,whenitwerereason;butareimpatientofprivateness,eveninageandsickness,whichrequiretheshadow;likeoldtownsmen,thatwillbestillsittingattheirstreetdoor,thoughtherebytheyofferagetoscom.Certainlygreatpersonshadneedtoborrowothermen’sopinions,tothinkthemselveshappy;foriftheyjudgebytheirownfeeling,theycannotfindit;butiftheythinkwiththemselves,whatothermenthinkofthem,andthatothermenwouldfainbe,astheyare,thentheyarehappy,asitwere,byreport;whenperhapstheyfindthecontrarywithin.Fortheyarethefirst,thatfindtheirowngriefs,thoughtheybethelast,thatfindtheirownfaults.Certainlymeningreatfortunesarestrangerstothemselves,andwhiletheyareinthepuzzleofbusiness,theyhavenotimetotendtheirhealth,eitherofbodyormind.Illimorsgravisincubat,quinotusnimisomnibus,ignotusmoritursibi.Inplace,thereislicensetodogood,andevil;whereofthelatterisacurse:forinevil,thebestconditionisnottowin;thesecond,nottocan.Butpowertodogood,isthetrueandlawfulendofaspiring.Forgoodthoughts(thoughGodacceptthem)yet,towardsmen,arelittlebetterthangooddreams,excepttheybeputinact;andthatcannotbe,withoutpowerandplace,asthevantage,andcommandingground.Meritandgoodworks,istheendofman’smotion;andconscienceofthesameistheaccomplishmentofman’srest.ForifamancanbepartakerofGod’stheatre,he

shalllikewisebepartakerofGod’srest.EtconversusDeus,utaspiceretoperaquaefeceruntmanussuae,viditquodomniaessentbonanimis;andthenthesabbath.Inthedischargeofthyplace,setbeforetheethebestexamples;forimitationisaglobeofprecepts.Andafteratime,setbeforetheethineownexample;andexaminethyselfstrictly,whetherthoudidstnotbestatfirst.Neglectnotalsotheexamples,ofthosethathavecarriedthemselvesill,inthesameplace;nottosetoffthyself,bytaxingtheirmemory,buttodirectthyself,whattoavoid.Reformtherefore,withoutbravery,orscandalofformertimesandpersons;butyetsetitdowntothyself,aswelltocreategoodprecedents,astofollowthem.Reducethingstothefirstinstitution,andobservewherein,andhow,theyhavedegenerate;butyetaskcounselofbothtimes;oftheancienttime,whatisbest;andofthelattertime,whatisfittest.Seektomakethycourseregular,thatmenmayknowbeforehand,whattheymayexpect;butbenottoopositiveandperemptory;andexpressthyselfwell,whenthoudigressestfromthyrule.Preservetherightofthyplace;butstirnotquestionsofjurisdiction;andratherassumethyright,insilenceanddefacto,thanvoiceitwithclaims,andchallenges.Preservelikewisetherightsofinferiorplaces;andthinkitmorehonor,todirectinchief,thantobebusyinall.Embraceandinvitehelps,andadvices,touchingtheexecutionofthyplace;anddonotdriveawaysuch,asbringtheeinformation,asmeddlers;butacceptofthemingoodpart.Thevicesofauthorityarechieflyfour:delays,corruption,roughness,andfacility.Fordelays:giveeasyaccess;keeptimesappointed;gothroughwiththatwhichisinhand,andinterlacenotbusiness,butofnecessity.Forcorruption:donotonlybindthineownhands,orthyservants’hands,fromtaking,butbindthehandsofsuitorsalso,fromoffering.Forintegrityuseddoththeone;butintegrityprofessed,andwithamanifestdetestationofbribery,doththeother.Andavoidnotonlythefault,butthesuspicion.Whosoeverisfoundvariable,andchangethmanifestlywithoutmanifestcause,givethsuspicionofcorruption.Thereforealways,whenthouchangestthineopinionorcourse,professitplainly,anddeclareit,togetherwiththereasonsthatmovetheetochange;anddonotthinktostealit.Aservantorafavorite,ifhebeinward,andnootherapparentcauseofesteem,iscommonlythought,butaby-waytoclosecorruption.Forroughness:itisaneedlesscauseofdiscontent:severitybreedethfear,butroughnessbreedethhate.Evenreproofsfromauthority,oughttobegrave,andnottaunting.Asforfacility:itisworsethanbribery.Forbribescomebutnowandthen;butifimportunity,oridlerespects,leadaman,heshallneverbewithout.AsSolomonsaith,Torespectpersonsisnotgood;forsuchamanwilltransgressforapieceofbread.Itismosttrue,thatwasancientlyspoken,Aplaceshoweththeman.Anditshowethsometothebetter,andsometotheworse.Omniumconsensucapaximperii,nisiimperasset,saithTacitusofGalba;butofVespasianhesaith,Solusimperantium,Vespasianusmutatusinmelius;thoughtheonewasmeantofsufficiency,theotherofmanners,andaffection.Itisanassuredsignofaworthyandgenerousspirit,whomhonoramends.Forhonoris,orshouldbe,theplaceofvirtue;andasinnature,thingsmoveviolentlytotheirplace,andcalmlyintheirplace,sovirtueinambitionisviolent,inauthoritysettledandcalm.Allrisingtogreatplaceisbyawindingstar;andiftherebefactions,itisgoodtosideaman’sself,whilstheisintherising,andtobalancehimselfwhenheisplaced.Usethememoryofthypredecessor,fairlyandtenderly;forifthoudostnot,itisadebtwillsurebepaidwhenthouartgone.Ifthouhavecolleagues,respectthem,andrathercallthem,whentheylooknotforit,thanexcludethem,whentheyhavereasontolooktobecalled.Benottoosensible,ortooremembering,ofthyplaceinconversation,andprivateanswerstosuitors;butletitratherbesaid,Whenhesitsinplace,heisanotherman.

OfBoldness

ITISatrivialgrammar-schooltext,butyetworthyawiseman’sconsideration.QuestionwasaskedofDemosthenes,whatwasthechiefpartofanorator?heanswered,action;whatnext?action;whatnextagain?action.Hesaidit,thatknewitbest,andhad,bynature,himselfnoadvantageinthathecommended.Astrangething,thatthatpartofanorator,whichisbutsuperficial,andratherthevirtueofaplayer,shouldbeplacedsohigh,abovethoseothernobleparts,ofinvention,elocution,andtherest;nay,almostalone,asifitwereallinall.Butthereasonisplain.Thereisinhumannaturegenerally,moreofthefoolthanofthewise;andthereforethosefaculties,bywhichthefoolishpartofmen’smindsistaken,aremostpotent.Wonderfullikeisthecaseofboldnessincivilbusiness:whatfirst?boldness;whatsecondandthird?boldness.Andyetboldnessisachildofignoranceandbaseness,farinferiortootherparts.Butneverthelessitdothfascinate,andbindhandandfoot,thosethatareeithershallowinjudgment,orweakincourage,whicharethegreatestpart;yeaandprevailethwithwisemenatweaktimes.Thereforeweseeithathdonewonders,inpopularstates;butwithsenates,andprincesless;andmoreeveruponthefirstentranceofboldpersonsintoaction,thansoonafter;forboldnessisanillkeeperofpromise.Surely,astherearemountebanksforthenaturalbody,soaretheremountebanksforthepoliticbody;menthatundertakegreatcures,andperhapshavebeenlucky,intwoorthreeexperiments,butwantthegroundsofscience,andthereforecannotholdout.Nay,youshallseeaboldfellowmanytimesdoMahomet’smiracle.Mahometmadethepeoplebelievethathewouldcallanhilltohim,andfromthetopofitofferuphisprayers,fortheobserversofhislaw.Thepeopleassembled;Mahometcalledthehilltocometohim,againandagain;andwhenthehillstoodstill,hewasneverawhitabashed,butsaid,IfthehillwillnotcometoMahomet,Mahometwillgotothehill.Sothesemen,whentheyhavepromisedgreatmatters,andfailedmostshamefully,yet(iftheyhavetheperfectionofboldness)theywillbutslightitover,andmakeaturn,andnomoreado.Certainlytomenofgreatjudgment,boldpersonsareasporttobehold;nay,andtothevulgaralso,boldnesshassomewhatoftheridiculous.Forifabsurditybethesubjectoflaughter,doubtyounotbutgreatboldnessisseldomwithoutsomeabsurdity.Especiallyitisasporttosee,whenaboldfellowisoutofcountenance;forthatputshisfaceintoamostshrunken,andwoodenposture;asneedsitmust;forinbashfulness,thespiritsdoalittlegoandcome;butwithboldmen,uponlikeoccasion,theystandatastay;likeastaleatchess,whereitisnomate,butyetthegamecannotstir.Butthislastwerefitterforasatirethanforaseriousobservation.Thisiswelltobeweighed;thatboldnessiseverblind;foritseethnotdanger,andinconveniences.Thereforeitisillincounsel,goodinexecution;sothattherightuseofboldpersonsis,that

theynevercommandinchief,butbeseconds,andunderthedirectionofothers.Forincounsel,itisgoodtoseedangers;andinexecution,nottoseethem,excepttheybeverygreat.

OfGoodnessandGoodnessofNature

ITAKEgoodnessinthissense,theaffectingofthewealofmen,whichisthattheGrecianscallphilanthropia;andthewordhumanity(asitisused)isalittletoolighttoexpressit.GoodnessIcallthehabit,andgoodnessofnature,theinclination.Thisofallvirtues,anddignitiesofthemind,isthegreatest;beingthecharacteroftheDeity:andwithoutit,manisabusy,mischievous,wretchedthing;nobetterthanakindofvermin.Goodnessanswerstothetheologicalvirtue,charity,andadmitsnoexcess,buterror.Thedesireofpowerinexcess,causedtheangelstofall;thedesireofknowledgeinexcess,causedmantofall:butincharitythereisnoexcess;neithercanangel,norman,comeindangerbyit.Theinclinationtogoodness,isimprinteddeeplyinthenatureofman;insomuch,thatifitissuenottowardsmen,itwilltakeuntootherlivingcreatures;asitisseenintheTurks,acruelpeople,whoneverthelessarekindtobeasts,andgivealms,todogsandbirds;insomuch,asBusbechiusreporteth,aChristianboy,inConstantinople,hadliketohavebeenstoned,forgagginginawaggishnessalong-billedfowl.Errorsindeedinthisvirtueofgoodness,orcharity,maybecommitted.TheItalianshaveanungraciousproverb,Tantobuonchevalniente:sogood,thatheisgoodfornothing.AndoneofthedoctorsofItaly,NicholasMachiavel,hadtheconfidencetoputinwriting,almostinplainterms,ThattheChristianfaith,hadgivenupgoodmen,inpreytothosethataretyrannicalandunjust.Whichhespake,becauseindeedtherewasneverlaw,orsect,oropinion,didsomuchmagnifygoodness,astheChristianreligiondoth.Therefore,toavoidthescandalandthedangerboth,itisgood,totakeknowledgeoftheerrorsofanhabitsoexcellent.Seekthegoodofothermen,butbenotinbondagetotheirfacesorfancies;forthatisbutfacility,orsoftness;whichtakethanhonestmindprisoner.NeithergivethouAEsop’scockagem,whowouldbebetterpleased,andhappier,ifhehadhadabarley-corn.TheexampleofGod,teacheththelessontruly:Hesendethhisrain,andmakethhissuntoshine,uponthejustandunjust;buthedothnotrainwealth,norshinehonorandvirtues,uponmenequally.Commonbenefits,aretobecommunicatewithall;butpeculiarbenefits,withchoice.Andbewarehowinmakingtheportraiture,thoubreakestthepattern.Fordivinity,makeththeloveofourselvesthepattern;theloveofourneighbors,buttheportraiture.Sellallthouhast,andgiveittothepoor,andfollowme:but,sellnotallthouhast,exceptthoucomeandfollowme;thatis,exceptthouhaveavocation,whereinthoumayestdoasmuchgood,withlittlemeansaswithgreat;forotherwise,infeedingthestreams,thoudriestthefountain.Neitheristhereonlyahabitofgoodness,directedbyrightreason;butthereisinsomemen,eveninnature,adispositiontowardsit;asontheotherside,thereisanaturalmalignity.Fortherebe,thatintheirnaturedonotaffectthegoodofothers.Thelightersortofmalignity,turnethbuttoacrassness,orfrowardness,oraptnesstooppose,ordifficulties,orthelike;butthedeepersort,toenvyandmeremischief.Suchmen,inothermen’scalamities,are,asitwere,inseason,andareeverontheloadingpart:notsogoodasthedogs,thatlickedLazarus’sores;butlikeflies,thatarestillbuzzinguponanythingthatisraw;misanthropi,thatmakeittheirpractice,tobringmentothebough,andyetneveratreeforthepurposeintheirgardens,asTimonhad.Suchdispositions,aretheveryerrorsofhumannature;andyettheyarethefittesttimber,tomakegreatpoliticsof;liketokneetimber,thatisgoodforships,thatareordainedtobetossed;butnotforbuildinghouses,thatshallstandfirm.Thepartsandsignsofgoodness,aremany.Ifamanbegraciousandcourteoustostrangers,itshowsheisacitizenoftheworld,andthathisheartisnoisland,cutofffromotherlands,butacontinent,thatjoinstothem.Ifhebecompassionatetowardstheafflictionsofothers,itshowsthathisheartislikethenobletree,thatiswoundeditself,whenitgivesthebalm.Ifheeasilypardons,andremitsoffences,itshowsthathismindisplantedaboveinjuries;sothathecannotbeshot.Ifhebethankfulforsmallbenefits,itshowsthatheweighsmen’sminds,andnottheirtrash.Butaboveall,ifhehaveSt.Paul’sperfection,thathewouldwishtobeanathemafromChrist,forthesalvationofhisbrethren,itshowsmuchofadivinenature,andakindofconformitywithChristhimself.

OfNobility

WEWILLspeakofnobility,firstasaportionofanestate,thenasaconditionofparticularpersons.Amonarchy,wherethereisnonobilityatall,iseverapureandabsolutetyranny;asthatoftheTurks.Fornobilityattemperssovereignty,anddrawstheeyesofthepeople,somewhatasidefromthelineroyal.Butfordemocracies,theyneeditnot;andtheyarecommonlymorequiet,andlesssubjecttosedition,thanwheretherearestirpsofnobles.Formen’seyesareuponthebusiness,andnotuponthepersons;orifuponthepersons,itisforthebusiness’sake,asfittest,andnotforflagsandpedigree.WeseetheSwitzerslastwell,notwithstandingtheirdiversityofreligion,andofcantons.Forutilityistheirbond,andnotrespects.TheunitedprovincesoftheLowCountries,intheirgovernment,excel;forwherethereisanequality,theconsultationsaremoreindifferent,andthepaymentsandtributes,morecheerful.Agreatandpotentnobility,addethmajestytoamonarch,butdiminishethpower;andputtethlifeandspiritintothepeople,butpresseththeirfortune.Itiswell,whennoblesarenottoogreatforsovereigntynorforjustice;andyetmaintainedinthatheight,astheinsolencyofinferiorsmaybebrokenuponthem,beforeitcomeontoofastuponthemajestyofkings.Anumerousnobilitycausethpoverty,andinconvenienceinastate;foritisasurchargeofexpense;andbesides,itbeingofnecessity,thatmanyofthenobilityfall,intime,tobeweakinfortune,itmakethakindofdisproportion,betweenhonorandmeans.

Asfornobilityinparticularpersons;itisareverendthing,toseeanancientcastleorbuilding,notindecay;ortoseeafairtimbertree,soundandperfect.Howmuchmore,tobeholdanancientnoblefamily,whichhasstoodagainstthewavesandweathersoftime!Fornewnobilityisbuttheactofpower,butancientnobilityistheactoftime.Thosethatarefirstraisedtonobility,arecommonlymorevirtuous,butlessinnocent,thantheirdescendants;forthereisrarelyanyrising,butbya

commixtureofgoodandevilarts.Butitisreason,thememoryoftheirvirtuesremaintotheirposterity,andtheirfaultsdiewiththemselves.Nobilityofbirthcommonlyabatethindustry;andhethatisnotindustrious,enviethhimthatis.Besides,noblepersonscannotgomuchhigher;andhethatstandethatastay,whenothersrise,canhardlyavoidmotionsofenvy.Ontheotherside,nobilityextinguisheththepassiveenvyfromothers,towardsthem;becausetheyareinpossessionofhonor.Certainly,kingsthathaveablemenoftheirnobility,shallfindeaseinemployingthem,andabetterslideintotheirbusiness;forpeoplenaturallybendtothem,asborninsomesorttocommand.

OfSeditionsandTroubles

SHEPHERDSofpeople,hadneedknowthecalendarsoftempestsinstate;whicharecommonlygreatest,whenthingsgrowtoequality;asnaturaltempestsaregreatestabouttheEquinoctia.Andastherearecertainhollowblastsofwind,andsecretswellingsofseasbeforeatempest,soarethereinstates:

--IlleetiamcaecosinstaretumultusSaepemonet,fraudesqueetopertatunescerebella.

Libelsandlicentiousdiscoursesagainstthestate,whentheyarefrequentandopen;andinlikesort,falsenewsoftenrunningupanddown,tothedisadvantageofthestate,andhastilyembraced;areamongstthesignsoftroubles.Virgil,givingthepedigreeofFame,saith,shewassistertotheGiants:

IllamTerraparens,irrairritatadeorum,Extremam(utperhibent)CoeoEnceladoquesororemProgenuit.-

Asiffamesweretherelicsofseditionspast;buttheyarenoless,indeed,thepreludesofseditionstocome.Howsoeverhenotethitright,thatseditioustumults,andseditiousfames,differnomorebutasbrotherandsister,masculineandfeminine;especiallyifitcometothat,thatthebestactionsofastate,andthemostplausible,andwhichoughttogivegreatestcontentment,aretakeninillsense,andtraduced:forthatshowstheenvygreat,asTacitussaith;conflatamagnainvidia,seubeneseumalegestapremunt.Neitherdothitfollow,thatbecausethesefamesareasignoftroubles,thatthesuppressingofthemwithtoomuchseverity,shouldbearemedyoftroubles.Forthedespisingofthem,manytimeschecksthembest;andthegoingabouttostopthem,dothbutmakeawonderlong-lived.Alsothatkindofobedience,whichTacitusspeakethof,istobeheldsuspected:Erantinofficio,sedtamenquimallentmandataimperantiuminterpretariquamexequi;disputing,excusing,cavillinguponmandatesanddirections,isakindofshakingofftheyoke,andassayofdisobedience;especiallyifinthosedisputings,theywhichareforthedirection,speakfearfullyandtenderly,andthosethatareagainstit,audaciously.

Also,asMachiavelnotethwell,whenprinces,thatoughttobecommonparents,makethemselvesasaparty,andleantoaside,itisasaboat,thatisoverthrownbyunevenweightontheoneside;aswaswellseen,inthetimeofHenrytheThirdofFrance;forfirst,himselfenteredleaguefortheextirpationoftheProtestants;andpresentlyafter,thesameleaguewasturneduponhimself.Forwhentheauthorityofprinces,ismadebutanaccessorytoacause,andthattherebeotherbands,thattiefasterthanthebandofsovereignty,kingsbegintobeputalmostoutofpossession.

Also,whendiscords,andquarrels,andfactionsarecarriedopenlyandaudaciously,itisasignthereverenceofgovernmentislost.Forthemotionsofthegreatestpersonsinagovernment,oughttobeasthemotionsoftheplanetsunderprimummobile;accordingtotheoldopinion:whichis,thateveryofthem,iscarriedswiftlybythehighestmotion,andsoftlyintheirownmotion.Andtherefore,whengreatonesintheirownparticularmotion,moveviolently,and,asTacitusexpressethitwell,liberiusquamutimperantiummeminissent;itisasigntheorbsareoutofframe.Forreverenceisthat,wherewithprincesaregirtfromGod;whothreateneththedissolvingthereof;Solvamcingularegum.

Sowhenanyofthefourpillarsofgovernment,aremainlyshaken,orweakened(whicharereligion,justice,counsel,andtreasure),menhadneedtoprayforfairweather.Butletuspassfromthispartofpredictions(concerningwhich,nevertheless,morelightmaybetakenfromthatwhichfolloweth);andletusspeakfirst,ofthematerialsofseditions;thenofthemotivesofthem;andthirdlyoftheremedies.

Concerningthematerialsofseditions.Itisathingwelltobeconsidered;forthesurestwaytopreventseditions(ifthetimesdobearit)istotakeawaythematterofthem.Foriftherebefuelprepared,itishardtotell,whencethesparkshallcome,thatshallsetitonfire.Thematterofseditionsisoftwokinds:muchpoverty,andmuchdiscontentment.Itiscertain,somanyoverthrownestates,somanyvotesfortroubles.LucannotethwellthestateofRomebeforetheCivilWar,

Hincusuravorax,rapidumqueintemporefoenus,Hincconcussafides,etmultisutilebellum.

Thissamemultisutilebellum,isanassuredandinfalliblesign,ofastatedisposedtoseditionsandtroubles.Andifthispovertyandbrokenestateinthebettersort,bejoinedwithawantandnecessityinthemeanpeople,thedangerisimminentandgreat.Fortherebellionsofthebellyaretheworst.Asfordiscontentments,theyare,inthepoliticbody,liketohumorsinthenatural,whichareapttogatherapreternaturalheat,andtoinflame.Andletnoprincemeasurethedangerofthembythis,whethertheybejustorunjust:forthatweretoimaginepeople,tobetooreasonable;whodooftenspurnattheirowngood:noryetbythis,whetherthegriefswhereupontheyrise,beinfactgreatorsmall:fortheyarethemostdangerousdiscontentments,wherethefearisgreaterthanthefeeling.Dolendimodus,timendinonitem.Besides,ingreatoppressions,thesamethingsthatprovokethepatience,dowithalmatethecourage;butinfearsitisnotso.Neitherletanyprince,orstate,besecureconcerningdiscontentments,becausetheyhavebeenoften,orhavebeenlong,andyetnoperilhathensued:forasitistrue,thateveryvapororfumedothnotturnintoastorm;soitisneverthelesstrue,thatstorms,thoughtheyblowoverdiverstimes,yetmayfallatlast;and,astheSpanishproverbnotethwell,Thecordbreakethatthelastbytheweakestpull.

Thecausesandmotivesofseditionsare,innovationinreligion;taxes;alterationoflawsandcustoms;breakingofprivileges;generaloppression;advancementofunworthypersons;strangers;dearths;disbandedsoldiers;factionsgrowndesperate;and

whatsoever,inoffendingpeople,joinethandknitteththeminacommoncause.

Fortheremedies;theremaybesomegeneralpreservatives,whereofwewillspeak:asforthejustcure,itmustanswertotheparticulardisease;andsobelefttocounsel,ratherthanrule.

Thefirstremedyorpreventionistoremove,byallmeanspossible,thatmaterialcauseofseditionwhereofwespake;whichis,wantandpovertyintheestate.Towhichpurposeserveththeopening,andwell-balancingoftrade;thecherishingofmanufactures;thebanishingofidleness;therepressingofwaste,andexcess,bysumptuarylaws;theimprovementandhusbandingofthesoil;theregulatingofpricesofthingsvendible;themoderatingoftaxesandtributes;andthelike.Generally,itistobeforeseenthatthepopulationofakingdom(especiallyifitbenotmowndownbywars)donotexceedthestockofthekingdom,whichshouldmaintainthem.Neitheristhepopulationtobereckonedonlybynumber;forasmallernumber,thatspendmoreandearnless,dowearoutanestatesooner,thanagreaternumberthatlivelower,andgathermore.Thereforethemultiplyingofnobility,andotherdegreesofquality,inanoverproportiontothecommonpeople,dothspeedilybringastatetonecessity;andsodothlikewiseanovergrownclergy;fortheybringnothingtothestock;andinlikemanner,whenmorearebredscholars,thanprefermentscantakeoff.

Itislikewisetoberemembered,thatforasmuchastheincreaseofanyestatemustbeupontheforeigner(forwhatsoeverissomewheregotten,issomewherelost),therebebutthreethings,whichonenationsellethuntoanother;thecommodityasnatureyieldethit;themanufacture;andthevecture,orcarriage.Sothatifthesethreewheelsgo,wealthwillflowasinaspringtide.Anditcomethmanytimestopass,thatmateriamsuperabitopus;thattheworkandcarriageismoreworththanthematerial,andenrichethastatemore;asisnotablyseenintheLow-Countrymen,whohavethebestminesaboveground,intheworld.

Aboveallthings,goodpolicyistobeused,thatthetreasureandmoneys,inastate,benotgatheredintofewhands.Forotherwiseastatemayhaveagreatstock,andyetstarve.Andmoneyislikemuck,notgoodexceptitbespread.Thisisdone,chieflybysuppressing,oratleastkeepingastraithand,uponthedevouringtradesofusury,ingrossinggreatpasturages,andthelike.

Forremovingdiscontentments,oratleastthedangerofthem;thereisineverystate(asweknow)twoportionsofsubjects;thenoblesseandthecommonalty.Whenoneoftheseisdiscontent,thedangerisnotgreat;forcommonpeopleareofslowmotion,iftheybenotexcitedbythegreatersort;andthegreatersortareofsmallstrength,exceptthemultitudebeapt,andreadytomoveofthemselves.Thenisthedanger,whenthegreatersort,dobutwaitforthetroublingofthewatersamongstthemeaner,thatthentheymaydeclarethemselves.Thepoetsfeign,thattherestofthegodswouldhaveboundJupiter;whichhehearingof,bythecounselofPallas,sentforBriareus,withhishundredhands,tocomeintohisaid.Anemblem,nodoubt,toshowhowsafeitisformonarchs,tomakesureofthegoodwillofcommonpeople.Togivemoderatelibertyforgriefsanddiscontentmentstoevaporate(soitbewithouttoogreatinsolencyorbravery),isasafeway.Forhethatturneththehumorsback,andmakeththewoundbleedinwards,endangerethmalignulcers,andperniciousimposthumations.

ThepartofEpimetheusmoughtwellbecomePrometheus,inthecaseofdiscontentments:forthereisnotabetterprovisionagainstthem.Epimetheus,whengriefsandevilsflewabroad,atlastshutthelid,andkepthopeinthebottomofthevessel.Certainly,thepoliticandartificialnourishing,andentertainingofhopes,andcarryingmenfromhopestohopes,isoneofthebestantidotesagainstthepoisonofdiscontentments.Anditisacertainsignofawisegovernmentandproceeding,whenitcanholdmen’sheartsbyhopes,whenitcannotbysatisfaction;andwhenitcanhandlethings,insuchmanner,asnoevilshallappearsoperemptory,butthatithathsomeoutletofhope;whichisthelesshardtodo,becausebothparticularpersonsandfactions,areaptenoughtoflatterthemselves,oratleasttobravethat,whichtheybelievenot.

Alsotheforesightandprevention,thattherebenolikelyorfithead,whereuntodiscontentedpersonsmayresort,andunderwhomtheymayjoin,isaknown,butanexcellentpointofcaution.Iunderstandafithead,tobeonethathathgreatnessandreputation;thathathconfidencewiththediscontentedparty,anduponwhomtheyturntheireyes;andthatisthoughtdiscontented,inhisownparticular:whichkindofpersons,areeithertobewon,andreconciledtothestate,andthatinafastandtruemanner;ortobefrontedwithsomeother,ofthesameparty,thatmayopposethem,andsodividethereputation.Generally,thedividingandbreaking,ofallfactionsandcombinationsthatareadversetothestate,andsettingthematdistance,oratleastdistrust,amongstthemselves,isnotoneoftheworstremedies.Foritisadesperatecase,ifthosethatholdwiththeproceedingofthestate,befullofdiscordandfaction,andthosethatareagainstit,beentireandunited.

Ihavenoted,thatsomewittyandsharpspeeches,whichhavefallenfromprinces,havegivenfiretoseditions.Caesardidhimselfinfinitehurtinthatspeech,Syllanescivitliteras,nonpotuitdictare;foritdidutterlycutoffthathope,whichmenhadentertained,thathewouldatonetimeorothergiveoverhisdictatorship.Galbaundidhimselfbythatspeech,legiasemilitem,nonemi;foritputthesoldiersoutofhopeofthedonative.Probuslikewise,bythatspeech,Sivixero,nonopuseritampliusRomanoimperiomilitibus;aspeechofgreatdespairforthesoldiers.Andmanythelike.Surelyprinceshadneed,intendermattersandticklishtimes,tobewarewhattheysay;especiallyintheseshortspeeches,whichflyabroadlikedarts,andarethoughttobeshotoutoftheirsecretintentions.Forasforlargediscourses,theyareflatthings,andnotsomuchnoted.

Lastly,letprinces,againstallevents,notbewithoutsomegreatperson,oneorrathermore,ofmilitaryvalor,nearuntothem,fortherepressingofseditionsintheirbeginnings.Forwithoutthat,thereusethtobemoretrepidationincourtuponthefirstbreakingoutoftroubles,thanwerefit.AndthestaterunneththedangerofthatwhichTacitussaith;Atqueishabitusanimorumfuit,utpessimumfacinusauderentpauci,pluresvellent,omnespaterentur.Butletsuchmilitarypersonsbeassured,andwellreputedof,ratherthanfactiousandpopular;holdingalsogoodcorrespondencewiththeothergreatmeninthestate;orelsetheremedy,isworsethanthedisease.

OfAtheismOfAtheism

IHADratherbelieveallthefablesintheLegend,andtheTalmud,andtheAlcoran,thanthatthisuniversalframeiswithoutamind.Andtherefore,Godneverwroughtmiracle,toconvinceatheism,becausehisordinaryworksconvinceit.Itistrue,thatalittlephilosophyinclinethman’smindtoatheism;butdepthinphilosophybringethmen’smindsabouttoreligion.Forwhilethemindofmanlookethuponsecondcausesscattered,itmaysometimesrestinthem,andgonofurther;butwhenitbeholdeththechainofthem,confederateandlinkedtogether,itmustneedsflytoProvidenceandDeity.Nay,eventhatschoolwhichismostaccusedofatheismdothmostdemonstratereligion;thatis,theschoolofLeucippusandDemocritusandEpicurus.Foritisathousandtimesmorecredible,thatfourmutableelements,andoneimmutablefifthessence,dulyandeternallyplaced,neednoGod,thanthatanarmyofinfinitesmallportions,orseedsunplaced,shouldhaveproducedthisorderandbeauty,withoutadivinemarshal.TheScripturesaith,Thefoolhathsaidinhisheart,thereisnoGod;itisnotsaid,Thefoolhaththoughtinhisheart;soasherathersaithit,byrotetohimself,asthathewouldhave,thanthathecanthoroughlybelieveit,orbepersuadedofit.Fornonedeny,thereisaGod,butthose,forwhomitmakeththattherewerenoGod.Itappearethinnothingmore,thatatheismisratherinthelip,thanintheheartofman,thanbythis;thatatheistswilleverbetalkingofthattheiropinion,asiftheyfaintedinit,withinthemselves,andwouldbegladtobestrengthened,bytheconsentofothers.Naymore,youshallhaveatheistsstrivetogetdisciples,asitfarethwithothersects.And,whichismostofall,youshallhaveofthem,thatwillsufferforatheism,andnotrecant;whereasiftheydidtrulythink,thattherewerenosuchthingasGod,whyshouldtheytroublethemselves?Epicurusischarged,thathedidbutdissembleforhiscredit’ssake,whenheaffirmedtherewereblessednatures,butsuchasenjoyedthemselves,withouthavingrespecttothegovernmentoftheworld.Whereintheysayhedidtemporize;thoughinsecret,hethoughttherewasnoGod.Butcertainlyheistraduced;forhiswordsarenobleanddivine:Nondeosvulginegareprofanum;sedvulgiopinionesdiisapplicareprofanum.Platocouldhavesaidnomore.Andalthoughhehadtheconfidence,todenytheadministration,hehadnotthepower,todenythenature.TheIndiansoftheWest,havenamesfortheirparticulargods,thoughtheyhavenonameforGod:asiftheheathensshouldhavehadthenamesJupiter,Apollo,Mars,etc.,butnotthewordDeus;whichshowsthateventhosebarbarouspeoplehavethenotion,thoughtheyhavenotthelatitudeandextentofit.Sothatagainstatheists,theverysavagestakepart,withtheverysubtlestphilosophers.Thecontemplativeatheistisrare:aDiagoras,aBion,aLucianperhaps,andsomeothers;andyettheyseemtobemorethantheyare;forthatallthatimpugnareceivedreligion,orsuperstition,arebytheadversepartbrandedwiththenameofatheists.Butthegreatatheists,indeedarehypocrites;whichareeverhandlingholythings,butwithoutfeeling;soastheymustneedsbecauterizedintheend.Thecausesofatheismare:divisionsinreligion,iftheybemany;foranyonemaindivision,addethzealtobothsides;butmanydivisionsintroduceatheism.Anotheris,scandalofpriests;whenitiscometothatwhichSt.Bernardsaith,nonestjamdicere,utpopulussicsacerdos;quianecsicpopulusutsacerdos.Athirdis,customofprofanescoffinginholymatters;whichdoth,bylittleandlittle,defacethereverenceofreligion.Andlastly,learnedtimes,speciallywithpeaceandprosperity;fortroublesandadversitiesdomorebowmen’smindstoreligion.TheythatdenyaGod,destroyman’snobility;forcertainlymanisofkintothebeasts,byhisbody;and,ifhebenotofkintoGod,byhisspirit,heisabaseandignoblecreature.Itdestroyslikewisemagnanimity,andtheraisingofhumannature;fortakeanexampleofadog,andmarkwhatagenerosityandcouragehewillputon,whenhefindshimselfmaintainedbyaman;whotohimisinsteadofaGod,ormeliornatura;whichcourageismanifestlysuch,asthatcreature,withoutthatconfidenceofabetternaturethanhisown,couldneverattain.Soman,whenherestethandassurethhimself,upondivineprotectionandfavor,gatheredaforceandfaith,whichhumannatureinitselfcouldnotobtain.Therefore,asatheismisinallrespectshateful,sointhis,thatitdeprivethhumannatureofthemeanstoexaltitself,abovehumanfrailty.Asitisinparticularpersons,soitisinnations.NeverwastheresuchastateformagnanimityasRome.OfthisstatehearwhatCicerosaith:Quamvolumuslicet,patresconscripti,nosamemus,tamennecnumeroHispanos,necroboreGallos,neccalliditatePoenos,necartibusGraecos,necdeniquehocipsohujusgentisetterraedomesticonativoquesensuItalosipsosetLatinos;sedpietate,acreligione,atquehacunasapientia,quoddeorumimmortaliumnumineomniaregigubernariqueperspeximus,omnesgentesnationesquesuperavimus.

OfSuperstition

ITWEREbettertohavenoopinionofGodatall,thansuchanopinion,asisunworthyofhim.Fortheoneisunbelief,theotheriscontumely;andcertainlysuperstitionisthereproachoftheDeity.Plutarchsaithwelltothatpurpose:Surely(saithhe)Ihadratheragreatdeal,menshouldsay,therewasnosuchmanatall,asPlutarch,thanthattheyshouldsay,thattherewasonePlutarch,thatwouldeathischildrenassoonastheywereborn;asthepoetsspeakofSaturn.AndasthecontumelyisgreatertowardsGod,sothedangerisgreatertowardsmen.Atheismleavesamantosense,tophilosophy,tonaturalpiety,tolaws,toreputation;allwhichmaybeguidestoanoutwardmoralvirtue,thoughreligionwerenot;butsuperstitiondismountsallthese,anderectethanabsolutemonarchy,inthemindsofmen.Thereforetheismdidneverperturbstates;foritmakesmenwaryofthemselves,aslookingnofurther:andweseethetimesinclinedtoatheism(asthetimeofAugustusCaesar)wereciviltimes.Butsuperstitionhathbeentheconfusionofmanystates,andbringethinanewprimummobile,thatravishethallthespheresofgovernment.Themasterofsuperstition,isthepeople;andinallsuperstition,wisemenfollowfools;andargumentsarefittedtopractice,inareversedorder.ItwasgravelysaidbysomeoftheprelatesintheCouncilofTrent,wherethedoctrineoftheSchoolmenbaregreatsway,thattheSchoolmenwerelikeastronomers,whichdidfeigneccentricsandepicycles,andsuchenginesoforbs,tosavethephenomena;thoughtheyknewtherewerenosuchthings;andinlikemanner,thattheSchoolmenhadframedanumberofsubtleandintricateaxioms,andtheorems,tosavethepracticeofthechurch.Thecausesofsuperstition

are:pleasingandsensualritesandceremonies;excessofoutwardandpharisaicalholiness;overgreatreverenceoftraditions,whichcannotbutloadthechurch;thestratagemsofprelates,fortheirownambitionandlucre;thefavoringtoomuchofgoodintentions,whichopeneththegatetoconceitsandnovelties;thetakinganaimatdivinematters,byhuman,whichcannotbutbreedmixtureofimaginations:and,lastly,barbaroustimes,especiallyjoinedwithcalamitiesanddisasters.Superstition,withoutaveil,isadeformedthing;for,asitaddethdeformitytoanape,tobesolikeaman,sothesimilitudeofsuperstitiontoreligion,makesitthemoredeformed.Andaswholesomemeatcorruptethtolittleworms,sogoodformsandorderscorrupt,intoanumberofpettyobservances.Thereisasuperstitioninavoidingsuperstition,whenmenthinktodobest,iftheygofurthestfromthesuperstition,formerlyreceived;thereforecarewouldbehadthat(asitfarethinillpurgings)thegoodbenottakenawaywiththebad;whichcommonlyisdone,whenthepeopleisthereformer.

OfTravelOfTravel

TRAVEL,intheyoungersort,isapartofeducation,intheelder,apartofexperience.Hethattravellethintoacountry,beforehehathsomeentranceintothelanguage,goethtoschool,andnottotravel.Thatyoungmentravelundersometutor,orgraveservant,Iallowwell;sothathebesuchaonethathaththelanguage,andhathbeeninthecountrybefore;wherebyhemaybeabletotellthemwhatthingsareworthytobeseen,inthecountrywheretheygo;whatacquaintancestheyaretoseek;whatexercises,ordiscipline,theplaceyieldeth.Forelse,youngmenshallgohooded,andlookabroadlittle.Itisastrangething,thatinseavoyages,wherethereisnothingtobeseen,butskyandsea,menshouldmakediaries;butinland-travel,whereinsomuchistobeobserved,forthemostparttheyomitit;asifchancewerefittertoberegistered,thanobservation.Letdiaries,therefore,bebroughtinuse.Thethingstobeseenandobservedare:thecourtsofprinces,especiallywhentheygiveaudiencetoambassadors;thecourtsofjustice,whiletheysitandhearcauses;andsoofconsistoriesecclesiastic;thechurchesandmonasteries,withthemonumentswhicharethereinextant;thewallsandfortificationsofcities,andtowns,andsotheheavensandharbors;antiquitiesandruins;libraries;colleges,disputations,andlectures,whereanyare;shippingandnavies;housesandgardensofstateandpleasure,neargreatcities;armories;arsenals;magazines;exchanges;burses;warehouses;exercisesofhorsemanship,fencing,trainingofsoldiers,andthelike;comedies,suchwhereuntothebettersortofpersonsdoresort;treasuriesofjewelsandrobes;cabinetsandrarities;and,toconclude,whatsoeverismemorable,intheplaceswheretheygo.Afterallwhich,thetutors,orservants,oughttomakediligentinquiry.Asfortriumphs,masks,feasts,weddings,funerals,capitalexecutions,andsuchshows,menneednottobeputinmindofthem;yetaretheynottobeneglected.Ifyouwillhaveayoungmantoputhistravelintoalittleroom,andinshorttimetogathermuch,thisyoumustdo.First,aswassaid,hemusthavesomeentranceintothelanguagebeforehegoeth.Thenhemusthavesuchaservant,ortutor,asknoweththecountry,aswaslikewisesaid.Lethimcarrywithhimalso,somecardorbook,describingthecountrywherehetravelleth;whichwillbeagoodkeytohisinquiry.Lethimkeepalsoadiary.Lethimnotstaylong,inonecityortown;moreorlessastheplacedeserveth,butnotlong;nay,whenhestayethinonecityortown,lethimchangehislodgingfromoneendandpartofthetown,toanother;whichisagreatadamantofacquaintance.Lethimsequesterhimself,fromthecompanyofhiscountrymen,anddietinsuchplaces,wherethereisgoodcompanyofthenationwherehetravelleth.Lethim,uponhisremovesfromoneplacetoanother,procurerecommendationtosomepersonofquality,residingintheplacewhitherheremoveth;thathemayusehisfavor,inthosethingshedesirethtoseeorknow.Thushemayabridgehistravel,withmuchprofit.Asfortheacquaintance,whichistobesoughtintravel;thatwhichismostofallprofitable,isacquaintancewiththesecretariesandemployedmenofambassadors:forsointravellinginonecountry,heshallsucktheexperienceofmany.Lethimalsosee,andvisit,eminentpersonsinallkinds,whichareofgreatnameabroad;thathemaybeabletotell,howthelifeagreethwiththefame.Forquarrels,theyarewithcareanddiscretiontobeavoided.Theyarecommonlyformistresses,healths,place,andwords.Andletamanbeware,howhekeepethcompanywithcholericandquarrelsomepersons;fortheywillengagehimintotheirownquarrels.Whenatravellerreturnethhome,lethimnotleavethecountries,wherehehathtravelled,altogetherbehindhim;butmaintainacorrespondencebyletters,withthoseofhisacquaintance,whichareofmostworth.Andlethistravelappearratherinhisdiscourse,thanhisapparelorgesture;andinhisdiscourse,lethimberatheradvisedinhisanswers,thanforwardtotellstories;andletitappearthathedothnotchangehiscountrymanners,forthoseofforeignparts;butonlyprickinsomeflowers,ofthathehathlearnedabroad,intothecustomsofhisowncountry.

OfEmpire

ITISamiserablestateofmind,tohavefewthingstodesire,andmanythingstofear;andyetthatcommonlyisthecaseofkings;who,beingatthehighest,wantmatterofdesire,whichmakestheirmindsmorelanguishing;andhavemanyrepresentationsofperilsandshadows,whichmakestheirmindsthelessclear.Andthisisonereasonalso,ofthateffectwhichtheScripturespeakethof,Thattheking’sheartisinscrutable.Formultitudeofjealousies,andlackofsomepredominantdesire,thatshouldmarshalandputinorderalltherest,makethanyman’sheart,hardtofindorsound.Henceitcomeslikewise,thatprincesmanytimesmakethemselvesdesires,andsettheirheartsupontoys;sometimesuponabuilding;sometimesuponerectingofanorder;sometimesupontheadvancingofaperson;sometimesuponobtainingexcellencyinsomeart,orfeatofthehand;asNeroforplayingontheharp,Domitianforcertaintyofthehandwiththearrow,Commodusforplayingatfence,Caracallafordrivingchariots,andthelike.Thisseemethincredible,untothosethatknownottheprinciple,thatthemindofman,ismorecheeredandrefreshedbyprofitinginsmallthings,thanbystandingatastay,ingreat.Weseealsothatkingsthathavebeenfortunateconquerors,intheirfirstyears,itbeingnotpossibleforthemtogoforwardinfinitely,butthattheymusthavesomecheck,or

arrestintheirfortunes,turnintheirlatteryearstobesuperstitious,andmelancholy;asdidAlexandertheGreat;Diocletian;andinourmemory,CharlestheFifth;andothers:forhethatisusedtogoforward,andfindethastop,fallethoutofhisownfavor,andisnotthethinghewas.

Tospeaknowofthetruetemperofempire,itisathingrareandhardtokeep;forbothtemper,anddistemper,consistofcontraries.Butitisonething,tominglecontraries,anothertointerchangethem.TheanswerofApolloniustoVespasian,isfullofexcellentinstruction.Vespasianaskedhim,WhatwasNero’soverthrow?Heanswered,Nerocouldtouchandtunetheharpwell;butingovernment,sometimesheusedtowindthepinstoohigh,sometimestoletthemdowntoolow.Andcertainitis,thatnothingdestroyethauthoritysomuch,astheunequalanduntimelyinterchangeofpowerpressedtoofar,andrelaxedtoomuch.

Thisistrue,thatthewisdomofalltheselattertimes,inprinces’affairs,isratherfinedeliveries,andshiftingsofdangersandmischiefs,whentheyarenear,thansolidandgroundedcoursestokeepthemaloof.Butthisisbuttotrymasterieswithfortune.Andletmenbeware,howtheyneglectandsuffermatteroftroubletobeprepared;fornomancanforbidthespark,nortellwhenceitmaycome.Thedifficultiesinprinces’businessaremanyandgreat;butthegreatestdifficulty,isoftenintheirownmind.Foritiscommonwithprinces(saithTacitus)towillcontradictories,Suntplerumqueregumvoluntatesvehementes,etintersecontrariae.Foritisthesolecismofpower,tothinktocommandtheend,andyetnottoendurethemean.

Kingshavetodealwiththeirneighbors,theirwives,theirchildren,theirprelatesorclergy,theirnobles,theirsecond-noblesorgentlemen,theirmerchants,theircommons,andtheirmenofwar;andfromallthesearisedangers,ifcareandcircumspectionbenotused.

Firstfortheirneighbors;therecannogeneralrulebegiven(foroccasionsaresovariable),saveone,whicheverholdeth,whichis,thatprincesdokeepduesentinel,thatnoneoftheirneighborsdoevergrowso(byincreaseofterritory,byembracingoftrade,byapproaches,orthelike),astheybecomemoreabletoannoythem,thantheywere.Andthisisgenerallytheworkofstandingcounsels,toforeseeandtohinderit.Duringthattriumvirateofkings,KingHenrytheEighthofEngland,FrancistheFirstKingofFrance,andCharlestheFifthEmperor,therewassuchawatchkept,thatnoneofthethreecouldwinapalmofground,buttheothertwowouldstraightwaysbalanceit,eitherbyconfederation,or,ifneedwere,byawar;andwouldnotinanywisetakeuppeaceatinterest.Andthelikewasdonebythatleague(whichGuicciardinisaithwasthesecurityofItaly)madebetweenFerdinandoKingofNaples,LorenziusMedici,andLudovicusSforza,potentates,theoneofFlorence,theotherofMilan.NeitheristheopinionofsomeoftheSchoolmen,tobereceived,thatawarcannotjustlybemade,butuponaprecedentinjuryorprovocation.Forthereisnoquestion,butajustfearofanimminentdanger,thoughtherebenoblowgiven,isalawfulcauseofawar.

Fortheirwives;therearecruelexamplesofthem.Liviaisinfamed,forthepoisoningofherhusband;Roxalana,Solyman’swife,wasthedestructionofthatrenownedprince,SultanMustapha,andotherwisetroubledhishouseandsuccession;EdwardtheSecondofEngland,hisqueen,hadtheprincipalhandinthedeposingandmurderofherhusband.Thiskindofdanger,isthentobefearedchiefly,whenthewiveshaveplots,fortheraisingoftheirownchildren;orelsethattheybeadvoutresses.

Fortheirchildren;thetragedieslikewiseofdangersfromthem,havebeenmany.Andgenerally,theenteringoffathersintosuspicionoftheirchildren,hathbeeneverunfortunate.ThedestructionofMustapha(thatwenamedbefore)wassofataltoSolyman’sline,asthesuccessionoftheTurks,fromSolymanuntilthisday,issuspectedtobeuntrue,andofstrangeblood;forthatSelymustheSecond,wasthoughttobesuppositious.ThedestructionofCrispus,ayoungprinceofraretowardness,byConstantinustheGreat,hisfather,wasinlikemannerfataltohishouse;forbothConstantinusandConstance,hissons,diedviolentdeaths;andConstantius,hisotherson,didlittlebetter;whodiedindeedofsickness,butafterthatJulianushadtakenarmsagainsthim.ThedestructionofDemetrius,sontoPhiliptheSecondofMacedon,turneduponthefather,whodiedofrepentance.Andmanylikeexamplesthereare;butfewornone,wherethefathershadgoodbysuchdistrust;exceptitwere,wherethesonswereupinopenarmsagainstthem;aswasSelymustheFirstagainstBajazet;andthethreesonsofHenrytheSecond,KingofEngland.

Fortheirprelates;whentheyareproudandgreat,thereisalsodangerfromthem;asitwasinthetimesofAnselmus,andThomasBecket,ArchbishopsofCanterbury;who,withtheircroziers,didalmosttryitwiththeking’ssword;andyettheyhadtodealwithstoutandhaughtykings,WilliamRufus,HenrytheFirst,andHenrytheSecond.Thedangerisnotfromthatstate,butwhereithathadependenceofforeignauthority;orwherethechurchmencomeinandareelected,notbythecollationoftheking,orparticularpatrons,butbythepeople.

Fortheirnobles;tokeepthematadistance,itisnotamiss;buttodepressthem,maymakeakingmoreabsolute,butlesssafe;andlessabletoperform,anythingthathedesires.Ihavenotedit,inmyHistoryofKingHenrytheSeventhofEngland,whodepressedbisnobility;whereuponitcametopass,thathistimeswerefullofdifficultiesandtroubles;forthenobility,thoughtheycontinuedloyaluntohim,yetdidtheynotco-operatewithhiminhisbusiness.Sothatineffect,hewasfaintodoallthingshimself.

Fortheirsecond-nobles;thereisnotmuchdangerfromthem,beingabodydispersed.Theymaysometimesdiscoursehigh,butthatdothlittlehurt;besides,theyareacounterpoisetothehighernobility,thattheygrownottoopotent;and,lastly,beingthemostimmediateinauthority,withthecommonpeople,theydobesttemperpopularcommotions.

Fortheirmerchants;theyarevenaporta;andiftheyflourishnot,akingdommayhavegoodlimbs,butwillhaveemptyveins,andnourishlittle.Taxesandimpostsuponthem,doseldomgoodtotheking’srevenue;forthatthathewinsinthehundred,heleesethintheshire;theparticularratesbeingincreased,butthetotalbulkoftrading,ratherdecreased.

Fortheircommons;thereislittledangerfromthem,exceptitbe,wheretheyhavegreatandpotentheads;orwhereyoumeddle

withthepointofreligion,ortheircustoms,ormeansoflife.

Fortheirmenofwar;itisadangerousstate,wheretheyliveandremaininabody,andareusedtodonatives;whereofweseeexamplesinthejanizaries,andpretorianbandsofRome;buttrainingsofmen,andarmingtheminseveralplaces,andunderseveralcommanders,andwithoutdonatives,arethingsofdefence,andnodanger.

Princesareliketoheavenlybodies,whichcausegoodoreviltimes;andwhichhavemuchveneration,butnorest.Allpreceptsconcerningkings,areineffectcomprehendedinthosetworemembrances:mementoquodeshomo;andmementoquodesDeus,orviceDei;theonebridleththeirpower,andtheothertheirwill.

OfCounsel

THEgreatesttrust,betweenmanandman,isthetrustofgivingcounsel.Forinotherconfidences,mencommitthepartsoflife;theirlands,theirgoods,theirchildren,theircredit,someparticularaffair;buttosuchastheymaketheircounsellors,theycommitthewhole:byhowmuchthemore,theyareobligedtoallfaithandintegrity.Thewisestprincesneednotthinkitanydiminutiontotheirgreatness,orderogationtotheirsufficiency,torelyuponcounsel.Godhimselfisnotwithout,buthathmadeitoneofthegreatnamesofhisblessedSon:TheCounsellor.Solomonhathpronounced,thatincounselisstability.Thingswillhavetheirfirst,orsecondagitation:iftheybenottossedupontheargumentsofcounsel,theywillbetosseduponthewavesoffortune;andbefullofinconstancy,doingandundoing,likethereelingofadrunkenman.Solomon’ssonfoundtheforceofcounsel,ashisfathersawthenecessityofit.ForthebelovedkingdomofGod,wasfirstrent,andbroken,byillcounsel;uponwhichcounsel,therearesetforourinstruction,thetwomarkswherebybadcounselisforeverbestdiscerned;thatitwasyoungcounsel,fortheperson;andviolentcounsel,forthematter.

Theancienttimes,dosetforthinfigure,boththeincorporation,andinseparableconjunction,ofcounselwithkings,andthewiseandpoliticuseofcounselbykings:theone,inthattheysayJupiterdidmarryMetis,whichsignifiethcounsel;wherebytheyintendthatSovereignty,ismarriedtoCounsel:theotherinthatwhichfolloweth,whichwasthus:Theysay,afterJupiterwasmarriedtoMetis,sheconceivedbyhim,andwaswithchild,butJupitersufferedhernottostay,tillshebroughtforth,buteatherup;wherebyhebecamehimselfwithchild,andwasdeliveredofPallasarmed,outofhishead.Whichmonstrousfablecontainethasecretofempire;howkingsaretomakeuseoftheircounselofstate.Thatfirst,theyoughttorefermattersuntothem,whichisthefirstbegetting,orimpregnation;butwhentheyareelaborate,moulded,andshapedinthewomboftheircounsel,andgrowripe,andreadytobebroughtforth,thatthentheysuffernottheircounseltogothroughwiththeresolutionanddirection,asifitdependedonthem;buttakethematterbackintotheirownhands,andmakeitappeartotheworld,thatthedecreesandfinaldirections(which,becausetheycomeforth,withprudenceandpower,areresembledtoPallasarmed)proceededfromthemselves;andnotonlyfromtheirauthority,but(themoretoaddreputationtothemselves)fromtheirheadanddevice.

Letusnowspeakoftheinconveniencesofcounsel,andoftheremedies.Theinconveniencesthathavebeennoted,incallingandusingcounsel,arethree.First,therevealingofaffairs,wherebytheybecomelesssecret.Secondly,theweakeningoftheauthorityofprinces,asiftheywerelessofthemselves.Thirdly,thedangerofbeingunfaithfullycounselled,andmoreforthegoodofthemthatcounsel,thanofhimthatiscounselled.Forwhichinconveniences,thedoctrineofItaly,andpracticeofFrance,insomekings’times,hathintroducedcabinetcounsels;aremedyworsethanthedisease.

Astosecrecy;princesarenotboundtocommunicateallmatters,withallcounsellors;butmayextractandselect.Neitherisitnecessary,thathethatconsultethwhatheshoulddo,shoulddeclarewhathewilldo.Butletprincesbeware,thattheunsecretingoftheiraffairs,comesnotfromthemselves.Andasforcabinetcounsels,itmaybetheirmotto,plenusrimarumsum:onefutileperson,thatmakethithisglorytotell,willdomorehurtthanmany,thatknowittheirdutytoconceal.Itistruetherebesomeaffairs,whichrequireextremesecrecy,whichwillhardlygobeyondoneortwopersons,besidestheking:neitherarethosecounselsunprosperous;for,besidesthesecrecy,theyconunonlygoonconstantly,inonespiritofdirection,withoutdistraction.Butthenitmustbeaprudentking,suchasisabletogrindwithahandmill;andthoseinwardcounsellorshadneedalsobewisemen,andespeciallytrueandtrustytotheking’sends;asitwaswithKingHenrytheSeventhofEngland,who,inhisgreatbusiness,impartedhimselftonone,exceptitweretoMortonandFox.

Forweakeningofauthority;thefableshoweththeremedy.Nay,themajestyofkings,isratherexaltedthandiminished,whentheyareinthechairofcounsel;neitherwasthereeverprince,bereavedofhisdependences,byhiscounsel,exceptwheretherehathbeen,eitheranover-greatnessinonecounsellor,oranover-strictcombinationindivers;whicharethingssoonfound,andholpen.

Forthelastinconvenience,thatmenwillcounsel,withaneyetothemselves;certainly,noninvenietfidemsuperterramismeant,ofthenatureoftimes,andnotofallparticularpersons.Therebe,thatareinnaturefaithful,andsincere,andplain,anddirect;notcraftyandinvolved;letprinces,aboveall,drawtothemselvessuchnatures.Besides,counsellorsarenotcommonlysounited,butthatonecounsellor,keepethsentineloveranother;sothatifanydocounseloutoffactionorprivateends,itcommonlycomestotheking’sear.Butthebestremedyis,ifprincesknowtheircounsellors,aswellastheircounsellorsknowthem:

Principisestvirtusmaximanossesuos.

Andontheotherside,counsellorsshouldnotbetoospeculativeintotheirsovereign’sperson.Thetruecompositionofacounsellor,israthertobeskilfulintheirmaster’sbusiness,thaninhisnature;forthenheisliketoadvisehim,andnotfeedhishumor.Itisofsingularusetoprinces,iftheytaketheopinionsoftheircounsel,bothseparatelyandtogether.Forprivateopinionismorefree;butopinionbeforeothers,ismorereverent.Inprivate,menaremoreboldintheirownhumors;andinconsort,men

aremoreobnoxioustoothers’humors;thereforeitisgoodtotakeboth;andoftheinferiorsort,ratherinprivate,topreservefreedom;ofthegreater,ratherinconsort,topreserverespect.Itisinvainforprinces,totakecounselconcerningmatters,iftheytakenocounsellikewiseconcerningpersons;forallmattersareasdeadimages;andthelifeoftheexecutionofaffairs,restethinthegoodchoiceofpersons.Neitherisitenough,toconsultconcerningpersonssecundumgenera,asinanidea,ormathematicaldescription,whatthekindandcharacterofthepersonshouldbe;forthegreatesterrorsarecommitted,andthemostjudgmentisshown,inthechoiceofindividuals.Itwastrulysaid,optimiconsiliariimortui:bookswillspeakplain,whencounsellorsblanch.Thereforeitisgoodtobeconversantinthem,speciallythebooksofsuchasthemselveshavebeenactorsuponthestage.

Thecounselsatthisday,inmostplaces,arebutfamiliarmeetings,wheremattersarerathertalkedon,thandebated.Andtheyruntooswift,totheorder,oract,ofcounsel.Itwerebetterthatincausesofweight,thematterwerepropoundedoneday,andnotspokentotillthenextday;innocteconsilium.SowasitdoneintheCommissionofUnion,betweenEnglandandScotland;whichwasagraveandorderlyassembly.Icommendsetdaysforpetitions;forbothitgivesthesudtorsmorecertaintyfortheirattendance,anditfreesthemeetingsformattersofestate,thattheymayhocagere.Inchoiceofcommittees;forripeningbusinessforthecounsel,itisbettertochooseindifferentpersons,thantomakeanindifferency,byputtinginthose,thatarestrongonbothsides.Icommendalsostandingcommissions;asfortrade,fortreasure,forwar,forsuits,forsomeprovinces;forwheretherebediversparticularcounsels,andbutonecounselofestate(asitisinSpain),theyare,ineffect,nomorethanstandingcommissions:savethattheyhavegreaterauthority.Letsuchasaretoinformcounsels,outoftheirparticularprofessions(aslawyers,seamen,mintmen,andthelike)befirstheardbeforecommittees;andthen,asoccasionserves,beforethecounsel.Andletthemnotcomeinmultitudes,orinatribunitiousmanner;forthatistoclamorcounsels,nottoinformthem.Alongtableandasquaretable,orseatsaboutthewalls,seemthingsofform,butarethingsofsubstance;foratalongtableafewattheupperend,ineffect,swayallthebusiness;butintheotherform,thereismoreuseofthecounsellors’opinions,thatsitlower.Aking,whenhepresidesincounsel,lethimbewarehowheopenshisowninclinationtoomuch,inthatwhichhepropoundeth;forelsecounsellorswillbuttakethewindofhim,andinsteadofgivingfreecounsel,singhimasongofplacebo.

OfDelays

FORTUNEislikethemarket;wheremanytimesifyoucanstayalittle,thepricewillfall.Again,itissometimeslikeSibylla’soffer;whichatfirst,offereththecommodityatfull,thenconsumethpartandpart,andstillholdethuptheprice.Foroccasion(asitisinthecommonverse)turnethabaldnoddle,aftershehathpresentedherlocksinfront,andnoholdtaken;oratleastturneththehandleofthebottle,firsttobereceived,andafterthebelly,whichishardtoclasp.Thereissurelynogreaterwisdom,thanwelltotimethebeginnings,andonsets,ofthings.Dangersarenomorelight,iftheyonceseemlight;andmoredangershavedeceivedmen,thanforcedthem.Nay,itwerebetter,tomeetsomedangershalfway,thoughtheycomenothingnear,thantokeeptoolongawatchupontheirapproaches;forifamanwatchtoolong,itisoddshewillfallasleep.Ontheotherside,tobedeceivedwithtoolongshadows(assomehavebeen,whenthemoonwaslow,andshoneontheirenemies’back),andsotoshootoffbeforethetime;ortoteachdangerstocomeon,byoverearlybucklingtowardsthem;isanotherextreme.Theripeness,orunripeness,oftheoccasion(aswesaid)musteverbewellweighed;andgenerallyitisgood,tocommitthebeginningsofallgreatactionstoArgus,withhishundredeyes,andtheendstoBriareus,withhishundredhands;firsttowatch,andthentospeed.ForthehelmetofPluto,whichmakeththepoliticmangoinvisible,issecrecyinthecounsel,andcelerityintheexecution.Forwhenthingsareoncecometotheexecution,thereisnosecrecy,comparabletocelerity;likethemotionofabulletintheair,whichfliethsoswift,asitoutrunstheeye.

OfCunning

WETAKEcunningforasinisterorcrookedwisdom.Andcertainlythereisagreatdifference,betweenacunningman,andawiseman;notonlyinpointofhonesty,butinpointofability.Therebe,thatcanpackthecards,andyetcannotplaywell;sotherearesomethataregoodincanvassesandfactions,thatareotherwiseweakmen.Again,itisonethingtounderstandpersons,andanotherthingtounderstandmatters;formanyareperfectinmen’shumors,thatarenotgreatlycapableoftherealpartofbusiness;whichistheconstitutionofonethathathstudiedmen,morethanbooks.Suchmenarefitterforpractice,thanforcounsel;andtheyaregood,butintheirownalley:turnthemtonewmen,andtheyhavelosttheiraim;soastheoldrule,toknowafoolfromawiseman,Mitteambosnudosadignotos,etvidebis,dothscarceholdforthem.Andbecausethesecunningmen,arelikehaberdashersofsmallwares,itisnotamisstosetforththeirshop.

Itisapointofcunning,towaituponhimwithwhomyouspeak,withyoureye;astheJesuitsgiveitinprecept:fortherebemanywisemen,thathavesecrethearts,andtransparentcountenances.Yetthiswouldbedonewithademureabasingofyoureye,sometimes,astheJesuitsalsodouse.

Anotheris,thatwhenyouhaveanythingtoobtain,ofpresentdespatch,youentertainandamusetheparty,withwhomyoudeal,withsomeotherdiscourse;thathebenottoomuchawaketomakeobjections.Iknewacounsellorandsecretary,thatnevercametoQueenElizabethofEngland,withbillstosign,buthewouldalwaysfirstputherintosomediscourseofestate,thatshemoughtthelessmindthebills.

Thelikesurprisemaybemadebymovingthings,whenthepartyisinhaste,andcannotstaytoconsideradvisedlyofthatismoved.

Ifamanwouldcrossabusiness,thathedoubtssomeotherwouldhandsomelyandeffectuallymove,lethimpretendtowishitwell,andmoveithimselfinsuchsortasmayfoilit.

Thebreakingoff,inthemidstofthatonewasabouttosay,asifhetookhimselfup,breedsagreaterappetiteinhimwithwhomyouconfer,toknowmore.

Andbecauseitworksbetter,whenanythingseemethtobegottenfromyoubyquestion,thanifyouofferitofyourself,youmaylayabaitforaquestion,byshowinganothervisage,andcountenance,thanyouarewont;totheendtogiveoccasion,forthepartytoask,whatthematterisofthechange?AsNehemiasdid;AndIhadnotbeforethattime,beensadbeforetheking.

Inthingsthataretenderandunpleasing,itisgoodtobreaktheice,bysomewhosewordsareoflessweight,andtoreservethemoreweightyvoice,tocomeinasbychance,sothathemaybeaskedthequestionupontheother’sspeech:asNarcissusdid,relatingtoClaudiusthemarriageofMessalinaandSilius.

Inthingsthatamanwouldnotbeseeninhimself,itisapointofcunning,toborrowthenameoftheworld;astosay,Theworldsays,orThereisaspeechabroad.

Iknewonethat,whenhewrotealetter,hewouldputthat,whichwasmostmaterial,inthepostscript,asifithadbeenaby-matter.

Iknewanotherthat,whenhecametohavespeech,hewouldpassoverthat,thatheintendedmost;andgoforth,andcomebackagain,andspeakofitasofathing,thathehadalmostforgot.

Someprocurethemselves,tobesurprised,atsuchtimesasitislikethepartythattheyworkupon,willsuddenlycomeuponthem;andtobefoundwithaletterintheirhand,ordoingsomewhatwhichtheyarenotaccustomed;totheend,theymaybeapposedofthosethings,whichofthemselvestheyaredesiroustoutter.

Itisapointofcunning,toletfallthosewordsinaman’sownname,whichhewouldhaveanothermanlearn,anduse,andthereupontakeadvantage.Iknewtwo,thatwerecompetitorsforthesecretary’splaceinQueenElizabeth’stime,andyetkeptgoodquarterbetweenthemselves;andwouldconfer,onewithanother,uponthebusiness;andtheoneofthemsaid,Thattobeasecretary,inthedeclinationofamonarchy,wasaticklishthing,andthathedidnotaffectit:theotherstraightcaughtupthosewords,anddiscoursedwithdiversofhisfriends,thathehadnoreasontodesiretobesecretary,inthedeclinationofamonarchy.Thefirstmantookholdofit,andfoundmeansitwastoldtheQueen;who,hearingofadeclinationofamonarchy,tookitsoill,asshewouldneverafterhearoftheother’ssuit.

Thereisacunning,whichweinEnglandcall,theturningofthecatinthepan;whichis,whenthatwhichamansaystoanother,helaysitasifanotherhadsaidittohim.Andtosaytruth,itisnoteasy,whensuchamatterpassedbetweentwo,tomakeitappearfromwhichofthemitfirstmovedandbegan.

Itisawaythatsomemenhave,toglanceanddartatothers,byjustifyingthemselvesbynegatives;astosay,ThisIdonot;asTigellinusdidtowardsBurrhus,Senondiversasspes,sedincolumitatemimperatorissimpliciterspectare.

Somehaveinreadinesssomanytalesandstories,asthereisnothingtheywouldinsinuate,buttheycanwrapitintoatale;whichservethbothtokeepthemselvesmoreinguard,andtomakeotherscarryitwithmorepleasure.Itisagoodpointofcunning,foramantoshapetheanswerhewouldhave,inhisownwordsandpropositions;foritmakestheotherpartysticktheless.

Itisstrangehowlongsomemenwilllieinwaittospeaksomewhattheydesiretosay;andhowfarabouttheywillfetch;andhowmanyothermatterstheywillbeatover,tocomenearit.Itisathingofgreatpatience,butyetofmuchuse.

Asudden,bold,andunexpectedquestiondothmanytimessurpriseaman,andlayhimopen.Liketohimthat,havingchangedhisname,andwalkinginPaul’s,anothersuddenlycamebehindhim,andcalledhimbyhistruename,whereatstraightwayshelookedback.

Butthesesmallwares,andpettypoints,ofcunning,areinfinite;anditwereagooddeedtomakealistofthem;forthatnothingdothmorehurtinastate,thanthatcunningmenpassforwise.

Butcertainlysometherearethatknowtheresortsandfallsofbusiness,thatcannotsinkintothemainofit;likeahousethathathconvenientstairsandentries,butneverafairroom.Therefore,youshallseethemfindoutprettyloosesintheconclusion,butarenowaysabletoexamineordebatematters.Andyetcommonlytheytakeadvantageoftheirinability,andwouldbethoughtwitsofdirection.Somebuildratherupontheabusingofothers,and(aswenowsay)puttingtricksuponthem,thanuponsoundnessoftheirownproceedings.ButSolomonsaith,Prudensadvertitadgressussuos;stultusdivertitaddolos.

WisdomforaMan’sSelfOfOfWisdomMan’

ANANTisawisecreatureforitself,butitisashrewdthing,inanorchardorgarden.Andcertainly,menthataregreatloversofthemselves,wastethepublic.Dividewithreason;betweenselfloveandsociety;andbesotruetothyself,asthoubenotfalsetoothers;speciallytothykingandcountry.Itisapoorcentreofaman’sactions,himself.Itisrightearth.Forthatonlystandsfastuponhisowncentre;whereasallthings,thathaveaffinitywiththeheavens,moveuponthecentreofanother,whichtheybenefit.Thereferringofalltoaman’sself,ismoretolerableinasovereignprince;becausethemselvesarenotonlythemselves,buttheirgoodandevilisattheperilofthepublicfortune.Butitisadesperateevil,inaservanttoaprince,oracitizeninarepublic.Forwhatsoeveraffairspasssuchaman’shands,hecrookeththemtohisownends;whichmustneedsbeofteneccentrictotheendsofhismaster,orstate.Therefore,letprinces,orstates,choosesuchservants,ashavenotthismark;excepttheymeantheirserviceshouldbemadebuttheaccessory.Thatwhichmakeththeeffectmorepernicious,isthatallproportionislost.Itweredisproportionenough,fortheservant’sgoodtobepreferredbeforethemaster’s;butyetitisagreaterextreme,whenalittlegoodoftheservant,shallcarrythingsagainstagreatgoodofthemaster’s.Andyetthatisthecaseofbadofficers,treasurers,ambassadors,generals,andotherfalseandcorruptservants;whichsetabiasupontheirbowl,oftheirown

pettyendsandenvies,totheoverthrowoftheirmaster’sgreatandimportantaffairs.Andforthemostpart,thegoodsuchservantsreceive,isafterthemodeloftheirownfortune;butthehurttheysellforthatgood,isafterthemodeloftheirmaster’sfortune.Andcertainlyitisthenatureofextremeself-lovers,astheywillsetanhouseonfire,anditwerebuttoroasttheireggs;andyetthesemenmanytimesholdcreditwiththeirmasters,becausetheirstudyisbuttopleasethem,andprofitthemselves;andforeitherrespect,theywillabandonthegoodoftheiraffairs.

Wisdomforaman’sselfis,inmanybranchesthereof,adepravedthing.Itisthewisdomofrats,thatwillbesuretoleaveahouse,somewhatbeforeitfall.Itisthewisdomofthefox,thatthrustsoutthebadger,whodiggedandmaderoomforhim.Itisthewisdomofcrocodiles,thatshedtearswhentheywoulddevour.Butthatwhichisspeciallytobenotedis,thatthosewhich(asCicerosaysofPompey)aresuiamantes,sinerivali,aremanytimesunfortunate.Andwhereastheyhave,alltheirtimes,sacrificedtothemselves,theybecomeintheend,themselvessacrificestotheinconstancyoffortune,whosewingstheythought,bytheirself-wisdom,tohavepinioned.

OfInnovations

Asthebirthsoflivingcreatures,atfirstareill-shapensoareallinnovations,whicharethebirthsoftime.Yetnotwithstanding,asthosethatfirstbringhonorintotheirfamily,arecommonlymoreworthythanmostthatsucceed,sothefirstprecedent(ifitbegood)isseldomattainedbyimitation.Forill,toman'snature,asitstandsperverted,hathanaturalmotion,strongestincontinuance;butgood,asaforcedmotion,strongestatfirst.Surelyeverymedicineisaninnovation;andhethatwillnotapplynewremedies,mustexpectnewevils;fortimeisthegreatestinnovator;andiftimeofcoursealterthingstotheworse,andwisdomandcounselshallnotalterthemtothebetter,whatshallbetheend?Itistrue,thatwhatissettledbycustom,thoughitbenotgood,yetatleastitisfit;andthosethingswhichhavelonggonetogether,are,asitwere,confederatewithinthemselves;whereasnewthingspiecenotsowell;butthoughtheyhelpbytheirutility,yettheytroublebytheirinconformity.Besides,theyarelikestrangers;moreadmired,andlessfavored.Allthisistrue,iftimestoodstill;whichcontrariwisemovethsoround,thatafrowardretentionofcustom,isasturbulentathingasaninnovation;andtheythatreverencetoomucholdtimes,arebutascorntothenew.Itweregood,therefore,thatmenintheirinnovationswouldfollowtheexampleoftimeitself;whichindeedinnovatethgreatly,butquietly,bydegreesscarcetobeperceived.Forotherwise,whatsoeverisnewisunlookedfor;andeveritmendssome,andpairsothers;andhethatholpen,takesitforafortune,andthanksthetime;andhethatishurt,forawrong,andimputethittotheauthor.Itisgoodalso,nottotryexperimentsinstates,exceptthenecessitybeurgent,ortheutilityevident;andwelltobeware,thatitbethereformation,thatdrawethonthechange,andnotthedesireofchange,thatpretendeththereformation.Andlastly,thatthenovelty,thoughitbenotrejected,yetbeheldforasuspect;and,astheScripturesaith,thatwemakeastandupontheancientway,andthenlookaboutus,anddiscoverwhatisthestraightandrightway,andsotowalkinit.OfDispatch

Affecteddispatchisoneofthemostdangerousthingstobusinessthatcanbe.Itislikethat,whichthephysicianscallpredigestion,orhastydigestion;whichissuretofillthebodyfullofcrudities,andsecretseedsofdiseases.Thereforemeasurenotdispatch,bythetimesofsitting,butbytheadvancementofthebusiness.Andasinracesitisnotthelargestrideorhighliftthatmakesthespeed;soinbusiness,thekeepingclosetothematter,andnottakingofittoomuchatonce,procurethdispatch.Itisthecareofsome,onlytocomeoffspeedilyforthetime;ortocontrivesomefalseperiodsofbusiness,becausetheymayseemmenofdispatch.Butitisonething,toabbreviatebycontracting,anotherbycuttingoff.Andbusinesssohandled,atseveralsittingsormeetings,goethcommonlybackwardandforwardinanunsteadymanner.Iknewawisemanthathaditforabyword,whenhesawmenhastentoaconclusion,Stayalittle,thatwemaymakeanendthesooner.

Ontheotherside,truedispatchisarichthing.Fortimeisthemeasureofbusiness,asmoneyisofwares;andbusinessisboughtatadearhand,wherethereissmalldispatch.TheSpartansandSpaniardshavebeennotedtobeofsmalldispatch;MivengalamuertedeSpagna;LetmydeathcomefromSpain;forthenitwillbesuretobelongincoming.

Givegoodhearingtothose,thatgivethefirstinformationinbusiness;andratherdirecttheminthebeginning,thaninterrupttheminthecontinuanceoftheirspeeches;forhethatisputoutofhisownorder,willgoforwardandbackward,andbemoretedious,whilehewaitsuponhismemory,thanhecouldhavebeen,ifhehadgoneoninhisowncourse.Butsometimesitisseen,thatthemoderatorismoretroublesome,thantheactor.

Iterationsarecommonlylossoftime.Butthereisnosuchgainoftime,astoiterateoftenthestateofthequestion;foritchasethawaymanyafrivolousspeech,asitiscomingforth.Longandcuriousspeeches,areasfitfordispatch,asarobeormantle,withalongtrain,isforrace.Prefacesandpassages,andexcusations,andotherspeechesofreferencetotheperson,aregreatwastesoftime;andthoughtheyseemtoproceedofmodesty,theyarebravery.Yetbewareofbeingtoomaterial,whenthereisanyimpedimentorobstructioninmen'swills;forpre-occupationofmindeverrequirethprefaceofspeech;likeafomentationtomaketheunguententer.

Aboveallthings,order,anddistribution,andsinglingoutofparts,isthelifeofdispatch;soasthedistributionbenottoosubtle:forhethatdothnotdivide,willneverenterwellintobusiness;andhethatdividethtoomuch,willnevercomeoutofitclearly.Tochoosetime,istosavetime;andanunseasonablemotion,isbutbeatingtheair.Therebethreepartsofbusiness;thepreparation,thedebateorexamination,andtheperfection.Whereof,ifyoulookfordispatch,letthemiddleonlybetheworkofmany,andthefirstandlasttheworkoffew.Theproceedinguponsomewhatconceivedinwriting,dothforthemostpartfacilitatedispatch:forthoughitshouldbewhollyrejected,yetthatnegativeismorepregnantofdirection,thananindefinite;as

ashesaremoregenerativethandust.

OfSeemingWise

Ithathbeenanopinion,thattheFrencharewiserthantheyseem,andtheSpaniardsseemwiserthantheyare.Buthowsoeveritbebetweennations,certainlyitissobetweenmanandman.ForastheApostlesaithofgodliness,Havingashowofgodliness,butdenyingthepowerthereof;socertainlythereare,inpointofwisdomandsufficiently,thatdonothingorlittleverysolemnly:magnoconatunugas.Itisaridiculousthing,andfitforasatiretopersonsofjudgment,toseewhatshiftstheseformalistshave,andwhatprospectivestomakesuperficiestoseembody,thathathdepthandbulk.Somearesocloseandreserved,astheywillnotshowtheirwares,butbyadarklight;andseemalwaystokeepbacksomewhat;andwhentheyknowwithinthemselves,theyspeakofthattheydonotwellknow,wouldneverthelessseemtoothers,toknowofthatwhichtheymaynotwellspeak.Somehelpthemselveswithcountenanceandgesture,andarewisebysigns;asCicerosaithofPiso,thatwhenheansweredhimhefetchedoneofhisbrowsuptohisforehead,andbenttheotherdowntohischin;Respondes,alteroadfrontemsublato,alteroadmentumdepressosupercilio,crudelitatemtibinonplacere.Somethinktobearitbyspeakingagreatword,andbeingperemptory;andgoon,andtakebyadmittance,thatwhichtheycannotmakegood.Some,whatsoeverisbeyondtheirreach,willseemtodespise,ormakelightofit,asimpertinentorcurious;andsowouldhavetheirignoranceseemjudgment.Someareneverwithoutadifference,andcommonlybyamusingmenwithasubtilty,blanchthematter;ofwhomA.Gelliussaith,Hominemdelirum,quiverborumminutiisrerumfrangitpondera.Ofwhichkindalso,Plato,inhisProtagoras,bringethinProdiusinscorn,andmakethhimmakeaspeech,thatconsistethofdistinctionfromthebeginningtotheend.Generally,suchmeninalldeliberationsfindeasetobeofthenegativeside,andaffectacredittoobjectandforetelldifficulties;forwhenpropositionsaredenied,thereisanendofthem;butiftheybeallowed,itrequirethanewwork;whichfalsepointofwisdomisthebaneofbusiness.Toconclude,thereisnodecayingmerchant,orinwardbeggar,hathsomanytrickstoupholdthecreditoftheirwealth,astheseemptypersonshave,tomaintainthecreditoftheirsufficiency.Seemingwisemenmaymakeshifttogetopinion;butletnomanchoosethemforemployment;forcertainlyyouwerebettertakeforbusiness,amansomewhatabsurd,thanover-formal.

OfFriendship

ITHADbeenhardforhimthatspakeittohaveputmoretruthanduntruthtogetherinfewwords,thaninthatspeech,Whatsoeverisdelightedinsolitude,iseitherawildbeastoragod.Foritismosttrue,thatanaturalandsecrethatred,andaversationtowardssociety,inanyman,hathsomewhatofthesavagebeast;butitismostuntrue,thatitshouldhaveanycharacteratall,ofthedivinenature;exceptitproceed,notoutofapleasureinsolitude,butoutofaloveanddesiretosequesteraman’sself,forahigherconversation:suchasisfoundtohavebeenfalselyandfeignedlyinsomeoftheheathen;asEpimenidestheCandian,NumatheRoman,EmpedoclestheSicilian,andApolloniusofTyana;andtrulyandreally,indiversoftheancienthermitsandholyfathersofthechurch.Butlittledomenperceivewhatsolitudeis,andhowfaritextendeth.Foracrowdisnotcompany;andfacesarebutagalleryofpictures;andtalkbutatinklingcymbal,wherethereisnolove.TheLatinadagemeetethwithitalittle:Magnacivitas,magnasolitudo;becauseinagreattownfriendsarescattered;sothatthereisnotthatfellowship,forthemostpart,whichisinlessneighborhoods.Butwemaygofurther,andaffirmmosttruly,thatitisamereandmiserablesolitudetowanttruefriends;withoutwhichtheworldisbutawilderness;andeveninthissensealsoofsolitude,whosoeverintheframeofhisnatureandaffections,isunfitforfriendship,hetakethitofthebeast,andnotfromhumanity.

Aprincipalfruitoffriendship,istheeaseanddischargeofthefulnessandswellingsoftheheart,whichpassionsofallkindsdocauseandinduce.Weknowdiseasesofstoppings,andsuffocations,arethemostdangerousinthebody;anditisnotmuchotherwiseinthemind;youmaytakesarzatoopentheliver,steeltoopenthespleen,flowersofsulphurforthelungs,castoreumforthebrain;butnoreceiptopeneththeheart,butatruefriend;towhomyoumayimpartgriefs,joys,fears,hopes,suspicions,counsels,andwhatsoeverliethuponthehearttooppressit,inakindofcivilshriftorconfession.

Itisastrangethingtoobserve,howhigharategreatkingsandmonarchsdosetuponthisfruitoffriendship,whereofwespeak:sogreat,astheypurchaseit,manytimes,atthehazardoftheirownsafetyandgreatness.Forprinces,inregardofthedistanceoftheirfortunefromthatoftheirsubjectsandservants,cannotgatherthisfruit,except(tomakethemselvescapablethereof)theyraisesomepersonstobe,asitwere,companionsandalmostequalstothemselves,whichmanytimessortethtoinconvenience.Themodernlanguagesgiveuntosuchpersonsthenameoffavorites,orprivadoes;asifitwerematterofgrace,orconversation.ButtheRomannameattaineththetrueuseandcausethereof,namingthemparticipescurarum;foritisthatwhichtieththeknot.Andweseeplainlythatthishathbeendone,notbyweakandpassionateprincesonly,butbythewisestandmostpoliticthateverreigned;whohaveoftentimesjoinedtothemselvessomeoftheirservants;whomboththemselveshavecalledfriends,andallowedotherlikewisetocalltheminthesamemanner;usingthewordwhichisreceivedbetweenprivatemen.

L.Sylla,whenhecommandedRome,raisedPompey(aftersurnamedtheGreat)tothatheight,thatPompeyvauntedhimselfforSylla’sovermatch.Forwhenhehadcarriedtheconsulshipforafriendofhis,againstthepursuitofSylla,andthatSylladidalittleresentthereat,andbegantospeakgreat,Pompeyturneduponhimagain,andineffectbadehimbequiet;forthatmoremenadoredthesunrising,thanthesunsetting.WithJuliusCaesar,DecimusBrutushadobtainedthatinterestashesethimdowninhistestament,forheirinremainder,afterhisnephew.Andthiswasthemanthathadpowerwithhim,todrawhimforthtohisdeath.ForwhenCaesarwouldhavedischargedthesenate,inregardofsomeillpresages,andspeciallyadreamofCalpurnia;thismanliftedhimgentlybythearmoutofhischair,tellinghimhehopedhewouldnotdismissthesenate,tillhis

wifehaddreamtabetterdream.Anditseemethhisfavorwassogreat,asAntonius,inaletterwhichisrecitedverbatiminoneofCicero’sPhilippics,callethhimvenefica,witch;asifhehadenchantedCaesar.AugustusraisedAgrippa(thoughofmeanbirth)tothatheight,aswhenheconsultedwithMaecenas,aboutthemarriageofhisdaughterJulia,Maecenastookthelibertytotellhim,thathemusteithermarryhisdaughtertoAgrippa,ortakeawayhislife;therewasnothirdway,hehadmadehimsogreat.WithTiberiusCaesar,Sejanushadascendedtothatheight,astheytwoweretermed,andreckoned,asapairoffriends.Tiberiusinalettertohimsaith,Haecproamicitianostranonoccultavi;andthewholesenatededicatedanaltartoFriendship,astoagoddess,inrespectofthegreatdearnessoffriendship,betweenthemtwo.Thelike,ormore,wasbetweenSeptimiusSeverusandPlautianus.ForheforcedhiseldestsontomarrythedaughterofPlautianus;andwouldoftenmaintainPlautianus,indoingaffrontstohisson;anddidwritealsoinalettertothesenate,bythesewords:Ilovethemansowell,asIwishhemayover-liveme.NowiftheseprinceshadbeenasaTrajan,oraMarcusAurelius,amanmighthavethoughtthatthishadproceededofanabundantgoodnessofnature;butbeingmensowise,ofsuchstrengthandseverityofmind,andsoextremeloversofthemselves,asallthesewere,itprovethmostplainlythattheyfoundtheirownfelicity(thoughasgreataseverhappenedtomortalmen)butasanhalfpiece,excepttheymoughthaveafriend,tomakeitentire;andyet,whichismore,theywereprincesthathadwives,sons,nephews;andyetallthesecouldnotsupplythecomfortoffriendship.

Itisnottobeforgotten,whatComineusobservethofhisfirstmaster,DukeCharlestheHardy,namely,thathewouldcommunicatehissecretswithnone;andleastofall,thosesecretswhichtroubledhimmost.Whereuponhegoethon,andsaiththattowardshislattertime,thatclosenessdidimpair,andalittleperishhisunderstanding.SurelyComineusmoughthavemadethesamejudgmentalso,ifithadpleasedhim,ofhissecondmaster,LewistheEleventh,whoseclosenesswasindeedhistormentor.TheparableofPythagorasisdark,buttrue;Corneedito;Eatnottheheart.Certainly,ifamanwouldgiveitahardphrase,thosethatwantfriends,toopenthemselvesunto,arecarnnibalsoftheirownhearts.Butonethingismostadmirable(wherewithIwillconcludethisfirstfruitoffriendship),whichis,thatthiscommunicatingofaman’sselftohisfriend,workstwocontraryeffects;foritredoublethjoys,andcuttethgriefsinhalves.Forthereisnoman,thatimpartethhisjoystohisfriend,buthejoyeththemore;andnomanthatimpartethhisgriefstohisfriend,buthegrieveththeless.Sothatitisintruth,ofoperationuponaman’smind,oflikevirtueasthealchemistsusetoattributetotheirstone,forman’sbody;thatitworkethallcontraryeffects,butstilltothegoodandbenefitofnature.Butyetwithoutprayinginaidofalchemists,thereisamanifestimageofthis,intheordinarycourseofnature.Forinbodies,unionstrengthenethandcherishethanynaturalaction;andontheotherside,weakenethanddullethanyviolentimpression:andevensoitisofminds.

Thesecondfruitoffriendship,ishealthfulandsovereignfortheunderstanding,asthefirstisfortheaffections.Forfriendshipmakethindeedafairdayintheaffections,fromstormandtempests;butitmakethdaylightintheunderstanding,outofdarkness,andconfusionofthoughts.Neitheristhistobeunderstoodonlyoffaithfulcounsel,whichamanreceivethfromhisfriend;butbeforeyoucometothat,certainitis,thatwhosoeverhathhismindfraughtwithmanythoughts,hiswitsandunderstandingdoclarifyandbreakup,inthecommunicatinganddiscoursingwithanother;hetossethhisthoughtsmoreeasily;hemarshalleththemmoreorderly,heseethhowtheylookwhentheyareturnedintowords:finally,hewaxethwiserthanhimself;andthatmorebyanhour’sdiscourse,thanbyaday’smeditation.ItwaswellsaidbyThemistocles,tothekingofPersia,ThatspeechwaslikeclothofArras,openedandputabroad;wherebytheimagerydothappearinfigure;whereasinthoughtstheyliebutasinpacks.Neitheristhissecondfruitoffriendship,inopeningtheunderstanding,restrainedonlytosuchfriendsasareabletogiveamancounsel;(theyindeedarebest;)butevenwithoutthat,amanlearnethofhimself,andbringethhisownthoughtstolight,andwhettethhiswitsasagainstastone,whichitselfcutsnot.Inaword,amanwerebetterrelatehimselftoastatua,orpicture,thantosufferhisthoughtstopassinsmother.

Addnow,tomakethissecondfruitoffriendshipcomplete,thatotherpoint,whichliethmoreopen,andfallethwithinvulgarobservation;whichisfaithfulcounselfromafriend.Heraclitussaithwellinoneofhisenigmas,Drylightiseverthebest.Andcertainitis,thatthelightthatamanreceivethbycounselfromanother,isdrierandpurer,thanthatwhichcomethfromhisownunderstandingandjudgment;whichiseverinfused,anddrenched,inhisaffectionsandcustoms.Soasthereisasmuchdifferencebetweenthecounsel,thatafriendgiveth,andthatamangivethhimself,asthereisbetweenthecounselofafriend,andofaflatterer.Forthereisnosuchflattererasisaman’sself;andthereisnosuchremedyagainstflatteryofaman’sself,asthelibertyofafriend.Counselisoftwosorts:theoneconcerningmanners,theotherconcerningbusiness.Forthefirst,thebestpreservativetokeepthemindinhealth,isthefaithfuladmonitionofafriend.Thecallingofaman’sselftoastrictaccount,isamedicine,sometimetoopiercingandcorrosive.Readinggoodbooksofmorality,isalittleflatanddead.Observingourfaultsinothers,issometimesimproperforourcase.Butthebestreceipt(best,Isay,towork,andbesttotake)istheadmonitionofafriend.Itisastrangethingtobehold,whatgrosserrorsandextremeabsurditiesmany(especiallyofthegreatersort)docommit,forwantofafriendtotellthemofthem;tothegreatdamagebothoftheirfameandfortune:for,asSt.Jamessaith,theyareasmenthatlooksometimesintoaglass,andpresentlyforgettheirownshapeandfavor.Asforbusiness,amanmaythink,ifhewin,thattwoeyesseenomorethanone;orthatagamesterseethalwaysmorethanalooker-on;orthatamaninanger,isaswiseashethathathsaidoverthefourandtwentyletters;orthatamusketmaybeshotoffaswelluponthearm,asuponarest;andsuchotherfondandhighimaginations,tothinkhimselfallinall.Butwhenallisdone,thehelpofgoodcounsel,isthatwhichsettethbusinessstraight.Andifanymanthinkthathewilltakecounsel,butitshallbebypieces;askingcounselinonebusiness,ofoneman,andinanotherbusiness,ofanotherman;itiswell(thatistosay,better,perhaps,thanifheaskednoneatall);butherunnethtwodangers:one,thatheshallnotbefaithfullycounselled;foritisararething,exceptitbefromaperfectandentirefriend,tohavecounselgiven,butsuchasshallbebowedandcrookedtosomeends,whichhehath,thatgivethit.Theother,thatheshall

havecounselgiven,hurtfulandunsafe(thoughwithgoodmeaning),andmixedpartlyofmischiefandpartlyofremedy;evenasifyouwouldcallaphysician,thatisthoughtgoodforthecureofthediseaseyoucomplainof,butisunacquaintedwithyourbody;andthereforemayputyouinwayforapresentcure,butoverthrowethyourhealthinsomeotherkind;andsocurethedisease,andkillthepatient.Butafriendthatiswhollyacquaintedwithaman’sestate,willbeware,byfurtheringanypresentbusiness,howhedashethuponotherinconvenience.Andthereforerestnotuponscatteredcounsels;theywillratherdistractandmislead,thansettleanddirect.

Afterthesetwonoblefruitsoffriendship(peaceintheaffections,andsupportofthejudgment),followeththelastfruit;whichislikethepomegranate,fullofmanykernels;Imeanaid,andbearingapart,inallactionsandoccasions.Herethebestwaytorepresenttolifethemanifolduseoffriendship,istocastandseehowmanythingsthereare,whichamancannotdohimself;andthenitwillappear,thatitwasasparingspeechoftheancients,tosay,thatafriendisanotherhimself;forthatafriendisfarmorethanhimself.Menhavetheirtime,anddiemanytimes,indesireofsomethingswhichtheyprincipallytaketoheart;thebestowingofachild,thefinishingofawork,orthelike.Ifamanhaveatruefriend,hemayrestalmostsecurethatthecareofthosethingswillcontinueafterhim.Sothatamanhath,asitwere,twolivesinhisdesires.Amanhathabody,andthatbodyisconfinedtoaplace;butwherefriendshipis,allofficesoflifeareasitweregrantedtohim,andhisdeputy.Forhemayexercisethembyhisfriend.Howmanythingsaretherewhichamancannot,withanyfaceorcomeliness,sayordohimself?Amancanscarceallegehisownmeritswithmodesty,muchlessextolthem;amancannotsometimesbrooktosupplicateorbeg;andanumberofthelike.Butallthesethingsaregraceful,inafriend’smouth,whichareblushinginaman’sown.Soagain,aman’spersonhathmanyproperrelations,whichhecannotputoff.Amancannotspeaktohissonbutasafather;tohiswifebutasahusband;tohisenemybutuponterms:whereasafriendmayspeakasthecaserequires,andnotasitsortethwiththeperson.Buttoenumeratethesethingswereendless;Ihavegiventherule,whereamancannotfitlyplayhisownpart;ifhehavenotafriend,hemayquitthestage.

OfExpense

RICHESareforspending,andspendingforhonorandgoodactions.Thereforeextraordinaryexpensemustbelimitedbytheworthoftheoccasion;forvoluntaryundoing,maybeaswellforaman’scountry,asforthekingdomofheaven.Butordinaryexpense,oughttobelimitedbyaman’sestate;andgovernedwithsuchregard,asitbewithinhiscompass;andnotsubjecttodeceitandabuseofservants;andorderedtothebestshow,thatthebillsmaybelessthantheestimationabroad.Certainly,ifamanwillkeepbutofevenhand,hisordinaryexpensesoughttobebuttothehalfofhisreceipts;andifhethinktowaxrich,buttothethirdpart.Itisnobaseness,forthegreatesttodescendandlookintotheirownestate.Someforbearit,notuponnegligencealone,butdoubtingtobringthemselvesintomelancholy,inrespecttheyshallfinditbroken.Butwoundscannotbecuredwithoutsearching.Hethatcannotlookintohisownestateatall,hadneedbothchoosewellthosewhomheemployeth,andchangethemoften;fornewaremoretimorousandlesssubtle.Hethatcanlookintohisestatebutseldom,itbehoovethhimtoturnalltocertainties.Amanhadneed,ifhebeplentifulinsomekindofexpense,tobeassavingagaininsomeother.Asifhebeplentifulindiet,tobesavinginapparel;ifhebeplentifulinthehall,tobesavinginthestable;andthelike.Forhethatisplentifulinexpensesofallkinds,willhardlybepreservedfromdecay.Inclearingofaman’sestate,hemayaswellhurthimselfinbeingtoosudden,asinlettingitrunontoolong.Forhastyselling,iscommonlyasdisadvantageableasinterest.Besides,hethatclearsatoncewillrelapse;forfindinghimselfoutofstraits,hewillreverttohiscustom:buthethatclearethbydegrees,inducethahabitoffrugality,andgainethaswelluponhismind,asuponhisestate.Certainly,whohathastatetorepair,maynotdespisesmallthings;andcommonlyitislessdishonorable,toabridgepettycharges,thantostooptopettygettings.Amanoughtwarilytobeginchargeswhichoncebegunwillcontinue;butinmattersthatreturnnot,hemaybemoremagnificent.

andEstatesOftheTrueGreatnessofKingdomsKingdomsand

THEspeechofThemistoclestheAthenian,whichwashaughtyandarrogant,intakingsomuchtohimself,hadbeenagraveandwiseobservationandcensure,appliedatlargetoothers.Desiredatafeasttotouchalute,hesaid,Hecouldnotfiddle,butyethecouldmakeasmalltown,agreatcity.Thesewords(holpenalittlewithametaphor)mayexpresstwodifferingabilities,inthosethatdealinbusinessofestate.Forifatruesurveybetakenofcounsellorsandstatesmen,theremaybefound(thoughrarely)thosewhichcanmakeasmallstategreat,andyetcannotfiddle;asontheotherside,therewillbefoundagreatmany,thatcanfiddleverycunningly,butyetaresofarfrombeingabletomakeasmallstategreat,astheirgiftlieththeotherway;tobringagreatandflourishingestate,toruinanddecay.Andcertainlywhosedegenerateartsandshifts,wherebymanycounsellorsandgovernorsgainbothfavorwiththeirmasters,andestimationwiththevulgar,deservenobetternamethanfiddling;beingthingsratherpleasingforthetime,andgracefultothemselvesonly,thantendingtothewealandadvancementofthestatewhichtheyserve.Therearealso(nodoubt)counsellorsandgovernorswhichmaybeheldsufficient(negotiispares),abletomanageaffairs,andtokeepthemfromprecipicesandmanifestinconveniences;whichneverthelessarefarfromtheabilitytoraiseandamplifyanestateinpower,means,andfortune.Butbetheworkmenwhattheymaybe,letusspeakofthework;thatis,thetruegreatnessofkingdomsandestates,andthemeansthereof.Anargumentfitforgreatandmightyprincestohaveintheirhand;totheendthatneitherbyover-measuringtheirforces,theyleesethemselvesinvainenterprises;norontheotherside,byundervaluingthem,theydescendtofearfulandpusillanimouscounsels.

Thegreatnessofanestate,inbulkandterritory,dothfallundermeasure;andthegreatnessoffinancesandrevenue,dothfallundercomputation.Thepopulationmayappearbymusters;andthenumberandgreatnessofcitiesandtownsbycardsandmaps.

Butyetthereisnotanythingamongstcivilaffairsmoresubjecttoerror,thantherightvaluationandtruejudgmentconcerningthepowerandforcesofanestate.Thekingdomofheaveniscompared,nottoanygreatkernelornut,buttoagrainofmustard-seed:whichisoneoftheleastgrains,buthathinitapropertyandspirithastilytogetupandspread.Soaretherestates,greatinterritory,andyetnotapttoenlargeorcommand;andsomethathavebutasmalldimensionofstem,andyetapttobethefoundationsofgreatmonarchies.

Walledtowns,storedarsenalsandarmories,goodlyracesofhorse,chariotsofwar,elephants,ordnance,artillery,andthelike;allthisisbutasheepinalion’sskin,exceptthebreedanddispositionofthepeople,bestoutandwarlike.Nay,number(itself)inarmiesimportethnotmuch,wherethepeopleisofweakcourage;for(asVirgilsaith)Itnevertroublesawolf,howmanythesheepbe.ThearmyofthePersians,intheplainsofArbela,wassuchavastseaofpeople,asitdidsomewhatastonishthecommandersinAlexander’sarmy;whocametohimtherefore,andwishedhimtosetuponthembynight;andheanswered,Hewouldnotpilferthevictory.Andthedefeatwaseasy.WhenTigranestheArmenian,beingencampeduponahillwithfourhundredthousandmen,discoveredthearmyoftheRomans,beingnotabovefourteenthousand,marchingtowardshim,hemadehimselfmerrywithit,andsaid,Yondermenaretoomanyforanembassage,andtoofewforafight.Butbeforethesunset,hefoundthemenowtogivehimthechasewithinfiniteslaughter.Manyaretheexamplesofthegreatodds,betweennumberandcourage;sothatamanmaytrulymakeajudgment,thattheprincipalpointofgreatnessinanystate,istohavearaceofmilitarymen.Neitherismoneythesinewsofwar(asitistriviallysaid),wherethesinewsofmen’sarms,inbaseandeffeminatepeople,arefailing.ForSolonsaidwelltoCroesus(wheninostentationheshowedhimhisgold),Sir,ifanyothercome,thathathbetteriron,thanyou,hewillbemasterofallthisgold.Thereforeletanyprinceorstatethinksolelyofhisforces,excepthismilitiaofnativesbeofgoodandvaliantsoldiers.Andletprinces,ontheotherside,thathavesubjectsofmartialdisposition,knowtheirownstrength;unlesstheybeotherwisewantinguntothemselves.Asformercenaryforces(whichisthehelpinthiscase),allexamplesshow,thatwhatsoeverestateorprincedothrestuponthem,hemayspreadhisfeathersforatime,buthewillmewthemsoonafter.

TheblessingofJudahandIssacharwillnevermeet;thatthesamepeople,ornation,shouldbeboththelion’swhelpandtheassbetweenburthens;neitherwillitbe,thatapeopleoverlaidwithtaxes,shouldeverbecomevaliantandmartial.Itistruethattaxesleviedbyconsentoftheestate,doabatemen’scourageless:asithathbeenseennotably,intheexcisesoftheLowCountries;and,insomedegree,inthesubsidiesofEngland.Foryoumustnote,thatwespeaknowoftheheart,andnotofthepurse.Sothatalthoughthesametributeandtax,laidbyconsentorbyimposing,beallonetothepurse,yetitworksdiverselyuponthecourage.Sothatyoumayconclude,thatnopeopleoverchargedwithtribute,isfitforempire.

Letstatesthataimatgreatness,takeheedhowtheirnobilityandgentlemendomultiplytoofast.Forthatmakeththecommonsubject,growtobeapeasantandbaseswain,drivenoutofheart,andineffectbutthegentleman’slaborer.Evenasyoumayseeincoppicewoods;ifyouleaveyourstaddlestoothick,youshallneverhavecleanunderwood,butshrubsandbushes.Soincountries,ifthegentlemenbetoomany,thecommonswillbebase;andyouwillbringittothat,thatnotthehundredpoll,willbefitforanhelmet;especiallyastotheinfantry,whichisthenerveofanarmy;andsotherewillbegreatpopulation,andlittlestrength.ThiswhichIspeakof,hathbeennowherebetterseen,thanbycomparingofEnglandandFrance;whereofEngland,thoughfarlessinterritoryandpopulation,hathbeen(nevertheless)anovermatch;inregardthemiddlepeopleofEnglandmakegoodsoldiers,whichthepeasantsofFrancedonot.AndhereinthedeviceofkingHenrytheSeventh(whereofIhavespokenlargelyintheHistoryofhisLife)wasprofoundandadmirable;inmakingfarmsandhousesofhusbandryofastandard;thatis,maintainedwithsuchaproportionoflanduntothem,asmaybreedasubjecttoliveinconvenientplentyandnoservilecondition;andtokeeptheploughinthehandsoftheowners,andnotmerehirelings.AndthusindeedyoushallattaintoVirgil’scharacterwhichhegivestoancientItaly:

Terrapotensarmisatqueubereglebae.

Neitheristhatstate(which,foranythingIknow,isalmostpeculiartoEngland,andhardlytobefoundanywhereelse,exceptitbeperhapsinPoland)tobepassedover;Imeanthestateoffreeservants,andattendantsuponnoblemenandgentlemen;whicharenowaysinferioruntotheyeomanryforarms.Andthereforeoutofallquestions,thesplendorandmagnificence,andgreatretinuesandhospitality,ofnoblemenandgentlemen,receivedintocustom,dothmuchconduceuntomartialgreatness.Whereas,contrariwise,thecloseandreservedlivingofnoblemenandgentlemen,causethapenuryofmilitaryforces.

Byallmeansitistobeprocured,thatthetrunkofNebuchadnezzar’streeofmonarchy,begreatenoughtobearthebranchesandtheboughs;thatis,thatthenaturalsubjectsofthecrownorstate,bearasufficientproportiontothestrangersubjects,thattheygovern.Thereforeallstatesthatareliberalofnaturalizationtowardsstrangers,arefitforempire.Fortothinkthatanhandfulofpeoplecan,withthegreatestcourageandpolicyintheworld,embracetoolargeextentofdominion,itmayholdforatime,butitwillfailsuddenly.TheSpartanswereanicepeopleinpointofnaturalization;whereby,whiletheykepttheircompass,theystoodfirm;butwhentheydidspread,andtheirboughswerebecomentoogreatfortheirstem,theybecameawindfall,uponthesudden.Neveranystatewasinthispointsoopentoreceivestrangersintotheirbody,asweretheRomans.Thereforeitsortedwiththemaccordingly;fortheygrewtothegreatestmonarchy.Theirmannerwastograntnaturalization(whichtheycalledjuscivitatis),andtograntitinthehighestdegree;thatis,notonlyjuscommercii,jusconnubii,jushaereditatis;butalsojussuffragii,andjushonorum.Andthisnottosingularpersonsalone,butlikewisetowholefamilies;yeatocities,andsometimestonations.Addtothistheircustomofplantationofcolonies;wherebytheRomanplantwasremovedintothesoilofothernations.Andputtingbothconstitutionstogether,youwillsaythatitwasnottheRomansthatspreadupontheworld,butitwastheworldthatspreadupontheRomans;andthatwasthesurewayofgreatness.Ihavemarvelled,sometimes,atSpain,howtheyclaspand

containsolargedominions,withsofewnaturalSpaniards;butsurethewholecompassofSpain,isaverygreatbodyofatree;faraboveRomeandSpartaatthefirst.Andbesides,thoughtheyhavenothadthatusage,tonaturalizeliberally,yettheyhavethatwhichisnexttoit;thatis,toemploy,almostindifferently,allnationsintheirmilitiaofordinarysoldiers;yea,andsometimesintheirhighestcommands.Nay,itseemethatthisinstanttheyaresensible,ofthiswantofnatives;asbythePragmaticalSanction,nowpublished,appeareth.

Itiscertainthatsedentary,andwithin-doorarts,anddelicatemanufactures(thatrequireratherthefingerthanthearm),have,intheirnature,acontrarietytoamilitarydisposition.Andgenerally,allwarlikepeoplearealittleidle,andlovedangerbetterthantravail.Neithermusttheybetoomuchbrokenofit,iftheyshallbepreservedinvigor.Thereforeitwasgreatadvantage,intheancientstatesofSparta,Athens,Rome,andothers,thattheyhadtheuseofslaves,whichcommonlydidridthosemanufactures.Butthatisabolished,ingreatestpart,bytheChristianlaw.Thatwhichcomethnearesttoit,istoleavethoseartschieflytostrangers(which,forthatpurpose,arethemoreeasilytobereceived),andtocontaintheprincipalbulkofthevulgarnatives,withinthosethreekinds,-tillersoftheground;freeservants;andhandicraftsmenofstrongandmanlyarts,assmiths,masons,carpenters,etc.;notreckoningprofessedsoldiers.

Butaboveall,forempireandgreatness,itimportethmost,thatanationdoprofessarms,astheirprincipalhonor,study,andoccupation.Forthethingswhichweformerlyhavespokenof,arebuthabilitationstowardsarms;andwhatishabilitationwithoutintentionandact?Romulus,afterhisdeath(astheyreportorfeign),sentapresenttotheRomans,thataboveall,theyshouldintendarms;andthentheyshouldprovethegreatestempireoftheworld.ThefabricofthestateofSpartawaswholly(thoughnotwisely)framedandcomposed,tothatscopeandend.ThePersiansandMacedonianshaditforaflash.TheGauls,Germans,Goths,Saxons,Normans,andothers,haditforatime.TheTurkshaveitatthisday,thoughingreatdeclination.OfChristianEurope,theythathaveitare,ineffect,onlytheSpaniards.Butitissoplain,thateverymanprofitethinthat,hemostintendeth,thatitneedethnottobestoodupon.Itisenoughtopointatit;thatnonationwhichdothnotdirectlyprofessarms,maylooktohavegreatnessfallintotheirmouths.Andontheotherside,itisamostcertainoracleoftime,thatthosestatesthatcontinuelonginthatprofession(astheRomansandTurksprincipallyhavedone)dowonders.Andthosethathaveprofessedarmsbutforanage,have,notwithstanding,commonlyattainedthatgreatness,inthatage,whichmaintainedthemlongafter,whentheirprofessionandexerciseofarmshathgrowntodecay.

Incidenttothispointis,forastatetohavethoselawsorcustoms,whichmayreachforthuntothemjustoccasions(asmaybepretended)ofwar.Forthereisthatjustice,imprintedinthenatureofmen,thattheyenternotuponwars(whereofsomanycalamitiesdoensue)butuponsome,attheleastspecious,groundsandquarrels.TheTurkhathathand,forcauseofwar,thepropagationofhislaworsect;aquarrelthathemayalwayscommand.TheRomans,thoughtheyesteemedtheextendingthelimitsoftheirempire,tobegreathonortotheirgenerals,whenitwasdone,yettheyneverresteduponthatalone,tobeginawar.First,therefore,letnationsthatpretendtogreatnesshavethis;thattheybesensibleofwrongs,eitheruponborderers,merchants,orpoliticministers;andthattheysitnottoolonguponaprovocation.Secondly,letthembeprest,andreadytogiveaidsandsuccors,totheirconfederates;asiteverwaswiththeRomans;insomuch,asiftheconfederatehadleaguesdefensive,withdiversotherstates,and,uponinvasionoffered,didimploretheiraidsseverally,yettheRomanswouldeverbetheforemost,andleaveittononeothertohavethehonor.Asforthewarswhichwereancientlymade,onthebehalfofakindofparty,ortacitconformityofestate,Idonotseehowtheymaybewelljustified:aswhentheRomansmadeawar,forthelibertyofGrecia;orwhentheLacedaemoniansandAthenians,madewarstosetuporpulldowndemocraciesandoligarchies;orwhenwarsweremadebyforeigners,underthepretenceofjusticeorprotection,todeliverthesubjectsofothers,fromtyrannyandoppression;andthelike.Letitsuffice,thatnoestateexpecttobegreat,thatisnotawakeuponanyjustoccasionofarming.

Nobodycanbehealthfulwithoutexercise,neithernaturalbodynorpolitic;andcertainlytoakingdomorestate,ajustandhonorablewar,isthetrueexercise.Acivilwar,indeed,isliketheheatofafever;butaforeignwarisliketheheatofexercise,andservethtokeepthebodyinhealth;forinaslothfulpeace,bothcourageswilleffeminate,andmannerscorrupt.Buthowsoeveritbeforhappiness,withoutallquestion,forgreatness,itmakethtobestillforthemostpartinarms;andthestrengthofaveteranarmy(thoughitbeachargeablebusiness)alwaysonfoot,isthatwhichcommonlygiveththelaw,oratleastthereputation,amongstallneighborstates;asmaywellbeseeninSpain,whichhathhad,inonepartorother,aveteranarmyalmostcontinually,nowbythespaceofsixscoreyears.

Tobemasterofthesea,isanabridgmentofamonarchy.Cicero,writingtoAtticusofPompeyhispreparationagainstCaesar,saith,ConsiliumPompeiiplaneThemistocleumest;putatenim,quimaripotitur,eumrerumpotiri.And,withoutdoubt,PompeyhadtiredoutCaesar,ifuponvainconfidence,hehadnotleftthatway.Weseethegreateffectsofbattlesbvsea.ThebattleofActium,decidedtheempireoftheworld.ThebattleofLepanto,arrestedthegreatnessoftheTurk.Therebemanyexamples,wheresea-fightshavebeenfinaltothewar;butthisiswhenprincesorstateshavesetuptheirrest,uponthebattles.Butthusmuchiscertain,thathethatcommandsthesea,isatgreatliberty,andmaytakeasmuch,andaslittle,ofthewarashewill.Whereasthosethatbestrongestbyland,aremanytimesneverthelessingreatstraits.Surely,atthisday,withusofEurope,thevantageofstrengthatsea(whichisoneoftheprincipaldowriesofthiskingdomofGreatBritain)isgreat;bothbecausemostofthekingdomsofEurope,arenotmerelyinland,butgirtwiththeseamostpartoftheircompass;andbecausethewealthofbothIndiesseemsingreatpart,butanaccessorytothecommandoftheseas.

Thewarsoflatteragesseemtobemadeinthedark,inrespectoftheglory,andhonor,whichreflecteduponmenfromthewars,inancienttime.Therebenow,formartialencouragement,somedegreesandordersofchivalry;whichneverthelessareconferredpromiscuously,uponsoldiersandnosoldiers;andsomeremembranceperhaps,uponthescutcheon;andsome

hospitalsformaimedsoldiers;andsuchlikethings.Butinancienttimes,thetrophieserectedupontheplaceofthevictory;thefunerallaudativesandmonumentsforthosethatdiedinthewars;thecrownsandgarlandspersonal;thestyleofemperor,whichthegreatkingsoftheworldafterborrowed;thetriumphsofthegenerals,upontheirreturn;thegreatdonativesandlargesses,uponthedisbandingofthearmies;werethingsabletoinflameallmen’scourages.Butaboveall,thatofthetriumph,amongsttheRomans,wasnotpageantsorgaudery,butoneofthewisestandnoblestinstitutions,thateverwas.Foritcontainedthreethings:honortothegeneral;richestothetreasuryoutofthespoils;anddonativestothearmy.Butthathonor,perhapswerenotfitformonarchies;exceptitbeinthepersonofthemonarchhimself,orhissons;asitcametopassinthetimesoftheRomanemperors,whodidimpropriatetheactualtriumphstothemselves,andtheirsons,forsuchwarsastheydidachieveinperson;andleftonly,forwarsachievedbysubjects,sometriumphalgarmentsandensignstothegeneral.

Toconclude:nomancanbycaretaking(astheScripturesaith)addacubittohisstature,inthislittlemodelofaman’sbody;butinthegreatframeofkingdomsandcommonwealths,itisinthepowerofprincesorestates,toaddamplitudeandgreatnesstotheirkingdoms;forbyintroducingsuchordinances,constitutions,andcustoms,aswehavenowtouched,theymaysowgreatnesstotheirposterityandsuccession.Butthesethingsarecommonlynotobserved,butlefttotaketheirchance.

OfRegimentofHealth

THEREisawisdominthis;beyondtherulesofphysic:aman'sownobservation,whathefindsgoodof,andwhathefindshurtof,isthebestphysictopreservehealth.Butitisasaferconclusiontosay,Thisagreethnotwellwithme,therefore,Iwillnotcontinueit;thanthis,Ifindnooffenceofthis,thereforeImayuseit.Forstrengthofnatureinyouth,passethovermanyexcesses,whichareowingamantillhisage.Discernofthecomingonofyears,andthinknottodothesamethingsstill;foragewillnotbedefied.Bewareofsuddenchange,inanygreatpointofdiet,and,ifnecessityinforceit,fittheresttoit.Foritisasecretbothinnatureandstate,thatitissafertochangemanythings,thanone.Examinethycustomsofdiet,sleep,exercise,apparel,andthelike;andtry,inanythingthoushaltjudgehurtful,todiscontinueit,bylittleandlittle;butso,asifthoudostfindanyinconveniencebythechange,thoucomebacktoitagain:foritishardtodistinguishthatwhichisgenerallyheldgoodandwholesome,fromthatwhichisgoodparticularly,andfitforthineownbody.Tobefree-mindedandcheerfullydisposed,athoursofmeat,andofsleep,andofexercise,isoneofthebestpreceptsoflonglasting.Asforthepassions,andstudiesofthemind;avoidenvy,anxiousfears;angerfrettinginwards;subtleandknottyinquisitions;joysandexhilarationsinexcess;sadnessnotcommunicated.Entertainhopes;mirthratherthanjoy;varietyofdelights,ratherthansurfeitofthem;wonderandadmiration,andthereforenovelties;studiesthatfillthemindwithsplendidandillustriousobjects,ashistories,fables,andcontemplationsofnature.Ifyouflyphysicinhealthaltogether,itwillbetoostrangeforyourbody,whenyoushallneedit.Ifyoumakeittoofamiliar,itwillworknoextraordinaryeffect,whensicknesscometh.Icommendrathersomedietforcertainseasons,thanfrequentuseofphysic,exceptitbegrownintoacustom.Forthosedietsalterthebodymore,andtroubleitless.Despisenonewaccidentinyourbody,butaskopinionofit.Insickness,respecthealthprincipally;andinhealth,action.Forthosethatputtheirbodiestoendureinhealth,mayinmostsicknesses,whicharenotverysharp,becuredonlywithdiet,andtendering.Celsuscouldneverhavespokenitasaphysician,hadhenotbeenawisemanwithal,whenhegivethitforoneofthegreatpreceptsofhealthandlasting,thatamandovary,andinterchangecontraries,butwithaninclinationtothemorebenignextreme:usefastingandfulleating,butratherfulleating;watchingandsleep,butrathersleep;sittingandexercise,butratherexercise;andthelike.Soshallnaturebecherished,andyettaughtmasteries.Physiciansare,someofthem,sopleasingandconformabletothehumorofthepatient,astheypressnotthetruecureofthedisease;andsomeotheraresoregular,inproceedingaccordingtoartforthedisease,astheyrespectnotsufficientlytheconditionofthepatient.Takeoneofamiddletemper;orifitmaynotbefoundinoneman,combinetwoofeithersort;andforgetnottocallaswell,thebestacquaintedwithyourbody,asthebestreputedofforhisfaculty.

OfSuspicion

SUSPICIONSamongstthoughts,arelikebatsamongstbirds,theyeverflybytwilight.Certainlytheyaretoberepressed,oratleastwellguarded:fortheycloudthemind;theyleesefriends;andtheycheckwithbusiness,wherebybusinesscannotgooncurrentlyandconstantly.Theydisposekingstotyranny,husbandstojealousy,wisementoirresolutionandmelancholy.Theyaredefects,notintheheart,butinthebrain;fortheytakeplaceinthestoutestnatures;asintheexampleofHenrytheSeventhofEngland.Therewasnotamoresuspiciousman,noramorestout.Andinsuchacompositiontheydosmallhurt.Forcommonlytheyarenotadmitted,butwithexamination,whethertheybelikelyorno.Butinfearfulnaturestheygaingroundtoofast.Thereisnothingmakesamansuspectmuch,morethantoknowlittle;andthereforemenshouldremedysuspicion,byprocuringtoknowmore,andnottokeeptheirsuspicionsinsmother.Whatwouldmenhave?Dotheythink,thosetheyemployanddealwith,aresaints?Dotheynotthink,theywillhavetheirownends,andbetruertothemselves,thantothem?Thereforethereisnobetterway,tomoderatesuspicions,thantoaccountuponsuchsuspicionsastrue,andyettobridlethemasfalse.Forsofaramanoughttomakeuseofsuspicions,astoprovide,asifthatshouldbetrue,thathesuspects,yetitmaydohimnohurt.Suspicionsthatthemindofitselfgathers,arebutbuzzes;butsuspicionsthatareartificiallynourished,andputintomen’sheads,bythetalesandwhisperingsofothers,havestings.Certainly,thebestmean,toclearthewayinthissamewoodofsuspicions,isfranklytocommunicatethemwiththeparty,thathesuspects;fortherebyheshallbesuretoknowmoreofthetruthofthem,thanhedidbefore;andwithalshallmakethatpartymorecircumspect,nottogivefurthercauseofsuspicion.Butthiswouldnotbedonetomenofbasenatures;forthey,iftheyfindthemselvesoncesuspected,willneverbetrue.TheItaliansays,Sospettolicentiafede;

asifsuspicion,didgiveapassporttofaith;butitought,rather,tokindleittodischargeitself.

OfDiscourse

SOME,intheirdiscourse,desirerathercommendationofwit,inbeingabletoholdallarguments,thanofjudgment,indiscerningwhatistrue;asifitwereapraise,toknowwhatmightbesaid,andnot,whatshouldbethought.Somehavecertaincommonplaces,andthemes,whereintheyaregoodandwantvariety;whichkindofpovertyisforthemostparttedious,andwhenitisonceperceived,ridiculous.Thehonorablestpartoftalk,istogivetheoccasion;andagaintomoderate,andpasstosomewhatelse;forthenamanleadsthedance.Itisgood,indiscourseandspeechofconversation,tovaryandinterminglespeechofthepresentoccasion,witharguments,taleswithreasons,askingofquestions,withtellingofopinions,andjestwithearnest:foritisadullthingtotire,and,aswesaynow,tojade,anythingtoofar.Asforjest,therebecertainthings,whichoughttobeprivilegedfromit;namely,religion,mattersofstate,greatpersons,anyman’spresentbusinessofimportance,andanycasethatdeservethpity.Yettherebesome,thatthinktheirwitshavebeenasleep,excepttheydartoutsomewhatthatispiquant,andtothequick.Thatisaveinwhichwouldbebridled:

Parce,puer,stimulis,etfortiusutereloris.

Andgenerally,menoughttofindthedifference,betweensaltnessandbitterness.Certainly,hethathathasatiricalvein,ashemakethothersafraidofhiswit,sohehadneedbeafraidofothers’memory.Hethatquestionethmuch,shalllearnmuch,andcontentmuch;butespecially,ifheapplyhisquestionstotheskillofthepersonswhomheasketh;forheshallgivethemoccasion,topleasethemselvesinspeaking,andhimselfshallcontinuallygatherknowledge.Butlethisquestionsnotbetroublesome;forthatisfitforaposer.Andlethimbesuretoleaveothermen,theirturnstospeak.Nay,iftherebeany,thatwouldreignandtakeupallthetime,lethimfindmeanstotakethemoff,andtobringotherson;asmusiciansusetodo,withthosethatdancetoolonggalliards.Ifyoudissemble,sometimes,yourknowledgeofthatyouarethoughttoknow,youshallbethought,anothertime,toknowthatyouknownot.Speechofaman’sselfoughttobeseldom,andwellchosen.Iknewone,waswonttosayinscorn,Hemustneedsbeawiseman,hespeakssomuchofhimself:andthereisbutonecase,whereinamanmaycommendhimselfwithgoodgrace;andthatisincommendingvirtueinanother;especiallyifitbesuchavirtue,whereuntohimselfpretendeth.Speechoftouchtowardsothers,shouldbesparinglyused;fordiscourseoughttobeasafield,withoutcominghometoanyman.Iknewtwonoblemen,ofthewestpartofEngland,whereoftheonewasgiventoscoff,butkepteverroyalcheerinhishouse;theotherwouldask,ofthosethathadbeenattheother’stable,Telltruly,wasthereneverafloutordryblowgiven?Towhichtheguestwouldanswer,Suchandsuchathingpassed.Thelordwouldsay,Ithought,hewouldmaragooddinner.Discretionofspeech,ismorethaneloquence;andtospeakagreeablytohim,withwhomwedeal,ismorethantospeakingoodwords,oringoodorder.Agoodcontinuedspeech,withoutagoodspeechofinterlocution,showsslowness:andagoodreplyorsecondspeech,withoutagoodsettledspeech,showethshallownessandweakness.Asweseeinbeasts,thatthosethatareweakestinthecourse,areyetnimblestintheturn;asitisbetwixtthegreyhoundandthehare.Tousetoomanycircumstances,ereonecometothematter,iswearisome;tousenoneatall,isblunt.

OfPlantations

PLANTATIONSareamongstancient,primitive,andheroicalworks.Whentheworldwasyoung,itbegatmorechildren;butnowitisold,itbegetsfewer:forImayjustlyaccountnewplantations,tobethechildrenofformerkingdoms.Ilikeaplantationinapuresoil;thatis,wherepeoplearenotdisplanted,totheend,toplantinothers.Forelseitisratheranextirpation,thanaplantation.Plantingofcountries,islikeplantingofwoods;foryoumustmakeaccounttoleesealmosttwentyyears’profit,andexpectyourrecompenseintheend.Fortheprincipalthing,thathathbeenthedestructionofmostplantations,hathbeenthebaseandhastydrawingofprofit,inthefirstyears.Itistrue,speedyprofitisnottobeneglected,asfarasmaystandwiththegoodoftheplantation,butnofurther.Itisashamefulandunblessedthing,totakethescumofpeople,andwickedcondemnedmen,tobethepeoplewithwhomyouplant;andnotonlyso,butitspoileththeplantation;fortheywilleverlivelikerogues,andnotfalltowork,butbelazy,anddomischief,andspendvictuals,andbequicklyweary,andthencertifyovertotheircountry,tothediscreditoftheplantation.Thepeoplewherewithyouplantoughttobegardeners,ploughmen,laborers,smiths,carpenters,joiners,fishermen,fowlers,withsomefewapothecaries,surgeons,cooks,andbakers.Inacountryofplantation,firstlookabout,whatkindofvictualthecountryyieldsofitselftohand;aschestnuts,walnuts,pineapples,olives,dates,plums,cherries,wildhoney,andthelike;andmakeuseofthem.Thenconsiderwhatvictualoresculentthingsthereare,whichgrowspeedily,andwithintheyear;asparsnips,carrots,turnips,onions,radish,artichokesofHierusalem,maize,andthelike.Forwheat,barley,andoats,theyasktoomuchlabor;butwithpeaseandbeansyoumaybegin,bothbecausetheyasklesslabor,andbecausetheyserveformeat,aswellasforbread.Andofrice,likewisecomethagreatincrease,anditisakindofmeat.Aboveall,thereoughttobebroughtstoreofbiscuit,oat-meal,flour,meal,andthelike,inthebeginning,tillbreadmaybehad.Forbeasts,orbirds,takechieflysuchasareleastsubjecttodiseases,andmultiplyfastest;asswine,goats,cocks,hens,turkeys,geese,house-doves,andthelike.Thevictualinplantations,oughttobeexpendedalmostasinabesiegedtown;thatis,withcertainallowance.Andletthemainpartoftheground,employedtogardensorcorn,betoacommonstock;andtobelaidin,andstoredup,andthendeliveredoutinproportion;besidessomespotsofground,thatanyparticularpersonwillmanureforhisownprivate.Considerlikewisewhatcommodities,thesoilwheretheplantationis,dothnaturallyyield,thattheymaysomewayhelptodefraythechargeoftheplantation(soitbenot,aswassaid,totheuntimelyprejudiceofthemainbusiness),asithathfaredwithtobaccoinVirginia.Woodcommonlyaboundethbuttoomuch;andthereforetimberisfittobeone.Iftherebeironore,andstreamswhereuponto

setthemills,ironisabravecommoditywherewoodaboundeth.Makingofbay-salt,iftheclimatebeproperforit,wouldbeputinexperience.Growingsilklikewise,ifanybe,isalikelycommodity.Pitchandtar,wherestoreoffirsandpinesare,willnotfail.Sodrugsandsweetwoods,wheretheyare,cannotbutyieldgreatprofit.Soap-asheslikewise,andotherthingsthatmaybethoughtof.Butmoilnottoomuchunderground;forthehopeofminesisveryuncertain,andusethtomaketheplanterslazy,inotherthings.Forgovernment;letitbeinthehandsofone,assistedwithsomecounsel;andletthemhavecommissiontoexercisemartiallaws,withsomelimitation.Andaboveall,letmenmakethatprofit,ofbeinginthewilderness,astheyhaveGodalways,andhisservice,beforetheireyes.Letnotthegovernmentoftheplantation,dependupontoomanycounsellors,andundertakers,inthecountrythatplanteth,butuponatemperatenumber;andletthoseberathernoblemenandgentlemen,thanmerchants;fortheylookevertothepresentgain.Lettherebefreedomfromcustom,tilltheplantationbeofstrength;andnotonlyfreedomfromcustom,butfreedomtocarrytheircommodities,wheretheymaymaketheirbestofthem,excepttherebesomespecialcauseofcaution.Cramnotinpeople,bysendingtoofastcompanyaftercompany;butratherharkenhowtheywaste,andsendsuppliesproportionably;butso,asthenumbermaylivewellintheplantation,andnotbysurchargebeinpenury.Ithathbeenagreatendangeringtothehealthofsomeplantations,thattheyhavebuiltalongtheseaandrivers,inmarishandunwholesomegrounds.Therefore,thoughyoubeginthere,toavoidcarriageandlikediscommodities,yetbuildstillratherupwardsfromthestreams,thanalong.Itconcernethlikewisethehealthoftheplantation,thattheyhavegoodstoreofsaltwiththem,thattheymayuseitintheirvictuals,whenitshallbenecessary.Ifyouplantwheresavagesare,donotonlyentertainthem,withtriflesandgingles,butusethemjustlyandgraciously,withsufficientguardnevertheless;anddonotwintheirfavor,byhelpingthemtoinvadetheirenemies,butfortheirdefenceitisnotamiss;andsendoftofthem,overtothecountrythatplants,thattheymayseeabetterconditionthantheirown,andcommenditwhentheyreturn.Whentheplantationgrowstostrength,thenitistimetoplantwithwomen,aswellaswithmen;thattheplantationmayspreadintogenerations,andnotbeeverpiecedfromwithout.Itisthesinfullestthingintheworld,toforsakeordestituteaplantationonceinforwardness;forbesidesthedishonor,itistheguiltinessofbloodofmanycommiserablepersons.

OfRiches

ICANNOTcallrichesbetterthanthebaggageofvirtue.TheRomanwordisbetter,impedimenta.Forasthebaggageistoanarmy,soisrichestovirtue.Itcannotbespared,norleftbehind,butithindereththemarch;yea,andthecareofit,sometimeslosethordisturbeththevictory.Ofgreatrichesthereisnorealuse,exceptitbeinthedistribution;therestisbutconceit.SosaithSolomon,Wheremuchis,therearemanytoconsumeit;andwhathaththeowner,butthesightofitwithhiseyes?Thepersonalfruitioninanyman,cannotreachtofeelgreatriches:thereisacustodyofthem;orapowerofdole,anddonativeofthem;orafameofthem;butnosolidusetotheowner.Doyounotseewhatfeignedprices,aresetuponlittlestonesandrarities?andwhatworksofostentationareundertaken,becausetheremightseemtobesomeuseofgreatriches?Butthenyouwillsay,theymaybeofuse,tobuymenoutofdangersortroubles.AsSolomonsaith,Richesareasastronghold,intheimaginationoftherichman.Butthisisexcellentlyexpressed,thatitisinimagination,andnotalwaysinfact.Forcertainlygreatriches,havesoldmoremen,thantheyhaveboughtout.Seeknotproudriches,butsuchasthoumayestgetjustly,usesoberly,distributecheerfully,andleavecontentedly.Yethavenoabstractnorfriarlycontemptofthem.Butdistinguish,asCicerosaithwellofRabiriusPosthumus,Instudioreiamplificandaeapparebat,nonavaritiaepraedam,sedinstrumentumbonitatiquaeri.HarkenalsotoSolomon,andbewareofhastygatheringofriches;Quifestinataddivitias,noneritinsons.Thepoetsfeign,thatwhenPlutus(whichisRiches)issentfromJupiter,helimpsandgoesslowly;butwhenheissentfromPluto,heruns,andisswiftoffoot.Meaningthatrichesgottenbygoodmeans,andjustlabor,paceslowly;butwhentheycomebythedeathofothers(asbythecourseofinheritance,testaments,andthelike),theycometumblinguponaman.ButitmoughtbeappliedlikewisetoPluto,takinghimforthedevil.Forwhenrichescomefromthedevil(asbyfraudandoppression,andunjustmeans),theycomeuponspeed.Thewaystoenricharemany,andmostofthemfoul.Parsimonyisoneofthebest,andyetisnotinnocent;foritwithholdethmenfromworksofliberalityandcharity.Theimprovementoftheground,isthemostnaturalobtainingofriches;foritisourgreatmother’sblessing,theearth’s;butitisslow.Andyetwheremenofgreatwealthdostooptohusbandry,itmultipliethrichesexceedingly.IknewanoblemaninEngland,thathadthegreatestauditsofanymaninmytime;agreatgrazier,agreatsheep-master,agreattimberman,agreatcollier,agreatcorn-master,agreatlead-man,andsoofiron,andanumberofthelikepointsofhusbandry.Soastheearthseemedaseatohim,inrespectoftheperpetualimportation.Itwastrulyobservedbyone,thathimselfcameveryhardly,toalittleriches,andveryeasily,togreatriches.Forwhenaman’sstockiscometothat,thathecanexpecttheprimeofmarkets,andovercomethosebargains,whichfortheirgreatnessarefewmen’smoney,andbepartnerintheindustriesofyoungermen,hecannotbutincreasemainly.Thegainsofordinarytradesandvocationsarehonest;andfurtheredbytwothingschiefly:bydiligence,andbyagoodname,forgoodandfairdealing.Butthegainsofbargains,areofamoredoubtfulnature;whenmenshallwaituponothers’necessity,brokebyservantsandinstrumentstodrawthemon,putoffotherscunningly,thatwouldbebetterchapmen,andthelikepractices,whicharecraftyandnaught.Asforthechoppingofbargains,whenamanbuysnottoholdbuttoselloveragain,thatcommonlygrindethdouble,bothupontheseller,anduponthebuyer.Sharingsdogreatlyenrich,ifthehandsbewellchosen,thataretrusted.Usuryisthecertainestmeansofgain,thoughoneoftheworst;asthatwherebyamandotheathisbread,insudorevultusalieni;andbesides,dothploughuponSundays.Butyetcertainthoughitbe,ithathflaws;forthatthescrivenersandbrokersdovalueunsoundmen,toservetheirownturn.Thefortuneinbeingthefirst,inaninventionorinaprivilege,dothcausesometimesawonderfulovergrowthinriches;asitwaswiththefirstsugarman,intheCanaries.Thereforeifamancanplaythetruelogician,tohaveaswelljudgment,asinvention,hemaydogreatmatters;especiallyifthe

timesbefit.Hethatrestethupongainscertain,shallhardlygrowtogreatriches;andhethatputsalluponadventures,dothoftentimesbreakandcometopoverty:itisgood,therefore,toguardadventureswithcertainties,thatmayupholdlosses.Monopolies,andcoemptionofwaresforre-sale,wheretheyarenotrestrained,aregreatmeanstoenrich;especiallyifthepartyhaveintelligence,whatthingsareliketocomeintorequest,andsostorehimselfbeforehand.Richesgottenbyservice,thoughitbeofthebestrise,yetwhentheyaregottenbyflattery,feedinghumors,andotherservileconditions,theymaybeplacedamongsttheworst.Asforfishingfortestamentsandexecutorships(asTacitussaithofSeneca,testamentaetorbostamquamindaginecapi),itisyetworse;byhowmuchmensubmitthemselvestomeanerpersons,thaninservice.Believenotmuch,themthatseemtodespiseriches;fortheydespisethem,thatdespairofthem;andnoneworse,whentheycometothem.Benotpenny-wise;richeshavewings,andsometimestheyflyawayofthemselves,sometimestheymustbesetflying,tobringinmore.Menleavetheirriches,eithertotheirkindred,ortothepublic;andmoderateportions,prosperbestinboth.Agreatstatelefttoanheir,isasaluretoallthebirdsofpreyroundabout,toseizeonhim,ifhebenotthebetterstablishedinyearsandjudgment.Likewisegloriousgiftsandfoundations,arelikesacrificeswithoutsalt;andbutthepaintedsepulchresofalms,whichsoonwillputrefy,andcorruptinwardly.Thereforemeasurenotthineadvancements,byquantity,butframethembymeasure:anddefernotcharitiestilldeath;for,certainly,ifamanweighitrightly,hethatdothso,isratherliberalofanotherman’s,thanofhisown.OfProphecies

IMEANnottospeakofdivineprophecies;norofheathenoracles;norofnaturalpredictions;butonlyofpropheciesthathavebeenofcertainmemory,andfromhiddencauses.SaiththePythonissatoSaul,To-morrowthouandthysonshallbewithme.Homerhaththeseverses:

AtdomusAEneaecunctisdominabituroris,Etnatinatorum,etquinascenturabillis.

Aprophecy,asitseems,oftheRomanempire.Senecathetragedianhaththeseverses:

--Venientannis

Saeculaseris,quibusOceanus

Vincularerumlaxet,etingens

PateatTellus,Tiphysquenovos

Detegatorbes;necsitterris

UltimaThule:

aprophecyofthediscoveryofAmerica.ThedaughterofPolycrates,dreamedthatJupiterbathedherfather,andApolloanointedhim;anditcametopass,thathewascrucifiedinanopenplace,wherethesunmadehisbodyrunwithsweat,andtherainwashedit.PhilipofMacedondreamed,hesealedupbiswife’sbelly;wherebyhedidexpoundit,thathiswifeshouldbebarren;butAristanderthesoothsayer,toldhimhiswifewaswithchild,becausemendonotusetosealvessels,thatareempty.AphantasmthatappearedtoM.Brutus,inhistent,saidtohim,Philippisiterummevidebis.TiberiussaidtoGalba,Tuquoque,Galba,degustabisimperium.InVespasian’stime,therewentaprophecyintheEast,thatthosethatshouldcomeforthofJudea,shouldreignovertheworld:whichthoughitmaybewasmeantofourSavior;yetTacitusexpoundsitofVespasian.Domitiandreamed,thenightbeforehewasslain,thatagoldenheadwasgrowing,outofthenapeofhisneck:andindeed,thesuccessionthatfollowedhimformanyyears,madegoldentimes.HenrytheSixthofEngland,saidofHenrytheSeventh,whenhewasalad,andgavehimwater,Thisistheladthatshallenjoythecrown,forwhichwestrive.WhenIwasinFrance,IheardfromoneDr.Pena,thattheQueenMother,whowasgiventocuriousarts,causedtheKingherhusband’snativitytobecalculated,underafalsename;andtheastrologergaveajudgment,thatheshouldbekilledinaduel;atwhichtheQueenlaughed,thinkingherhusbandtobeabovechallengesandduels:buthewasslainuponacourseattilt,thesplintersofthestaffofMontgomerygoinginathisbeaver.Thetrivialprophecy,whichIheardwhenIwasachild,andQueenElizabethwasintheflowerofheryears,was,

Whenhempeisspun

England’sdone:

wherebyitwasgenerallyconceived,thataftertheprinceshadreigned,whichhadtheprincipallettersofthatwordhempe(whichwereHenry,Edward,Mary,Philip,andElizabeth),Englandshouldcometoutterconfusion;which,thanksbetoGod,isverifiedonlyinthechangeofthename;forthattheKing’sstyle,isnownomoreofEnglandbutofBritain.Therewasalsoanotherprophecy,beforetheyearof’88,whichIdonotwellunderstand.

Thereshallbeseenuponaday,BetweentheBaughandtheMay,TheblackfleetofNorway.Whenthatthatiscomeandgone,Englandbuildhousesoflimeandstone,Forafterwarsshallyouhavenone.

Itwasgenerallyconceivedtobemeant,oftheSpanishfleetthatcamein’88:forthatthekingofSpain’ssurname,astheysay,isNorway.ThepredictionofRegiomontanus,

Octogesimusoctavusmirabilisannus,wasthoughtlikewiseaccomplishedinthesendingofthatgreatfleet,beingthegreatestinstrength,thoughnotinnumber,ofallthateverswamuponthesea.AsforCleon’sdream,Ithinkitwasajest.Itwas,thathewasdevouredofalongdragon;anditwasexpoundedofamakerofsausages,thattroubledhimexceedingly.Therearenumbersofthelikekind;especiallyifyouincludedreams,andpredictionsofastrology.ButIhavesetdownthesefewonly,ofcertaincredit,forexample.Myjudgmentis,thattheyoughtalltobedespised;andoughttoservebutforwintertalkbythefireside.ThoughwhenIsaydespised,Imeanitasforbelief;forotherwise,thespreading,orpublishing,ofthem,isinnosorttobedespised.Fortheyhavedonemuchmischief;andIseemanyseverelawsmade,tosuppressthem.Thatthathathgiventhemgrace,andsomecredit,consistethinthreethings.First,thatmenmarkwhentheyhit,andnevermarkwhentheymiss;astheydo

generallyalsoofdreams.Thesecondis,thatprobableconjectures,orobscuretraditions,manytimesturnthemselvesintoprophecies;whilethenatureofman,whichcovetethdivination,thinksitnoperiltoforetellthatwhichindeedtheydobutcollect.AsthatofSeneca’sverse.Forsomuchwasthensubjecttodemonstration,thattheglobeoftheearthhadgreatpartsbeyondtheAtlantic,whichmoughtbeprobablyconceivednottobeallsea:andaddingtheretothetraditioninPlato’sTimaeus,andhisAtlanticus,itmoughtencourageonetoturnittoaprediction.Thethirdandlast(whichisthegreatone)is,thatalmostallofthem,beinginfiniteinnumber,havebeenimpostures,andbyidleandcraftybrainsmerelycontrivedandfeigned,aftertheeventpast.AmbitionOfOfAmbition

AMBITIONislikecholer;whichisanhumorthatmakethmenactive,earnest,fullofalacrity,andstirring,ifitbenotstopped.Butifitbestopped,andcannothavehisway,itbecomethadust,andtherebymalignandvenomous.Soambitiousmen,iftheyfindthewayopenfortheirrising,andstillgetforward,theyareratherbusythandangerous;butiftheybecheckedintheirdesires,theybecomesecretlydiscontent,andlookuponmenandmatterswithanevileye,andarebestpleased,whenthingsgobackward;whichistheworstpropertyinaservantofaprince,orstate.Thereforeitisgoodforprinces,iftheyuseambitiousmen,tohandleit,soastheybestillprogressiveandnotretrograde;which,becauseitcannotbewithoutinconvenience,itisgoodnottousesuchnaturesatall.Foriftheyrisenotwiththeirservice,theywilltakeorder,tomaketheirservicefallwiththem.Butsincewehavesaid,itweregoodnottousemenofambitiousnatures,exceptitbeuponnecessity,itisfitwespeak,inwhatcasestheyareofnecessity.Goodcommandersinthewarsmustbetaken,betheyneversoambitious;fortheuseoftheirservice,dispensethwiththerest;andtotakeasoldierwithoutambition,istopulloffhisspurs.Thereisalsogreatuseofambitiousmen,inbeingscreenstoprincesinmattersofdangerandenvy;fornomanwilltakethatpart,excepthebelikeaseeleddove,thatmountsandmounts,becausehecannotseeabouthim.Thereisusealsoofambitiousmen,inpullingdownthegreatnessofanysubjectthatovertops;asTiberiususedMarco,inthepullingdownofSejanus.Since,therefore,theymustbeusedinsuchcases,thererestethtospeak,howtheyaretobebridled,thattheymaybelessdangerous.Thereislessdangerofthem,iftheybeofmeanbirth,thaniftheybenoble;andiftheyberatherharshofnature,thangraciousandpopular:andiftheyberathernewraised,thangrowncunning,andfortified,intheirgreatness.Itiscountedbysome,aweaknessinprinces,tohavefavorites;butitis,ofallothers,thebestremedyagainstambitiousgreat-ones.Forwhenthewayofpleasuring,anddispleasuring,liethbythefavorite,itisimpossibleanyothershouldbeovergreat.Anothermeanstocurbthem,istobalancethembyothers,asproudasthey.Butthentheremustbesomemiddlecounsellors,tokeepthingssteady;forwithoutthatballast,theshipwillrolltoomuch.Attheleast,aprincemayanimateandinuresomemeanerpersons,tobeasitwerescourges,toambitionsmen.Asforthehavingofthemobnoxioustoruin;iftheybeoffearfulnatures,itmaydowell;butiftheybestoutanddaring,itmayprecipitatetheirdesigns,andprovedangerous.Asforthepullingofthemdown,iftheaffairsrequireit,andthatitmaynotbedonewithsafetysuddenly,theonlywayistheinterchange,continually,offavorsanddisgraces;wherebytheymaynotknowwhattoexpect,andbe,asitwere,inawood.Ofambitions,itislessharmful,theambitiontoprevailingreatthings,thanthatother,toappearineverything;forthatbreedsconfusion,andmarsbusiness.Butyetitislessdanger,tohaveanambitiousmanstirringinbusiness,thangreatindependences.Hethatseekethtobeeminentamongstablemen,hathagreattask;butthatisevergoodforthepublic.Buthe,thatplotstobetheonlyfigureamongstciphers,isthedecayofawholeage.Honorhaththreethingsinit:thevantagegroundtodogood;theapproachtokingsandprincipalpersons;andtheraisingofaman’sownfortunes.Hethathaththebestoftheseintentions,whenheaspireth,isanhonestman;andthatprince,thatcandiscernoftheseintentionsinanotherthataspireth,isawiseprince.Generally,letprincesandstateschoosesuchministers,asaremoresensibleofdutythanofusing;andsuchaslovebusinessratheruponconscience,thanuponbravery,andletthemdiscernabusynature,fromawillingmind.

andTriumphsOfMasquesMasquesand

THESEthingsarebuttoys,tocomeamongstsuchseriousobservations.Butyet,sinceprinceswillhavesuchthings,itisbettertheyshouldbegracedwithelegancy,thandaubedwithcost.Dancingtosong,isathingofgreatstateandpleasure.Iunderstandit,thatthesongbeinquire,placedaloft,andaccompaniedwithsomebrokenmusic;andthedittyfittedtothedevice.Actinginsong,especiallyindialogues,hathanextremegoodgrace;Isayacting,notdancing(forthatisameanandvulgarthing);andthevoicesofthedialoguewouldbestrongandmanly(abaseandatenor;notreble);andthedittyhighandtragical;notniceordainty.Severalquires,placedoneoveragainstanother,andtakingthevoicebycatches,anthem-wise,givegreatpleasure.Turningdancesintofigure,isachildishcuriosity.Andgenerallyletitbenoted,thatthosethingswhichIheresetdown,aresuchasdonaturallytakethesense,andnotrespectpettywonderments.Itistrue,thealterationsofscenes,soitbequietlyandwithoutnoise,arethingsofgreatbeautyandpleasure;fortheyfeedandrelievetheeye,beforeitbefullofthesameobject.Letthescenesaboundwithlight,speciallycoloredandvaried;andletthemasquers,oranyother,thataretocomedownfromthescene,havesomemotionsuponthesceneitself,beforetheircomingdown;foritdrawstheeyestrangely,andmakesit,withgreatpleasure,todesiretosee,thatitcannotperfectlydiscern.Letthesongsbeloudandcheerful,andnotchirpingsorpulings.Letthemusiclikewisebesharpandloud,andwellplaced.Thecolorsthatshowbestbycandle-lightarewhite,carnation,andakindofsea-water-green;andoes,orspangs,astheyareofnogreatcost,sotheyareofmostglory.Asforrichembroidery,itislostandnotdiscerned.Letthesuitsofthemasquersbegraceful,andsuchasbecometheperson,whenthevizorsareoff;notafterexamplesofknownattires;Turke,soldiers,mariners’,andthelike.Letanti-masquesnotbelong;theyhavebeencommonlyoffools,satyrs,baboons,wild-men,antics,beasts,sprites,witches,Ethiops,pigmies,turquets,nymphs,rustics,Cupids,statuasmoving,andthelike.Asforangels,itisnotcomicalenough,toputtheminanti-masques;andanythingthatishideous,asdevils,

giants,isontheothersideasunfit.Butchiefly,letthemusicofthemberecreative,andwithsomestrangechanges.Somesweetodorssuddenlycomingforth,withoutanydropsfalling,are,insuchacompanyasthereissteamandheat,thingsofgreatpleasureandrefreshment.Doublemasques,oneofmen,anotherofladies,addethstateandvariety.Butallisnothingexcepttheroombekeptclearandneat.

Forjusts,andtourneys,andbarriers;thegloriesofthemarechieflyinthechariots,whereinthechallengersmaketheirentry;especiallyiftheybedrawnwithstrangebeasts:aslions,bears,camels,andthelike;orinthedevicesoftheirentrance;orinthebraveryoftheirliveries;orinthegoodlyfurnitureoftheirhorsesandarmor.Butenoughofthesetoys.

OfNatureinMen

NATUREisoftenhidden;sometimesovercome;seldomextinguished.Force,makethnaturemoreviolentinthereturn;doctrineanddiscourse,makethnaturelessimportune;butcustomonlydothalterandsubduenature.Hethatseekethvictoryoverhisnature,lethimnotsethimselftoogreat,nortoosmalltasks;forthefirstwillmakehimdejectedbyoftenfailings;andthesecondwillmakehimasmallproceeder,thoughbyoftenprevailings.Andatthefirstlethimpractisewithhelps,asswimmersdowithbladdersorrushes;butafteratimelethimpractisewithdisadvantages,asdancersdowiththickshoes.Foritbreedsgreatperfection,ifthepracticebeharderthantheuse.Wherenatureismighty,andthereforethevictoryhard,thedegreeshadneedbe,firsttostayandarrestnatureintime;liketohimthatwouldsayoverthefourandtwentyletterswhenhewasangry;thentogolessinquantity;asifoneshould,inforbearingwine,comefromdrinkinghealths,toadraughtatameal;andlastly,todiscontinuealtogether.Butifamanhavethefortitude,andresolution,toenfranchisehimselfatonce,thatisthebest:

OptimusilleanimivindexlaedentiapectusVinculaquirupit,dedoluitquesemel.

Neitheristheancientruleamiss,tobendnature,asawand,toacontraryextreme,wherebytosetitright,understandingit,wherethecontraryextremeisnovice.Letnotamanforceahabituponhimself,withaperpetualcontinuance,butwithsomeintermission.Forboththepausereinforceththenewonset;andifamanthatisnotperfect,beeverinpractice,heshallaswellpractisehiserrors,ashisabilities,andinduceonehabitofboth;andthereisnomeanstohelpthis,butbyseasonableintermissions.Butletnotamantrusthisvictoryoverhisnature,toofar;fornaturewilllayburiedagreattime,andyetrevive,upontheoccasionortemptation.LikeasitwaswithAEsop’sdamsel,turnedfromacattoawoman,whosatverydemutelyattheboard’send,tillamouseranbeforeher.Therefore,letamaneitheravoidtheoccasionaltogether;orputhimselfoftentoit,thathemaybelittlemovedwithit.Aman’snatureisbestperceivedinprivateness,forthereisnoaffectation;inpassion,forthatputtethamanoutofhisprecepts;andinanewcaseorexperiment,fortherecustomleavethhim.Theyarehappymen,whosenaturessortwiththeirvocations;otherwisetheymaysay,multumincolafuitanimamea;whentheyconverseinthosethings,theydonotaffect.Instudies,whatsoeveramancommandethuponhimself,lethimsethoursforit;butwhatsoeverisagreeabletohisnature,lethimtakenocareforanysettimes;forhisthoughtswillflytoit,ofthemselves;soasthespacesofotherbusiness,orstudies,willsuffice.Aman’snature,runseithertoherbsorweeds;thereforelethimseasonablywatertheone,anddestroytheother.

OfCustomandEducation

MEN’Sthoughts,aremuchaccordingtotheirinclination;theirdiscourseandspeeches,accordingtotheirlearningandinfusedopinions;buttheirdeeds,areafterastheyhavebeenaccustomed.Andtherefore,asMachiavelwellnoteth(thoughinanevil-favoredinstance),thereisnotrustingtotheforceofnature,nortothebraveryofwords,exceptitbecorroboratebycustom.Hisinstanceis,thatfortheachievingofadesperateconspiracy,amanshouldnotrestuponthefiercenessofanyman’snature,orhisresoluteundertakings;buttakesuchanone,ashathhadhishandsformerlyinblood.ButMachiavelknewnotofaFriarClement,noraRavillac,noraJaureguy,noraBaltazarGerard;yethisruleholdethstill,thatnature,northeengagementofwords,arenotsoforcible,ascustom.Onlysuperstitionisnowsowelladvanced,thatmenofthefirstblood,areasfirmasbutchersbyoccupation;andvotaryresolution,ismadeequipollenttocustom,eveninmatterofblood.Inotherthings,thepredominancyofcustomiseverywherevisible;insomuchasamanwouldwonder,tohearmenprofess,protest,engage,givegreatwords,andthendo,justastheyhavedonebefore;asiftheyweredeadimages,andenginesmovedonlybythewheelsofcustom.Weseealsothereignortyrannyofcustom,whatitis.TheIndians(Imeanthesectoftheirwisemen)laythemselvesquietlyuponastockofwood,andsosacrificethemselvesbyfire.Nay,thewivesstrivetobeburned,withthecorpsesoftheirhusbands.TheladsofSparta,ofancienttime,werewonttobescourgeduponthealtarofDiana,withoutsomuchasqueching.Iremember,inthebeginningofQueenElizabeth’stimeofEngland,anIrishrebelcondemned,putupapetitiontothedeputy,thathemightbehangedinawithe,andnotinanhalter;becauseithadbeensoused,withformerrebels.TherebemonksinRussia,forpenance,thatwillsitawholenightinavesselofwater,tilltheybeengagedwithhardice.Manyexamplesmaybeputoftheforceofcustom,bothuponmindandbody.Therefore,sincecustomistheprincipalmagistrateofman’slife,letmenbyallmeansendeavor,toobtaingoodcustoms.Certainlycustomismostperfect,whenitbeginnethinyoungyears:thiswecalleducation;whichis,ineffect,butanearlycustom.Sowesee,inlanguages,thetongueismoreplianttoallexpressionsandsounds,thejointsaremoresupple,toallfeatsofactivityandmotions,inyouththanafterwards.Foritistrue,thatlatelearnerscannotsowelltaketheply;exceptitbeinsomeminds,thathavenotsufferedthemselvestofix,buthavekeptthemselvesopen,andpreparedtoreceivecontinualamendment,whichisexceedingrare.Butiftheforceofcustomsimpleandseparate,begreat,theforceofcustomcopulateandconjoinedandcollegiate,isfargreater.Forthereexampleteacheth,companycomforteth,emulationquickeneth,gloryraiseth:soasinsuchplacestheforceofcustomisinhisexaltation.Certainlythegreatmultiplicationofvirtues

uponhumannature,restethuponsocietieswellordainedanddisciplined.Forcommonwealths,andgoodgovernments,donourishvirtuegrownbutdonotmuchmendthedeeds.Butthemiseryis,thatthemosteffectualmeans,arenowappliedtotheends,leasttobedesired.

OfFortune

ITCANNOTbedenied,butoutwardaccidentsconducemuchtofortune;favor,opportunity,deathofothers,occasionfittingvirtue.Butchiefly,themouldofaman’sfortuneisinhisownhands.Faberquisquefortunaesuae,saiththepoet.Andthemostfrequentofexternalcausesis,thatthefollyofoneman,isthefortuneofanother.Fornomanprosperssosuddenly,asbyothers’errors.Serpensnisiserpentemcomederitnonfitdraco.Overtandapparentvirtues,bringforthpraise;buttherebesecretandhiddenvirtues,thatbringforthfortune;certaindeliveriesofaman’sself,whichhavenoname.TheSpanishname,desemboltura,partlyexpresseththem;whentherebenotstondsnorrestivenessinaman’snature;butthatthewheelsofhismind,keepwaywiththewheelsofhisfortune.ForsoLivy(afterhehaddescribedCatoMajorinthesewords,Inillovirotantumroburcorporisetanimifuit,utquocunqueloconatusesset,fortunamsibifacturusvideretur)fallethuponthat,thathehadversatileingenium.Thereforeifamanlooksharplyandattentively,heshallseeFortune:forthoughshebeblind,yetsheisnotinvisible.Thewayoffortune,isliketheMilkenWayinthesky;whichisameetingorknotofanumberofsmallstars;notseenasunder,butgivinglighttogether.Soarethereanumberoflittle,andscarcediscernedvirtues,orratherfacultiesandcustoms,thatmakemenfortunate.TheItaliansnotesomeofthem,suchasamanwouldlittlethink.Whentheyspeakofonethatcannotdoamiss,theywillthrowin,intohisotherconditions,thathehathPocodimatto.Andcertainlytherebenottwomorefortunateproperties,thantohavealittleofthefool,andnottoomuchofthehonest.Thereforeextremeloversoftheircountryormasters,wereneverfortunate,neithercantheybe.Forwhenamanplacethhisthoughtswithouthimself,hegoethnothisownway.Anhastyfortunemakethanenterpriserandremover(theFrenchhathitbetter,entreprenant,orremuant);buttheexercisedfortunemakeththeableman.Fortuneistobehonoredandrespected,anditbebutforherdaughters,ConfidenceandReputation.Forthosetwo,Felicitybreedeth;thefirstwithinaman’sself,thelatterinotherstowardshim.Allwisemen,todeclinetheenvyoftheirownvirtues,usetoascribethemtoProvidenceandFortune;forsotheymaythebetterassumethem:and,besides,itisgreatnessinaman,tobethecareofthehigherpowers.SoCaesarsaidtothepilotinthetempest,Caesaremportas,etfortunamejus.SoSyllachosethenameofFelix,andnotofMagnus.Andithathbeennoted,thatthosewhoascribeopenlytoomuchtotheirownwisdomandpolicy,endinfortunate.ItiswrittenthatTimotheustheAthenian,afterhehad,intheaccounthegavetothestateofhisgovernment,ofteninterlacedthisspeech,andinthis,Fortunehadnopart,neverprosperedinanything,heundertookafterwards.Certainlytherebe,whosefortunesarelikeHomer’sverses,thathaveaslideandeasinessmorethantheversesofotherpoets;asPlutarchsaithofTimoleon’sfortune,inrespectofthatofAgesilausorEpaminondas.Andthatthisshoulldbe,nodoubtitismuch,inaman’sself.

OfUsury

MANYhavemadewittyinvectivesagainstusury.Theysaythatitisapity,thedevilshouldhaveGod’spart,whichisthetithe.ThattheusureristhegreatestSabbath-breaker,becausehisploughgoetheverySunday.Thattheusureristhedrone,thatVirgilspeakethof;

Ignavumfucospecusapraesepibusarcent.

Thattheusurerbreakeththefirstlaw,thatwasmadeformankindafterthefall,whichwas,insudorevultustuicomedespanemtuum;not,insudorevultusalieni.Thatusurersshouldhaveorange-tawnybonnets,becausetheydojudaize.Thatitisagainstnatureformoneytobegetmoney;andthelike.Isaythisonly,thatusuryisaconcessumpropterduritiemcordis;forsincetheremustbeborrowingandlending,andmenaresohardofheart,astheywillnotlendfreely,usurymustbepermitted.Someothers,havemadesuspiciousandcunningpropositionsofbanks,discoveryofmen’sestates,andotherinventions.Butfewhavespokenofusuryusefully.Itisgoodtosetbeforeus,theincommoditiesandcommoditiesofusury,thatthegood,maybeeitherweighedoutorculledout;andwarilytoprovide,thatwhilewemakeforthtothatwhichisbetter,wemeetnotwiththatwhichisworse.

Thediscommoditiesofusuryare,First,thatitmakesfewermerchants.Forwereitnotforthislazytradeofusury,moneywouldnothestill,butwouldingreatpartbeemployeduponmerchandizing;whichisthevenaportaofwealthinastate.Thesecond,thatitmakespoormerchants.For,asafarmercannothusbandhisgroundsowell,ifhesitatagreatrent;sothemerchantcannotdrivehistradesowell,ifhesitatgreatusury.Thethirdisincidenttotheothertwo;andthatisthedecayofcustomsofkingsorstates,whichebborflow,withmerchandizing.Thefourth,thatitbringeththetreasureofarealm,orstate,intoafewhands.Fortheusurerbeingatcertainties,andothersatuncertainties,attheendofthegame,mostofthemoneywillbeinthebox;andeverastateflourisheth,whenwealthismoreequallyspread.Thefifth,thatitbeatsdownthepriceofland;fortheemploymentofmoney,ischieflyeithermerchandizingorpurchasing;andusurywaylaysboth.Thesixth,thatitdothdullanddampallindustries,improvements,andnewinventions,whereinmoneywouldbestirring,ifitwerenotforthisslug.Thelast,thatitisthecankerandruinofmanymen’sestates;which,inprocessoftime,breedsapublicpoverty.

Ontheotherside,thecommoditiesofusuryare,first,thathowsoeverusuryinsomerespecthinderethmerchandizing,yetinsomeotheritadvancethit;foritiscertainthatthegreatestpartoftradeisdrivenbyyoungmerchants,uponborrowingatinterest;soasiftheusurereithercallin,orkeepback,hismoney,therewillensue,presently,agreatstandoftrade.Thesecondis,thatwereitnotforthiseasyborrowinguponinterest,men’snecessitieswoulddrawuponthemamostsuddenundoing;inthatthey

wouldbeforcedtoselltheirmeans(beitlandsorgoods)farunderfoot;andso,whereasusurydothbutgnawuponthem,badmarketswouldswallowthemquiteup.Asformortgagingorpawning,itwilllittlemendthematter:foreithermenwillnottakepawnswithoutuse;oriftheydo,theywilllookpreciselyfortheforfeiture.Irememberacruelmoneyedmaninthecountry,thatwouldsay,Thedeviltakethisusury,itkeepsusfromforfeitures,ofmortgagesandbonds.Thethirdandlastis,thatitisavanitytoconceive,thattherewouldbeordinaryborrowingwithoutprofit;anditisimpossibletoconceive,thenumberofinconveniencesthatwillensue,ifborrowingbecramped.Thereforetospeakoftheabolishingofusuryisidle.Allstateshaveeverhadit,inonekindorrate,orother.SoasthatopinionmustbesenttoUtopia.

Tospeaknowofthereformation,andreiglement,ofusury;howthediscommoditiesofitmaybebestavoided,andthecommoditiesretained.Itappears,bythebalanceofcommoditiesanddiscommoditiesofusury,twothingsaretobereconciled.Theone,thatthetoothofusurybegrinded,thatitbitenottoomuch;theother,thattherebeleftopenameans,toinvitemoneyedmentolendtothemerchants,forthecontinuingandquickeningoftrade.Thiscannotbedone,exceptyouintroducetwoseveralsortsofusury,alessandagreater.Forifyoureduceusurytoonelowrate,itwilleasethecommonborrower,butthemerchantwillbetoseekformoney.Anditistobenoted,thatthetradeofmerchandize,beingthemostlucrative,maybearusuryatagoodrate;othercontractsnotso.

Toservebothintentions,thewaywouldbebrieflythus.Thattherebetworatesofusury:theonefree,andgeneralforall;theotherunderlicenseonly,tocertainpersons,andincertainplacesofmerchandizing.First,therefore,letusuryingeneral,bereducedtofiveinthehundred;andletthatratebeproclaimed,tobefreeandcurrent;andletthestateshutitselfout,totakeanypenaltyforthesame.Thiswillpreserveborrowing,fromanygeneralstopordryness.Thiswilleaseinfiniteborrowersinthecountry.Thiswill,ingoodpart,raisethepriceofland,becauselandpurchasedatsixteenyears’purchasewillyieldsixinthehundred,andsomewhatmore;whereasthisrateofinterest,yieldsbutfive.Thisbylikereasonwillencourage,andedge,industriousandprofitableimprovements;becausemanywillratherventureinthatkind,thantakefiveinthehundred,especiallyhavingbeenusedtogreaterprofit.Secondly,lettherebecertainpersonslicensed,tolendtoknownmerchants,uponusuryatahigherrate;andletitbewiththecautionsfollowing.Lettheratebe,evenwiththemerchanthimself,somewhatmoreeasythanthatheusedformerlytopay;forbythatmeans,allborrowers,shallhavesomeeasebythisreformation,behemerchant,orwhosoever.Letitbenobankorcommonstock,buteverymanbemasterofhisownmoney.NotthatIaltogethermislikebanks,buttheywillhardlybebrooked,inregardofcertainsuspicions.Letthestatebeansweredsomesmallmatterforthelicense,andtherestlefttothelender;foriftheabatementbebutsmall,itwillnowhitdiscouragethelender.Forhe,forexample,thattookbeforetenornineinthehundred,willsoonerdescendtoeightinthehundredthangiveoverhistradeofusury,andgofromcertaingains,togainsofhazard.Lettheselicensedlendersbeinnumberindefinite,butrestrainedtocertainprincipalcitiesandtownsofmerchandizing;forthentheywillbehardlyabletocolorothermen’smoneysinthecountry:soasthelicenseofninewillnotsuckawaythecurrentrateoffive;fornomanwillsendhismoneysfaroff,norputthemintounknownhands.

Ifitbeobjectedthatthisdothinasortauthorizeusury,whichbefore,wasinsomeplacesbutpermissive;theansweris,thatitisbettertomitigateusury,bydeclaration,thantosufferittorage,byconnivance.

YouthandAgeOfOfYouthandAge

AMANthatisyounginyears,maybeoldinhours,ifhehavelostnotime.Butthathappenethrarely.Generally,youthislikethefirstcogitations,notsowiseasthesecond.Forthereisayouthinthoughts,aswellasinages.Andyettheinventionofyoungmen,ismorelivelythanthatofold;andimaginationsstreamintotheirmindsbetter,and,asitwere,moredivinely.Naturesthathavemuchheat,andgreatandviolentdesiresandperturbations,arenotripeforaction,tilltheyhavepassedthemeridianoftheiryears;asitwaswithJuliusCaesarandSeptimiusSeverus.Ofthelatter,ofwhomitissaid,Juventutemegiterroribus,imofuroribus,plenam.Andyethewastheablestemperor,almost,ofallthelist.Butreposednaturesmaydowellinyouth.AsitisseeninAugustusCaesar,CosmusDukeofFlorence,GastondeFoix,andothers.Ontheotherside,heatandvivacityinage,isanexcellentcompositionforbusiness.Youngmenarefittertoinvent,thantojudge;fitterforexecution,thanforcounsel;andfitterfornewprojects,thanforsettledbusiness.Fortheexperienceofage,inthingsthatfallwithinthecompassofit,directeththem;butinnewthings,abuseththem.

Theerrorsofyoungmen,aretheruinofbusiness;buttheerrorsofagedmen,amountbuttothis,thatmoremighthavebeendone,orsooner.Youngmen,intheconductandmanageofactions,embracemorethantheycanhold;stirmorethantheycanquiet;flytotheend,withoutconsiderationofthemeansanddegrees;pursuesomefewprinciples,whichtheyhavechanceduponabsurdly;carenottoinnovate,whichdrawsunknowninconveniences;useextremeremediesatfirst;and,thatwhichdoublethallerrors,willnotacknowledgeorretractthem;likeanunreadyhorse,thatwillneitherstopnorturn.Menofageobjecttoomuch,consulttoolong,adventuretoolittle,repenttoosoon,andseldomdrivebusinesshometothefullperiod,butcontentthemselveswithamediocrityofsuccess.Certainlyitisgoodtocompoundemploymentsofboth;forthatwillbegoodforthepresent,becausethevirtuesofeitherage,maycorrectthedefectsofboth;andgoodforsuccession,thatyoungmenmaybelearners,whilemeninageareactors;and,lastly,goodforexternaccidents,becauseauthorityfollowetholdmen,andfavorandpopularity,youth.Butforthemoralpart,perhapsyouthwillhavethepre-eminence,asagehathforthepolitic.Acertainrabbin,uponthetext,Youryoungmenshallseevisions,andyouroldmenshalldreamdreams,inferreththatyoungmen,areadmittednearertoGodthanold,becausevision,isaclearerrevelation,thanadream.Andcertainly,themoreamandrinkethoftheworld,themoreitintoxicateth;andagedothprofitratherinthepowersofunderstanding,thaninthevirtuesofthewillandaffections.Therebesome,haveanover-earlyripenessintheiryears,whichfadethbetimes.Theseare,first,suchashavebrittlewits,theedge

whereofissoonturned;suchaswasHermogenestherhetorician,whosebooksareexceedingsubtle;whoafterwardswaxedstupid.Asecondsort,isofthosethathavesomenaturaldispositionswhichhavebettergraceinyouth,thaninage;suchasisafluentandluxuriantspeech;whichbecomesyouthwell,butnotage:soTullysaithofHortensius,Idemmanebat,nequeidemdecebat.Thethirdisofsuch,astaketoohighastrainatthefirst,andaremagnanimous,morethantractofyearscanuphold.AswasScipioAfricanus,ofwhomLivysaithineffect,Ultimaprimiscedebant.

OfBeauty

VIRTUEislikearichstone,bestplainset;andsurelyvirtueisbest,inabodythatiscomely,thoughnotofdelicatefeatures;andthathathratherdignityofpresence,thanbeautyofaspect.Neitherisitalmostseen,thatverybeautifulpersonsareotherwiseofgreatvirtue;asifnaturewereratherbusy,nottoerr,thaninlabortoproduceexcellency.Andthereforetheyproveaccomplished,butnotofgreatspirit;andstudyratherbehavior,thanvirtue.Butthisholdsnotalways:forAugustusCaesar,TitusVespasianus,PhilipleBelleofFrance,EdwardtheFourthofEngland,AlcibiadesofAthens,IsmaeltheSophyofPersia,wereallhighandgreatspirits;andyetthemostbeautifulmenoftheirtimes.Inbeauty,thatoffavor,ismorethanthatofcolor;andthatofdecentandgraciousmotion,morethanthatoffavor.Thatisthebestpartofbeauty,whichapicturecannotexpress;no,northefirstsightofthelife.Thereisnoexcellentbeauty,thathathnotsomestrangenessintheproportion.AmancannottellwhetherApelles,orAlbertDurer,werethemoretrifler;whereoftheone,wouldmakeapersonagebygeometricalproportions;theother,bytakingthebestpartsoutofdiversfaces,tomakeoneexcellent.Suchpersonages,Ithink,wouldpleasenobody,butthepainterthatmadethem.NotbutIthinkapaintermaymakeabetterfacethaneverwas;buthemustdoitbyakindoffelicity(asamusicianthatmakethanexcellentairinmusic),andnotbyrule.Amanshallseefaces,thatifyouexaminethempartbypart,youshallfindneveragood;andyetaltogetherdowell.Ifitbetruethattheprincipalpartofbeautyisindecentmotion,certainlyitisnomarvel,thoughpersonsinyearsseemmanytimesmoreamiable;pulchrorumautumnuspulcher;fornoyouthcanbecomelybutbypardon,andconsideringtheyouth,astomakeupthecomeliness.Beautyisassummerfruits,)whichareeasytocorrupt,andcannotlast;andforthemostpartitmakesadissoluteyouth,andanagealittleoutofcountenance;butyetcertainlyagain,ifitlightwell,itmakethvirtueshine,andvicesblush.

OfDeformity

Deformedpersonsarecommonlyevenwithnature;forasnaturehathdoneillbythem,sodotheybynature;beingforthemostpart(astheScripturesaith)voidofnaturalaffection;andsotheyhavetheirrevengeofnature.Certainlythereisaconsent,betweenthebodyandthemind;andwherenatureerrethintheone,sheventurethintheother.Ubipeccatinuno,periclitaturinaltero.Butbecausethereis,inman,anelectiontouchingtheframeofhismind,andanecessityintheframeofhisbody,thestarsofnaturalinclinationaresometimesobscured,bythesunofdisciplineandvirtue.Thereforeitisgoodtoconsiderofdeformity,notasasign,whichismoredeceivable;butasacause,whichseldomfailethoftheeffect.Whosoeverhathanythingfixedinhisperson,thatdothinducecontempt,hathalsoaperpetualspurinhimself,torescueanddeliverhimselffromscorn.Thereforealldeformedpersons,areextremebold.First,asintheirowndefence,asbeingexposedtoscorn;butinprocessoftime,byageneralhabit.Alsoitstirrethinthemindustry,andespeciallyofthiskind,towatchandobservetheweaknessofothers,thattheymayhavesomewhattorepay.Again,intheirsuperiors,itquenchethjealousytowardsthem,aspersonsthattheythinktheymay,atpleasure,despise:anditlayeththeircompetitorsandemulatorsasleep;asneverbelievingtheyshouldbeinpossibilityofadvancement,tilltheyseetheminpossession.Sothatuponthematter,inagreatwit,deformityisanadvantagetorising.Kingsinancienttimes(andatthispresentinsomecountries)werewonttoputgreattrustineunuchs;becausetheythatareenvioustowardsallaremoreobnoxiousandofficious,towardsone.Butyettheirtrusttowardsthem,hathratherbeenastogoodspials,andgoodwhisperers,thangoodmagistratesandofficers.Andmuchlikeisthereasonofdeformedpersons.Stillthegroundis,theywill,iftheybeofspirit,seektofreethemselvesfromscorn;whichmustbeeitherbyvirtueormalice;andthereforeletitnotbemarvelled,ifsometimestheyproveexcellentpersons;aswasAgesilaus,ZangerthesonofSolyman,AEsop,Gasca,PresidentofPeru;andSocratesmaygolikewiseamongstthem;withothers.

OfBuilding

HOUSESarebuilttolivein,andnottolookon;thereforeletusebepreferredbeforeuniformity,exceptwherebothmaybehad.Leavethegoodlyfabricsofhouses,forbeautyonly,totheenchantedpalacesofthepoets;whobuildthemwithsmallcost.Hethatbuildsafairhouse,uponanillseat,committethhimselftoprison.NeitherdoIreckonitanillseat,onlywheretheairisunwholesome;butlikewisewheretheairisunequal;asyoushallseemanyfineseatssetuponaknapofground,environedwithhigherhillsroundaboutit;wherebytheheatofthesunispentin,andthewindgatherethasintroughs;soasyoushallhave,andthatsuddenly,asgreatdiversityofheatandcoldasifyoudweltinseveralplaces.Neitherisitillaironlythatmakethanillseat,butillways,illmarkets;and,ifyouwillconsultwithMomus,illneighbors.Ispeaknotofmanymore;wantofwater;wantofwood,shade,andshelter;wantoffruitfulness,andmixtureofgroundsofseveralnatures;wantofprospect;wantoflevelgrounds;wantofplacesatsomeneardistanceforsportsofhunting,hawking,andraces;toonearthesea,tooremote;havingthecommodityofnavigablerivers,orthediscommodityoftheiroverflowing;toofarofffromgreatcities,whichmayhinderbusiness,ortoonearthem,whichlurchethallprovisions,andmaketheverythingdear;whereamanhathagreatlivinglaidtogether,andwhereheisscanted:allwhich,asitisimpossibleperhapstofindtogether,soitisgoodtoknowthem,andthinkofthem,thatamanmaytakeasmanyashecan;andifhehaveseveraldwellings,thathesortthemsothatwhathewantethinthe

one,hemayfindintheother.LucullusansweredPompeywell;who,whenhesawhisstatelygalleries,androomssolargeandlightsome,inoneofhishouses,said,Surelyanexcellentplaceforsummer,buthowdoyouinwinter?Lucullusanswered,Why,doyounotthinkmeaswiseassomefowlare,thateverchangetheirabodetowardsthewinter?

Topassfromtheseat,tothehouseitself;wewilldoasCicerodothintheorator’sart;whowritesbooksDeOratore,andabookheentitlesOrator;whereoftheformer,deliversthepreceptsoftheart,andthelatter,theperfection.Wewillthereforedescribeaprincelypalace,makingabriefmodelthereof.Foritisstrangetosee,nowinEurope,suchhugebuildingsastheVaticanandEscurialandsomeothersbe,andyetscarceaveryfairroominthem.

First,therefore,Isayyoucannothaveaperfectpalaceexceptyouhavetwoseveralsides;asideforthebanquet,asitisspokenofinthebookofHester,andasideforthehousehold;theoneforfeastsandtriumphs,andtheotherfordwelling.Iunderstandboththesesidestobenotonlyreturns,butpartsofthefront;andtobeuniformwithout,thoughseverallypartitionedwithin;andtobeonbothsidesofagreatandstatelytower,inthemidstofthefront,that,asitwere,joineththemtogetheroneitherhand.Iwouldhaveonthesideofthebanquet,infront,oneonlygoodlyroomabovestairs,ofsomefortyfoothigh;andunderitaroomforadressing,orpreparingplace,attimesoftriumphs.Ontheotherside,whichisthehouseholdside,Iwishitdividedatthefirst,intoahallandachapel(withapartitionbetween);bothofgoodstateandbigness;andthosenottogoallthelength,buttohaveatthefurtherend,awinterandasummerparlor,bothfair.Andundertheserooms,afairandlargecellar,sunkunderground;andlikewisesomeprivykitchens,withbutteriesandpantries,andthelike.Asforthetower,Iwouldhaveittwostories,ofeighteenfoothighapiece,abovethetwowings;andagoodlyleadsuponthetop,railedwithstatuasinterposed;andthesametowertobedividedintorooms,asshallbethoughtfit.Thestairslikewisetotheupperrooms,letthembeuponafairopennewel,andfinelyrailedin,withimagesofwood,castintoabrasscolor;andaveryfairlanding-placeatthetop.Butthistobe,ifyoudonotpointanyofthelowerrooms,foradiningplaceofservants.Forotherwise,youshallhavetheservants’dinnerafteryourown:forthesteamofit,willcomeupasinatunnel.Andsomuchforthefront.OnlyIunderstandtheheightofthefirststairstobesixteenfoot,whichistheheightofthelowerroom.

Beyondthisfront,istheretobeafaircourt,butthreesidesofit,ofafarlowerbuildingthanthefront.Andinallthefourcornersofthatcourt,fairstaircases,castintoturrets,ontheoutside,andnotwithintherowofbuildingsthemselves.Butthosetowers,arenottobeoftheheightofthefront,butratherproportionabletothelowerbuilding.Letthecourtnotbepaved,forthatstrikethupagreatheatinsummer,andmuchcoldinwinter.Butonlysomesidealleys,withacross,andthequarterstograze,beingkeptshorn,butnottoonearshorn.Therowofreturnonthebanquetside,letitbeallstatelygalleries:inwhichgallerieslettherebethree,orfive,finecupolasinthelengthofit,placedatequaldistance;andfinecoloredwindowsofseveralworks.Onthehouseholdside,chambersofpresenceandordinaryentertainments,withsomebed-chambers;andletallthreesidesbeadoublehouse,withoutthoroughlightsonthesides,thatyoumayhaveroomsfromthesun,bothforforenoonandafternoon.Castitalso,thatyoumayhaverooms,bothforsummerandwinter;shadyforsummer,andwarmforwinter.Youshallhavesometimesfairhousessofullofglass,thatonecannottellwheretobecome,tobeoutofthesunorcold.Forinbowedwindows,Iholdthemofgooduse(incities,indeed,uprightdobetter,inrespectoftheuniformitytowardsthestreet);fortheybeprettyretiringplacesforconference;andbesides,theykeepboththewindandsunoff;forthatwhichwouldstrikealmostthroughtheroom,dothscarcepassthewindow.Butletthembebutfew,fourinthecourt,onthesidesonly.

Beyondthiscourt,lettherebeaninwardcourt,ofthesamesquareandheight;whichistobeenvironedwiththegardenonallsides;andintheinside,cloisteredonallsides,upondecentandbeautifularches,ashighasthefirststory.Ontheunderstory,towardsthegarden,letitbeturnedtoagrotto,oraplaceofshade,orestivation.Andonlyhaveopeningandwindowstowardsthegarden;andbeleveluponthefloor,nowhitsunkenunderground,toavoidalldampishness.Andlettherebeafountain,orsomefairworkofstatuas,inthemidstofthiscourt;andtobepavedastheothercourtwas.Thesebuildingstobeforprivylodgingsonbothsides;andtheendforprivygalleries.Whereofyoumustforeseethatoneofthembeforaninfirmary,iftheprinceoranyspecialpersonshouldbesick,withchambers,bed-chamber,antecamera,andrecamerajoiningtoit.Thisuponthesecondstory.Uponthegroundstory,afairgallery,open,uponpillars;anduponthethirdstorylikewise,anopengallery,uponpillars,totaketheprospectandfreshnessofthegarden.Atbothcornersofthefurtherside,bywayofreturn,lettherebetwodelicateorrichcabinets,daintilypaved,richlyhanged,glazedwithcrystallineglass,andarichcupolainthemidst;andallotherelegancythatmaybethoughtupon.Intheuppergallerytoo,Iwishthattheremaybe,iftheplacewillyieldit,somefountainsrunningindiversplacesfromthewall,withsomefineavoidances.Andthusmuchforthemodelofthepalace;savethatyoumusthave,beforeyoucometothefront,threecourts.Agreencourtplain,withawallaboutit;asecondcourtofthesame,butmoregarnished,withlittleturrets,orratherembellishments,uponthewall;andathirdcourt,tomakeasquarewiththefront,butnottobebuilt,noryetenclosedwithanakedwall,butenclosedwithterraces,leadedaloft,andfairlygarnished,onthethreesides;andcloisteredontheinside,withpillars,andnotwitharchesbelow.Asforoffices,letthemstandatdistance,withsomelowgalleries,topassfromthemtothepalaceitself.

OfGardens

GodAlmightyplantedagarden.Andindeeditisthepurestofhumanpleasures.Itisthegreatestrefreshmenttothespiritsofman;withoutwhich,buildingsandpalacesarebutgrosshandiworks;andamanshalleversee,thatwhenagesgrowtocivilityandelegancy,mencometobuildstatelysoonerthantogardenfinely;asifgardeningwerethegreaterperfection.Idoholdit,intheroyalorderingofgardens,thereoughttobegardens,forallthemonthsintheyear;inwhichseverallythingsofbeautymaybetheninseason.ForDecember,andJanuary,andthelatterpartofNovember,youmusttakesuchthingsasaregreenallwinter:

holly;ivy;bays;juniper;cypress-trees;yew;pine-apple-trees;fir-trees;rosemary;lavender;periwinkle,thewhite,thepurple,andtheblue;germander;flags;orange-trees;lemon-trees;andmyrtles,iftheybestoved;andsweetmarjoram,warmset.Therefolloweth,forthelatterpartofJanuaryandFebruary,themezereon-tree,whichthenblossoms;crocusvernus,boththeyellowandthegrey;primroses;anemones;theearlytulippa;hyacinthusorientalis;chamairis;fritellaria.ForMarch,therecomeviolets,speciallythesingleblue,whicharetheearliest;theyellowdaffodil;thedaisy;thealmond-treeinblossom;thepeach-treeinblossom;thecornelian-treeinblossom;sweet-briar.InAprilfollowthedoublewhiteviolet;thewallflower;thestock-gilliflower;thecowslip;flower-delices,andliliesofallnatures;rosemary-flowers;thetulippa;thedoublepeony;thepaledaffodil;theFrenchhoneysuckle;thecherry-treeinblossom;thedamsonandplum-treesinblossom;thewhitethorninleaf;thelilac-tree.InMayandJunecomepinksofallsorts,speciallytheblushpink;rosesofallkinds,exceptthemusk,whichcomeslater;honeysuckles;strawberries;bugloss;columbine;theFrenchmarigold,flosAfricanus;cherry-treeinfruit;ribes;figsinfruit;rasps;vineflowers;lavenderinflowers;thesweetsatyrian,withthewhiteflower;herbamuscaria;liliumconvallium;theapple-treeinblossom.InJulycomegilliflowersofallvarieties;musk-roses;thelime-treeinblossom;earlypearsandplumsinfruit;jennetings,codlins.InAugustcomeplumsofallsortsinfruit;pears;apricocks;berberries;filberds;musk-melons;monks-hoods,ofallcolors.InSeptembercomegrapes;apples;poppiesofallcolors;peaches;melocotones;nectarines;cornelians;wardens;quinces.InOctoberandthebeginningofNovembercomeservices;medlars;bullaces;rosescutorremovedtocomelate;hollyhocks;andsuchlike.TheseparticularsarefortheclimateofLondon;butmymeaningisperceived,thatyoumayhaveverperpetuum,astheplaceaffords.

Andbecausethebreathofflowersisfarsweeterintheair(whereitcomesandgoeslikethewarblingofmusic)thaninthehand,thereforenothingismorefitforthatdelight,thantoknowwhatbetheflowersandplantsthatdobestperfumetheair.Roses,damaskandred,arefastflowersoftheirsmells;sothatyoumaywalkbyawholerowofthem,andfindnothingoftheirsweetness;yeathoughitbeinamoming'sdew.Bayslikewiseyieldnosmellastheygrow.Rosemarylittle;norsweetmarjoram.Thatwhichaboveallothersyieldsthesweetestsmellintheairistheviolet,speciallythewhitedoubleviolet,whichcomestwiceayear;aboutthemiddleofApril,andaboutBartholomew-tide.Nexttothatisthemusk-rose.Thenthestrawberry-leavesdying,whichyieldamostexcellentcordialsmell.Thentheflowerofvines;itisalittledust,likethedustofabent,whichgrowsupontheclusterinthefirstcomingforth.Thensweet-briar.Thenwall-flowers,whichareverydelightfultobesetunderaparlororlowerchamberwindow.Thenpinksandgilliflowers,especiallythemattedpinkandclovegilliflower.Thentheflowersofthelime-tree.Thenthehoneysuckles,sotheybesomewhatafaroff.OfbeanflowersIspeaknot,becausetheyarefieldflowers.Butthosewhichperfumetheairmostdelightfully,notpassedbyastherest,butbeingtroddenuponandcrushed,arethree;thatis,burnet,wild-thyme,andwatermints.Thereforeyouaretosetwholealleysofthem,tohavethepleasurewhenyouwalkortread.Forgardens(speakingofthosewhichareindeedprincelike,aswehavedoneofbuildings),thecontentsoughtnotwelltobeunderthirtyacresofground;andtobedividedintothreeparts;agreenintheentrance;aheathordesertinthegoingforth;andthemaingardeninthemidst;besidesalleysonbothsides.AndIlikewellthatfouracresofgroundbeassignedtothegreen;sixtotheheath;fourandfourtoeitherside;andtwelvetothemaingarden.Thegreenhathtwopleasures:theone,becausenothingismorepleasanttotheeyethangreengrasskeptfinelyshorn;theother,becauseitwillgiveyouafairalleyinthemidst,bywhichyoumaygoinfrontuponastatelyhedge,whichistoenclosethegarden.Butbecausethealleywillbelong,and,ingreatheatoftheyearorday,yououghtnottobuytheshadeinthegarden,bygoinginthesunthroughthegreen,thereforeyouare,ofeithersidethegreen,toplantacovertalleyuponcarpenter'swork,abouttwelvefootinheight,bywhichyoumaygoinshadeintothegarden.Asforthemakingofknotsorfigures,withdiverscoloredearths,thattheymaylieunderthewindowsofthehouseonthatsidewhichthegardenstands,theybebuttoys;youmayseeasgoodsights,manytimes,intarts.Thegardenisbesttobesquare,encompassedonallthefoursideswithastatelyarchedhedge.Thearchestobeuponpillarsofcarpenter'swork,ofsometenfoothigh,andsixfootbroad;andthespacesbetweenofthesamedimensionwiththebreadthofthearch.Overthearcheslettherebeanentirehedgeofsomefourfoothigh,framedalsouponcarpenter'swork;andupontheupperhedge,overeveryarch,alittleturret,withabelly,enoughtoreceiveacageofbirds:andovereveryspacebetweenthearchessomeotherlittlefigure,withbroadplatesofroundcoloredglassgilt,forthesuntoplayupon.ButthishedgeIintendtoberaiseduponabank,notsteep,butgentlyslope,ofsomesixfoot,setallwithflowers.AlsoIunderstand,thatthissquareofthegarden,shouldnotbethewholebreadthoftheground,buttoleaveoneitherside,groundenoughfordiversityofsidealleys;untowhichthetwocovertalleysofthegreen,maydeliveryou.Buttheremustbenoalleyswithhedges,ateitherendofthisgreatenclosure;notatthehitherend,forlettingyourprospectuponthisfairhedgefromthegreen;noratthefurtherend,forlettingyourprospectfromthehedge,throughthearchesupontheheath.

Fortheorderingoftheground,withinthegreathedge,Ileaveittovarietyofdevice;advisingnevertheless,thatwhatsoeverformyoucastitinto,first,itbenottoobusy,orfullofwork.WhereinI,formypart,donotlikeimagescutoutinjuniperorothergardenstuff;theybeforchildren.Littlelowhedges,round,likewelts,withsomeprettypyramids,Ilikewell;andinsomeplaces,faircolumnsuponframesofcarpenter'swork.Iwouldalsohavethealleys,spaciousandfair.Youmayhavecloseralleys,uponthesidegrounds,butnoneinthemaingarden.Iwishalso,intheverymiddleafairmount,withthreeascents,andalleys,enoughforfourtowalkabreast;whichIwouldhavetobeperfectcircles,withoutanybulwarksorembossments;andthewholemounttobethirtyfoothigh;andsomefinebanqueting-house,withsomechimneysneatlycast,andwithouttoomuchglass.

Forfountains,theyareagreatbeautyandrefreshment;butpoolsmarall,andmakethegardenunwholesome,andfulloffliesandfrogs.FountainsIintendtobeoftwonatures:theonethatsprinklethorspoutethwater;theotherafairreceiptofwater,ofsomethirtyorfortyfootsquare,butwithoutfish,orslime,ormud.Forthefirst,theornamentsofimagesgilt,orofmarble,

whichareinuse,dowell:butthemainmatterissotoconveythewater,asitneverstay,eitherinthebowlsorinthecistern;thatthewaterbeneverbyrestdiscolored,greenorredorthelike;orgatheranymossinessorputrefaction.Besidesthat,itistobecleansedeverydaybythehand.Alsosomestepsuptoit,andsomefinepavementaboutit,dothwell.Asfortheotherkindoffountain,whichwemaycallabathingpool,itmayadmitmuchcuriosityandbeauty;wherewithwewillnottroubleourselves:as,thatthebottombefinelypaved,andwithimages;thesideslikewise;andwithalembellishedwithcoloredglass,andsuchthingsoflustre;encompassedalsowithfinerailsoflowstatuas.Butthemainpointisthesamewhichwementionedintheformerkindoffountain;whichis,thatthewaterbeinperpetualmotion,fedbyawaterhigherthanthepool,anddeliveredintoitbyfairspouts,andthendischargedawayunderground,bysomeequalityofbores,thatitstaylittle.Andforfinedevices,ofarchingwaterwithoutspilling,andmakingitriseinseveralforms(offeathers,drinkingglasses,canopies,andthelike),theybeprettythingstolookon,butnothingtohealthandsweetness.

Fortheheath,whichwasthethirdpartofourplot,Iwishittobeframed,asmuchasmaybe,toanaturalwildness.TreesIwouldhavenoneinit,butsomethicketsmadeonlyofsweet-briarandhoneysuckle,andsomewildvineamongst;andthegroundsetwithviolets,strawberries,andprimroses.Forthesearesweet,andprosperintheshade.Andthesetobeintheheath,hereandthere,notinanyorder.Ilikealsolittleheaps,inthenatureofmole-hills(suchasareinwildheaths),tobeset,somewithwildthyme;somewithpinks;somewithgermander,thatgivesagoodflowertotheeye;somewithperiwinkle;somewithviolets;somewithstrawberries;somewithcowslips;somewithdaisies;somewithredroses;somewithliliumconvallium;somewithsweet-williamsred;somewithbear's-foot:andthelikelowflowers,beingwithalsweetandsightly.Partofwhichheaps,aretobewithstandardsoflittlebushesprickedupontheirtop,andpartwithout.Thestandardstoberoses;juniper;hory;berberries(buthereandthere,becauseofthesmelloftheirblossoms);redcurrants;gooseberries;rosemary;bays;sweetbriar;andsuchlike.Butthesestandardstobekeptwithcutting,thattheygrownotoutofcourse.

Forthesidegrounds,youaretofillthemwithvarietyofalleys,private,togiveafullshade,someofthem,wheresoeverthesunbe.Youaretoframesomeofthem,likewise,forshelter,thatwhenthewindblowssharpyoumaywalkasinagallery.Andthosealleysmustbelikewisehedgedatbothends,tokeepoutthewind;andthesecloseralleysmustbeeverfinelygravelled,andnograss,becauseofgoingwet.Inmanyofthesealleys,likewise,youaretosetfruit-treesofallsorts;aswelluponthewalls,asinranges.Andthiswouldbegenerallyobserved,thattheborderswhereinyouplantyourfruit-trees,befairandlarge,andlow,andnotsteep;andsetwithfineflowers,butthinandsparingly,lesttheydeceivethetrees.Attheendofboththesidegrounds,Iwouldhaveamountofsomeprettyheight,leavingthewalloftheenclosurebreasthigh,tolookabroadintothefields.

Forthemaingarden,Idonotdeny,butthereshouldbesomefairalleysrangedonbothsides,withfruit-trees;andsomeprettytuftsoffruit-trees;andarborswithseats,setinsomedecentorder;butthesetobebynomeanssettoothick;buttoleavethemaingardensoasitbenotclose,buttheairopenandfree.Forasforshade,Iwouldhaveyourestuponthealleysofthesidegrounds,theretowalk,ifyoubedisposed,intheheatoftheyearorday;buttomakeaccount,thatthemaingardenisforthemoretemperatepartsoftheyear;andintheheatofsummer,forthemorningandtheevening,orovercastdays.

Foraviaries,Ilikethemnot,excepttheybeofthatlargenessastheymaybeturfed,andhavelivingplantsandbushessetinthem;thatthebirdsmayhavemorescope,andnaturalnestling,andthatnofoulnessappearintheflooroftheaviary.SoIhavemadeaplatformofaprincelygarden,partlybyprecept,partlybydrawing,notamodel,butsomegenerallinesofit;andinthisIhavesparedfornocost.Butitisnothingforgreatprinces,thatforthemostparttakingadvicewithworkmen,withnolesscostsettheirthingstogether;andsometimesaddstatuasandsuchthingsforstateandmagnificence,butnothingtothetruepleasureofagarden.

OfNegotiating

Itisgenerallybettertodealbyspeechthanbyletter;andbythemediationofathirdthanbyaman'sself.Lettersaregood,whenamanwoulddrawananswerbyletterbackagain;orwhenitmayserveforaman'sjustificationafterwardstoproducehisownletter;orwhereitmaybedangertobeinterrupted,orheardbypieces.Todealinpersonisgood,whenaman'sfacebreedethregard,ascommonlywithinferiors;orintendercases,whereaman'seye,uponthecountenanceofhimwithwhomhespeaketh,maygivehimadirectionhowfartogo;andgenerally,whereamanwillreservetohimselfliberty,eithertodisavowortoexpound.Inchoiceofinstruments,itisbettertochoosemenofaplainersort,thatareliketodothat,thatiscommittedtothem,andtoreportbackagainfaithfullythesuccess,thanthosethatarecunning,tocontrive,outofothermen'sbusiness,somewhattogracethemselves,andwillhelpthematterinreportforsatisfaction'ssake.Usealsosuchpersonsasaffectthebusiness,whereintheyareemployed;forthatquickenethmuch;andsuch,asarefitforthematter;asboldmenforexpostulation,fair-spokenmenforpersuasion,craftyforinquiryandobservation,froward,andabsurdmen,forbusinessthatdothnotwellbearoutitself.Usealsosuchashavebeenlucky,andprevailedbefore,inthingswhereinyouhaveemployedthem;forthatbreedsconfidence,andtheywillstrivetomaintaintheirprescription.Itisbettertosoundaperson,withwhomonedealsafaroffthantofalluponthepointatfirst;exceptyoumeantosurprisehimbysomeshortquestion.Itisbetterdealingwithmeninappetite,thanwiththosethatarewheretheywouldbe.Ifamandealwithanotheruponconditions,thestartorfirstperformanceisall;whichamancannotreasonablydemand,excepteitherthenatureofthethingbesuch,whichmustgobefore;orelseamancanpersuadetheotherparty,thatheshallstillneedhiminsomeotherthing;orelsethathebecountedthehonesterman.Allpracticeistodiscover,ortowork.Mendiscoverthemselvesintrust,inpassion,atunawares,andofnecessity,whentheywouldhavesomewhatdone,andcannotfindanaptpretext.Ifyouwouldworkanyman,youmusteitherknowhisnatureandfashions,andsoleadhim;orhisends,andsopersuadehimorhisweaknessanddisadvantages,andsoawehimorthosethathaveinterestinhim,andsogovern

him.Indealingwithcunningpersons,wemusteverconsidertheirends,tointerprettheirspeeches;anditisgoodtosaylittletothem,andthatwhichtheyleastlookfor.Inallnegotiationsofdifficulty,amanmaynotlooktosowandreapatonce;butmustpreparebusiness,andsoripenitbydegrees.

OfFollowersandFriends

COSTLYfollowersarenottobeliked;lestwhileamanmakethhistrainlonger,hemakehiswingsshorter.Ireckontobecostly,notthemalonewhichchargethepurse,butwhicharewearisome,andimportuneinsuits.Ordinaryfollowersoughttochallengenohigherconditions,thancountenance,recommendation,andprotectionfromwrongs.Factiousfollowersareworsetobeliked,whichfollownotuponaffectiontohim,withwhomtheyrangethemselves,butupondiscontentmentconceivedagainstsomeother;whereuponcommonlyensueththatillintelligence,thatwemanytimesseebetweengreatpersonages.Likewisegloriousfollowers,whomakethemselvesastrumpetsofthecommendationofthosetheyfollow,arefullofinconvenience;fortheytaintbusinessthroughwantofsecrecy;andtheyexporthonorfromaman,andmakehimareturninenvy.Thereisakindoffollowerslikewise,whicharedangerous,beingindeedespials;whichinquirethesecretsofthehouse,andbeartalesofthem,toothers.Yetsuchmen,manytimes,areingreatfavor;fortheyareofficious,andcommonlyexchangetales.Thefollowingbycertainestatesofmen,answerabletothat,whichagreatpersonhimselfprofesseth(asofsoldiers,tohimthathathbeenemployedinthewars,andthelike),hatheverbeenathingcivil,andwelltaken,eveninmonarchies;soitbewithouttoomuchpomporpopularity.Butthemosthonorablekindoffollowing,istobefollowedasone,thatapprehendethtoadvancevirtue,anddesert,inallsortsofpersons.Andyet,wherethereisnoeminentoddsinsufficiency,itisbettertotakewiththemorepassable,thanwiththemoreable.Andbesides,tospeaktruth,inbasetimes,activemenareofmoreusethanvirtuous.Itistruethatingovernment,itisgoodtousemenofonerankequally:fortocountenancesomeextraordinarily,istomaketheminsolent,andtherestdiscontent;becausetheymayclaimadue.Butcontrariwise,infavor,tousemenwithmuchdifferenceandelectionisgood;foritmakeththepersonspreferredmorethankful,andtherestmoreofficious:becauseallisoffavor.Itisgooddiscretion,nottomaketoomuchofanymanatthefirst;becauseonecannotholdoutthatproportion.Tobegoverned(aswecallit)byoneisnotsafe;foritshowssoftness,andgivesafreedom,toscandalanddisreputation;forthose,thatwouldnotcensureorspeakillofamanimmediately,willtalkmoreboldlyofthosethataresogreatwiththem,andtherebywoundtheirhonor.Yettobedistractedwithmanyisworse;foritmakesmentobeofthelastimpression,andfullofchange.Totakeadviceofsomefewfriends,iseverhonorable;forlookers-onmanytimesseemorethangamesters;andthevalebestdiscovereththehill.Thereislittlefriendshipintheworld,andleastofallbetweenequals,whichwaswonttobemagnified.Thatthatis,isbetweensuperiorandinferior,whosefortunesmaycomprehendtheonetheother.

OfSuitors

MANYillmattersandprojectsareundertaken;andprivatesuitsdoputrefythepublicgood.Manygoodmatters,areundertakenwithbadminds;Imeannotonlycorruptminds,butcraftyminds,thatintendnotperformance.Someembracesuits,whichnevermeantodealeffectuallyinthem;butiftheyseetheremaybelifeinthematter,bysomeothermean,theywillbecontenttowinathank,ortakeasecondreward,oratleasttomakeuse,inthemeantime,ofthesuitor’shopes.Sometakeholdofsuits,onlyforanoccasiontocrosssomeother;ortomakeaninformation,whereoftheycouldnototherwisehaveaptpretext;withoutcarewhatbecomeofthesuit,whenthatturnisserved;or,generally,tomakeothermen’sbusinessakindofentertainment,tobringintheirown.Nay,someundertakesuits,withafullpurposetoletthemfall;totheendtogratifytheadverseparty,orcompetitor.Surelythereisinsomesortarightineverysuit;eitherarightofequity,ifitbeasuitofcontroversy;orarightofdesert,ifitbeasuitofpetition.Ifaffectionleadamantofavorthewrongsideinjustice,lethimratherusehiscountenancetocompoundthematter,thantocarryit.Ifaffectionleadamantofavorthelessworthyindesert,lethimdoit,withoutdepravingordisablingthebetterdeserver.Insuitswhichamandothnotwellunderstand,itisgoodtoreferthemtosomefriendoftrustandjudgment,thatmayreport,whetherhemaydealinthemwithhonor:butlethimchoosewellhisreferendaries,forelsehemaybeledbythenose.Suitorsaresodistastedwithdelaysandabuses,thatplaindealing,indenyingtodealinsuitsatfirst,andreportingthesuccessbarely,andinchallengingnomorethanksthanonehathdeserved,isgrownnotonlyhonorable,butalsogracious.Insuitsoffavor,thefirstcomingoughttotakelittleplace:sofarforth,considerationmaybehadofhistrust,thatifintelligenceofthemattercouldnototherwisehavebeenhad,butbyhim,advantagebenottakenofthenote,butthepartylefttohisothermeans;andinsomesortrecompensed,forhisdiscovery.Tobeignorantofthevalueofasuit,issimplicity;aswellastobeignorantoftherightthereof,iswantofconscience.Secrecyinsuits,isagreatmeanofobtaining;forvoicingthemtobeinforwardness,maydiscouragesomekindofsuitors,butdothquickenandawakeothers.Buttimingofthesuitistheprincipal.Timing,Isay,notonlyinrespectofthepersonthatshouldgrantit,butinrespectofthose,whichareliketocrossit.Letaman,inthechoiceofhismean,ratherchoosethefittestmean,thanthegreatestmean;andratherthemthatdealincertainthings,thanthosethataregeneral.Thereparationofadenial,issometimesequaltothefirstgrant;ifamanshowhimselfneitherdejectednordiscontented.Iniquumpetasutaequumferasisagoodrule,whereamanhathstrengthoffavor:butotherwise,amanwerebetterriseinhissuit;forhe,thatwouldhaveventuredatfirsttohavelostthesuitor,willnotintheconclusionloseboththesuitor,andhisownformerfavor.Nothingisthoughtsoeasyarequesttoagreatperson,ashisletter;andyet,ifitbenotinagoodcause,itissomuchoutofhisreputation.Therearenoworseinstruments,thanthesegeneralcontriversofsuits;fortheyarebutakindofpoison,andinfection,topublicproceedings.

OfStudies

STUDIESservefordelight,forornament,andforability.Theirchiefusefordelight,isinprivatenessandretiring;forornament,isindiscourse;andforability,isinthejudgment,anddispositionofbusiness.Forexpertmencanexecute,andperhapsjudgeofparticulars,onebyone;butthegeneralcounsels,andtheplotsandmarshallingofaffairs,comebest,fromthosethatarelearned.Tospendtoomuchtimeinstudiesissloth;tousethemtoomuchforornament,isaffectation;tomakejudgmentwhollybytheirrules,isthehumorofascholar.Theyperfectnature,andareperfectedbyexperience:fornaturalabilitiesarelikenaturalplants,thatneedproyning,bystudy;andstudiesthemselves,dogiveforthdirectionstoomuchatlarge,excepttheybeboundedinbyexperience.Craftymencontemnstudies,simplemenadmirethem,andwisemenusethem;fortheyteachnottheirownuse;butthatisawisdomwithoutthem,andabovethem,wonbyobservation.Readnottocontradictandconfute;nortobelieveandtakeforgranted;nortofindtalkanddiscourse;buttoweighandconsider.Somebooksaretobetasted,otherstobeswallowed,andsomefewtobechewedanddigested;thatis,somebooksaretobereadonlyinparts;otherstoberead,butnotcuriously;andsomefewtobereadwholly,andwithdiligenceandattention.Somebooksalsomaybereadbydeputy,andextractsmadeofthembyothers;butthatwouldbeonlyinthelessimportantarguments,andthemeanersortofbooks,elsedistilledbooksarelikecommondistilledwaters,flashythings.Readingmakethafullman;conferenceareadyman;andwritinganexactman.Andtherefore,ifamanwritelittle,hehadneedhaveagreatmemory;ifheconferlittle,hehadneedhaveapresentwit:andifhereadlittle,hehadneedhavemuchcunning,toseemtoknow,thathedothnot.Historiesmakemenwise;poetswitty;themathematicssubtile;naturalphilosophydeep;moralgrave;logicandrhetoricabletocontend.Abeuntstudiainmores.Nay,thereisnostondorimpedimentinthewit,butmaybewroughtoutbyfitstudies;likeasdiseasesofthebody,mayhaveappropriateexercises.Bowlingisgoodforthestoneandreins;shootingforthelungsandbreast;gentlewalkingforthestomach;ridingforthehead;andthelike.Soifaman’switbewandering,lethimstudythemathematics;forindemonstrations,ifhiswitbecalledawayneversolittle,hemustbeginagain.Ifhiswitbenotapttodistinguishorfinddifferences,lethimstudytheSchoolmen;fortheyarecyminisectores.Ifhebenotapttobeatovermatters,andtocalluponethingtoproveandillustrateanother,lethimstudy197thelawyers’cases.Soeverydefectofthemind,mayhaveaspecialreceipt.

OfFaction

MANYhaveanopinionnotwise,thatforaprincetogovernhisestate,orforagreatpersontogovernhisproceedings,accordingtotherespectoffactions,isaprincipalpartofpolicy;whereascontrariwise,thechiefestwisdom,iseitherinorderingthosethingswhicharegeneral,andwhereinmenofseveralfactionsdoneverthelessagree;orindealingwithcorrespondencetoparticularpersons,onebyone.ButIsaynotthattheconsiderationsoffactions,istobeneglected.Meanmen,intheirrising,mustadhere;butgreatmen,thathavestrengthinthemselves,werebettertomaintainthemselvesindifferent,andneutral.Yeteveninbeginners,toadheresomoderately,ashebeamanoftheonefaction,whichismostpassablewiththeother,commonlygivethbestway.Thelowerandweakerfaction,isthefirmerinconjunction;anditisoftenseen,thatafewthatarestiff,dotireoutagreaternumber,thataremoremoderate.Whenoneofthefactionsisextinguished,theremainingsubdivideth;asthefactionbetweenLucullus,andtherestofthenoblesofthesenate(whichtheycalledOptimates)heldoutawhile,againstthefactionofPompeyandCaesar;butwhenthesenate’sauthoritywaspulleddown,CaesarandPompeysoonafterbrake.ThefactionorpartyofAntoniusandOctavianusCaesar,againstBrutusandCassius,heldoutlikewiseforatime;butwhenBrutusandCassiuswereoverthrown,thensoonafter,AntoniusandOctavianusbrakeandsubdivided.Theseexamplesareofwars,butthesameholdethinprivatefactions.Andtherefore,thosethataresecondsinfactions,domanytimes,whenthefactionsubdivideth,proveprincipals;butmanytimesalso,theyproveciphersandcashiered;formanyaman’sstrengthisinopposition;andwhenthatfaileth,hegrowethoutofuse.Itiscommonlyseen,thatmen,onceplaced,takeinwiththecontraryfaction,tothatbywhichtheyenter:thinkingbelike,thattheyhavethefirstsure,andnowarereadyforanewpurchase.Thetraitorinfaction,lightlygoethawaywithit;forwhenmattershavestucklonginbalancing,thewinningofsomeonemancasteththem,andhegettethallthethanks.Theevencarriagebetweentwofactions,proceedethnotalwaysofmoderation,butofatruenesstoaman’sself,withendtomakeuseofboth.CertainlyinItaly,theyholditalittlesuspectinpopes,whentheyhaveoftenintheirmouthPadrecommune:andtakeittobeasignofone,thatmeanethtoreferalltothegreatnessofhisownhouse.Kingshadneedbeware,howtheysidethemselves,andmakethemselvesasofafactionorparty;forleagueswithinthestate,areeverpernicioustomonarchies:fortheyraiseanobligation,paramounttoobligationofsovereignty,andmakethekingtanquamunusexnobis;aswastobeseenintheLeagueofFrance.Whenfactionsarecarriedtoohighandtooviolently,itisasignofweaknessinprinces;andmuchtotheprejudice,bothoftheirauthorityandbusiness.Themotionsoffactionsunderkingsoughttobe,likethemotions(astheastronomersspeak)oftheinferiororbs,whichmayhavetheirpropermotions,butyetstillarequietlycarried,bythehighermotionofprimummobile.

OfCeremoniesandRespects

HETHATisonlyreal,hadneedhaveexceedinggreatpartsofvirtue;asthestonehadneedtoberich,thatissetwithoutfoil.Butifamanmarkitwell,itis,inpraiseandcommendationofmen,asitisingettingsandgains:fortheproverbistrue,Thatlightgainsmakeheavypurses;forlightgainscomethick,whereasgreat,comebutnowandthen.Soitistrue,thatsmallmatterswingreatcommendation,becausetheyarecontinuallyinuseandinnote:whereastheoccasionofanygreatvirtue,comethbutonfestivals.Thereforeitdothmuchaddtoaman’sreputation,andis(asQueenIsabellasaid)likeperpetualletterscommendatory,tohavegoodforms.Toattainthem,italmostsufficethnottodespisethem;forsoshallamanobservetheminothers;andlethim

trusthimselfwiththerest.Forifhelabortoomuchtoexpressthem,heshalllosetheirgrace;whichistobenaturalandunaffected.Somemen’sbehaviorislikeaverse,whereineverysyllableismeasured;howcanamancomprehendgreatmatters,thatbreakethhismindtoomuch,tosmallobservations?Nottouseceremoniesatall,istoteachothersnottousethemagain;andsodiminishethrespecttohimself;especiallytheybenottobeomitted,tostrangersandformalnatures;butthedwellinguponthem,andexaltingthemabovethemoon,isnotonlytedious,butdothdiminishthefaithandcreditofhimthatspeaks.Andcertainly,thereisakindofconveying,ofeffectualandimprintingpassagesamongstcompliments,whichisofsingularuse,ifamancanhituponit.Amongstaman’speers,amanshallbesureoffamiliarity;andthereforeitisgood,alittletokeepstate.Amongstaman’sinferiorsoneshallbesureofreverence;andthereforeitisgood,alittletobefamiliar.Hethatistoomuchinanything,sothathegivethanotheroccasionofsatiety,makethhimselfcheap.Toapplyone’sselftoothers,isgood;soitbewithdemonstration,thatamandothituponregard,andnotuponfacility.Itisagoodpreceptgenerally,insecondinganother,yettoaddsomewhatofone’sown:asifyouwillgranthisopinion,letitbewithsomedistinction;ifyouwillfollowhismotion,letitbewithcondition;ifyouallowhiscounsel,letitbewithallegingfurtherreason.Menhadneedbeware,howtheybetooperfectincompliments;forbetheyneversosufficientotherwise,theirenvierswillbesuretogivethemthatattribute,tothedisadvantageoftheirgreatervirtues.Itislossalsoinbusiness,tobetoofullofrespects,ortobecurious,inobservingtimesandopportunities.Solomonsaith,Hethatconsidereththewind,shallnotsow,andhethatlookethtotheclouds,shallnotreap.Awisemanwillmakemoreopportunities,thanhefinds.Men’sbehaviorshouldbe,liketheirapparel,nottoostraitorpointdevice,butfreeforexerciseormotion.

OfPraise

PRAISEisthereflectionofvirtue;butitisastheglassorbody,whichgiveththereflection.Ifitbefromthecommonpeople,itiscommonlyfalseandnaught;andratherfollowethvainpersons,thanvirtuous.Forthecommonpeopleunderstandnotmanyexcellentvirtues.Thelowestvirtuesdrawpraisefromthem;themiddlevirtuesworkinthemastonishmentoradmiration;butofthehighestvirtues,theyhavenosenseofperceivingatall.Butshows,andspeciesvirtutibussimiles,servebestwiththem.Certainlyfameislikeariver,thatbearethupthingslightandswoln,anddrownsthingsweightyandsolid.Butifpersonsofqualityandjudgmentconcur,thenitis(astheScripturesaith)nomenbonuminstarunguentifragrantis.Itfirethallroundabout,andwillnoteasilyaway.Fortheodorsofointmentsaremoredurable,thanthoseofflowers.Therebesomanyfalsepointsofpraise,thatamanmayjustlyholditasuspect.Somepraisesproceedmerelyofflattery;andifhebeanordinaryflatterer,hewillhavecertaincommonattributes,whichmayserveeveryman;ifhebeacunningflatterer,hewillfollowthearchflatterer,whichisaman’sself;andwhereinamanthinkethbestofhimself,thereintheflattererwillupholdhimmost:butifhebeanimpudentflatterer,lookwhereinamanisconscioustohimself,thatheismostdefective,andismostoutofcountenanceinhimself,thatwilltheflattererentitlehimtoperforce,spretaconscientia.Somepraisescomeofgoodwishesandrespects,whichisaformdue,incivility,tokingsandgreatpersons,laudandopraecipere,whenbytellingmenwhattheyare,theyrepresenttothem,whattheyshouldbe.Somemenarepraisedmaliciously,totheirhurt,therebytostirenvyandjealousytowardsthem:pessimumgenusinimicorumlaudantium;insomuchasitwasaproverb,amongsttheGrecians,thathethatwaspraisedtohishurt,shouldhaveapushriseuponhisnose;aswesay,thatablisterwillriseuponone’stongue,thattellsalie.Certainlymoderatepraise,usedwithopportunity,andnotvulgar,isthatwhichdoththegood.Solomonsaith,Hethatpraisethhisfriendaloud,risingearly,itshallbetohimnobetterthanacurse.Toomuchmagnifyingofmanormatter,dothirritatecontradiction,andprocureenvyandscorn.Topraiseaman’sself,cannotbedecent,exceptitbeinrarecases;buttopraiseaman’sofficeorprofession,hemaydoitwithgoodgrace,andwithakindofmagnanimity.ThecardinalsofRome,whicharetheologues,andfriars,andSchoolmen,haveaphraseofnotablecontemptandscorntowardscivilbusiness:fortheycallalltemporalbusinessofwars,embassages,judicature,andotheremployments,sbirrerie,whichisunder-sheriffries;asiftheywerebutmatters,forunder-sheriffsandcatchpoles:thoughmanytimesthoseunder-sheriffriesdomoregood,thantheirhighspeculations.St.Paul,whenheboastsofhimself,hedothoftinterlace,Ispeaklikeafool;butspeakingofhiscalling,hesaith,magnificaboapostolatummeum.

Vain-GloryOfOfVain-Glory

ITWASprettilydevisedofAEsop,Theflysatupontheaxle-treeofthechariotwheel,andsaid,WhatadustdoIraise!Soaretheresomevainpersons,thatwhatsoevergoethalone,ormovethupongreatermeans,iftheyhaveneversolittlehandinit,theythinkitistheythatcarryit.Theythatareglorious,mustneedsbefactious;forallbraverystandsuponcomparisons.Theymustneedsbeviolent,tomakegoodtheirownvaunts.Neithercantheybesecret,andthereforenoteffectual;butaccordingtotheFrenchproverb,Beaucoupdebruit,peudefruit;Muchbruitlittlefruit.Yetcertainly,thereisuseofthisqualityincivilaffairs.Wherethereisanopinionandfametobecreated,eitherofvirtueorgreatness,thesemenaregoodtrumpeters.Again,asTitusLiviusnoteth,inthecaseofAntiochusandtheAEtolians,Therearesometimesgreateffects,ofcrosslies;asifaman,thatnegotiatesbetweentwoprinces,todrawthemtojoininawaragainstthethird,dothextoltheforcesofeitherofthem,abovemeasure,theonetotheother:andsometimeshethatdealsbetweenmanandman,raisethhisowncreditwithboth,bypretendinggreaterinterestthanhehathineither.Andintheseandthelikekinds,itoftenfallsout,thatsomewhatisproducedofnothing;forliesaresufficienttobreedopinion,andopinionbringsonsubstance.Inmilitarcommandersandsoldiers,vain-gloryisanessentialpoint;forasironsharpensiron,sobyglory,onecouragesharpenethanother.Incasesofgreatenterpriseuponchargeandadventure,acompositionofgloriousnatures,dothputlifeintobusiness;andthosethatareofsolidandsobernatures,havemoreoftheballast,thanofthesail.Infameoflearning,theflightwillbeslowwithoutsomefeathersofostentation.Quide

contemnendaglorialibrosscribunt,nomen,suuminscribunt.Socrates,Aristotle,Galen,weremenfullofostentation.Certainlyvain-gloryhelpethtoperpetuateaman’smemory;andvirtuewasneversobeholdingtohumannature,asitreceivedhisdueatthesecondhand.NeitherhadthefameofCicero,Seneca,PliniusSecundus,borneheragesowell,ifithadnotbeenjoinedwithsomevanityinthemselves;likeuntovarnish,thatmakesceilingsnotonlyshinebutlast.Butallthiswhile,whenIspeakofvain-glory,Imeannotofthatproperty,thatTacitusdothattributetoMucianus;Omniumquaedixeratfeceratqueartequadamostentator:forthatproceedsnotofvanity,butofnaturalmagnanimityanddiscretion;andinsomepersons,isnotonlycomely,butgracious.Forexcusations,cessions,modestyitselfwellgoverned,arebutartsofostentation.Andamongstthosearts,thereisnonebetterthanthatwhichPliniusSecundusspeakethof,whichistobeliberalofpraiseandcommendationtoothers,inthat,whereinaman’sselfhathanyperfection.ForsaithPliny,verywittily,Incommendinganother,youdoyourselfright;forhethatyoucommend,iseithersuperiortoyouinthatyoucommend,orinferior.Ifhebeinferior,ifhebetobecommended,youmuchmore;ifhebesuperior,ifhebenottobecommended,youmuchless.Gloriousmenarethescornofwisemen,theadmirationoffools,theidolsofparasites,andtheslavesoftheirownvaunts.

andReputationOfHonorHonorand

THEwinningofhonor,isbuttherevealingofaman,svirtueandworth,withoutdisadvantage.Forsomeintheiractions,dowooandeffecthonorandreputation,whichsortofmen,arecommonlymuchtalkedof,butinwardlylittleadmired.Andsome,contrariwise,darkentheirvirtueintheshowofit;soastheybeundervaluedinopinion.Ifamanperformthat,whichhathnotbeenattemptedbefore;orattemptedandgivenover;orhathbeenachieved,butnotwithsogoodcircumstance;heshallpurchasemorehonor,thanbyeffectingamatterofgreaterdifficultyorvirtue,whereinheisbutafollower.Ifamansotemperhisactions,asinsomeoneofthemhedothcontenteveryfaction,orcombinationofpeople,themusicwillbethefuller.Amanisanillhusbandofbishonor,thatenterethintoanyaction,thefailingwhereinmaydisgracehim,morethanthecarryingofitthrough,canhonorhim.Honorthatisgainedandbrokenuponanother,haththequickestreflection,likediamondscutwithfacets.Andtherefore,letamancontendtoexcelanycompetitorsofhisinhonor,inoutshootingthem,ifhecan,intheirownbow.Discreetfollowersandservants,helpmuchtoreputation.Omnisfamaadomesticisemanat.Envy,whichisthecankerofhonor,isbestextinguishedbydeclaringaman’sselfinhisends,rathertoseekmeritthanfame;andbyattributingaman’ssuccesses,rathertodivineProvidenceandfelicity,thantohisownvirtueorpolicy.

Thetruemarshallingofthedegreesofsovereignhonor,arethese:Inthefirstplaceareconditoresimperiorum,foundersofstatesandcommonwealths;suchaswereRomulus,Cyrus,Caesar,Ottoman,Ismael.Inthesecondplacearelegislatores,lawgivers;whicharealsocalledsecondfounders,orperpetuiprincipes,becausetheygovernbytheirordinancesaftertheyaregone;suchwereLycurgus,Solon,Justinian,Eadgar,AlphonsusofCastile,theWise,thatmadetheSietePartidas.Inthethirdplaceareliberatores,orsalvatores,suchascompoundthelongmiseriesofcivilwars,ordelivertheircountriesfromservitudeofstrangersortyrants;asAugustusCaesar,Vespasianus,Aurelianus,Theodoricus,KingHenrytheSeventhofEngland,KingHenrytheFourthofFrance.Inthefourthplacearepropagatoresorpropugnatoresimperii;suchasinhonorablewarsenlargetheirterritories,ormakenobledefenceagainstinvaders.Andinthelastplacearepatrespatriae;whichreignjustly,andmakethetimesgoodwhereintheylive.Bothwhichlastkindsneednoexamples,theyareinsuchnumber.Degreesofhonor,insubjects,are,firstparticipescurarum,thoseuponwhom,princesdodischargethegreatestweightoftheiraffairs;theirrighthands,aswecallthem.Thenextareducesbelli,greatleadersinwar;suchasareprinces’lieutenants,anddothemnotableservicesinthewars.Thethirdaregratiosi,favorites;suchasexceednotthisscantling,tobesolacetothesovereign,andharmlesstothepeople.Andthefourth,negotiispares;suchashavegreatplacesunderprinces,andexecutetheirplaces,withsufficiency.Thereisanhonor,likewise,whichmayberankedamongstthegreatest,whichhappenethrarely;thatis,ofsuchassacrificethemselvestodeathordangerforthegoodoftheircountry;aswasM.Regulus,andthetwoDecii.

OfJudicature

JUDGESoughttoremember,thattheirofficeisjusdicere,andnotjusdare;tointerpretlaw,andnottomakelaw,orgivelaw.Elsewillitbeliketheauthority,claimedbytheChurchofRome,whichunderpretextofexpositionofScripture,dothnotsticktoaddandalter;andtopronouncethatwhichtheydonotfind;andbyshowofantiquity,tointroducenovelty.Judgesoughttobemorelearned,thanwitty,morereverend,thanplausible,andmoreadvised,thanconfident.Aboveallthings,integrityistheirportionandpropervirtue.Cursed(saiththelaw)ishethatremoveththelandmark.Themislayerofamere-stoneistoblame.Butitistheunjustjudge,thatisthecapitalremoveroflandmarks,whenhedefinethamiss,oflandsandproperty.Onefoulsentencedothmorehurt,thanmanyfoulexamples.Forthesedobutcorruptthestream,theothercorrupteththefountain.SowithSolomon,Fonsturbatus,etvenacorrupta,estjustuscadensincausasuacoramadversario.Theofficeofjudgesmayhavereferenceuntothepartiesthatuse,untotheadvocatesthatplead,untotheclerksandministersofjusticeunderneaththem,andtothesovereignorstateabovethem.

First,forthecausesorpartiesthatsue.Therebe(saiththeScripture)thatturnjudgment,intowormwood;andsurelytherebealso,thatturnitintovinegar;forinjusticemakethitbitter,anddelaysmakeitsour.Theprincipaldutyofajudge,istosuppressforceandfraud;whereofforceisthemorepernicious,whenitisopen,andfraud,whenitiscloseanddisguised.Addtheretocontentioussuits,whichoughttobespewedout,asthesurfeitofcourts.Ajudgeoughttopreparehiswaytoajustsentence,asGodusethtopreparehisway,byraisingvalleysandtakingdownhills:sowhenthereappearethoneithersideanhighhand,violentprosecution,cunningadvantagestaken,combination,power,greatcounsel,thenisthevirtueofajudgeseen,tomake

inequalityequal;thathemayplanthisjudgmentasuponanevenground.Quifortiteremungit,elicitsanguinem;andwherethewine-pressishardwrought,ityieldsaharshwine,thattastesofthegrape-stone.Judgesmustbewareofhardconstructions,andstrainedinferences;forthereisnoworsetorture,thanthetortureoflaws.Speciallyincaseoflawspenal,theyoughttohavecare,thatthatwhichwasmeantforterror,benotturnedintorigor;andthattheybringnotuponthepeople,thatshowerwhereoftheScripturespeaketh,Pluetsupereoslaqueos;forpenallawspressed,areashowerofsnaresuponthepeople.Thereforeletpenallaws,iftheyhavebeensleepersoflong,oriftheybegrownunfitforthepresenttime,bebywisejudgesconfinedintheexecution:Judicisofficiumest,utres,itatemporarerum,etc.Incausesoflifeanddeath,judgesought(asfarasthelawpermitteth)injusticetoremembermercy;andtocastasevereeyeupontheexample,butamercifuleyeupontheperson.

Secondly,fortheadvocatesandcounselthatplead.Patienceandgravityofhearing,isanessentialpartofjustice;andanoverspeakingjudgeisnowell-tunedcymbal.Itisnogracetoajudge,firsttofindthat,whichhemighthaveheardinduetimefromthebar;ortoshowquicknessofconceit,incuttingoffevidenceorcounseltooshort;ortopreventinformationbyquestions,thoughpertinent.Thepartsofajudgeinhearing,arefour:todirecttheevidence;tomoderatelength,repetition,orimpertinencyofspeech;torecapitulate,select,andcollatethematerialpoints,ofthatwhichhathbeensaid;andtogivetheruleorsentence.Whatsoeverisabovetheseistoomuch;andproceedetheitherofglory,andwillingnesstospeak,orofimpatiencetohear,orofshortnessofmemory,orofwantofastaidandequalattention.Itisastrangethingtosee,thattheboldnessofadvocatesshouldprevailwithjudges;whereastheyshouldimitateGod,inwhoseseattheysit;whorepresseththepresumptuous,andgivethgracetothemodest.Butitismorestrange,thatjudgesshouldhavenotedfavorites;whichcannotbutcausemultiplicationoffees,andsuspicionofby-ways.Thereisduefromthejudgetotheadvocate,somecommendationandgracing,wherecausesarewellhandledandfairpleaded;especiallytowardsthesidewhichobtainethnot;forthatupholdsintheclient,thereputationofhiscounsel,andbeatsdowninhimtheconceitofhiscause.Thereislikewiseduetothepublic,acivilreprehensionofadvocates,wherethereappearethcunningcounsel,grossneglect,slightinformation,indiscreetpressing,oranoverbolddefence.Andletnotthecounselatthebar,chopwiththejudge,norwindhimselfintothehandlingofthecauseanew,afterthejudgehathdeclaredhissentence;but,ontheotherside,letnotthejudgemeetthecausehalfway,norgiveoccasiontotheparty,tosayhiscounselorproofswerenotheard.

Thirdly,forthatthatconcernsclerksandministers.Theplaceofjusticeisanhallowedplace;andthereforenotonlythebench,butthefoot-place;andprecinctsandpurprisethereof,oughttobepreservedwithoutscandalandcorruption.Forcertainlygrapes(astheScripturesaith)willnotbegatheredofthornsorthistles;eithercanjusticeyieldherfruitwithsweetness,amongstthebriarsandbramblesofcatchingandpollingclerks,andministers.Theattendanceofcourts,issubjecttofourbadinstruments.First,certainpersonsthataresowersofsuits;whichmakethecourtswell,andthecountrypine.Thesecondsortisofthose,thatengagecourtsinquarrelsofjurisdiction,andarenottrulyamicicuriae,butparasiticuriae,inpuffingacourtupbeyondherbounds,fortheirownscrapsandadvantage.Thethirdsort,isofthosethatmaybeaccountedthelefthandsofcourts;personsthatarefullofnimbleandsinistertricksandshifts,wherebytheyperverttheplainanddirectcoursesofcourts,andbringjusticeintoobliquelinesandlabyrinths.Andthefourth,isthepollerandexacteroffees;whichjustifiesthecommonresemblanceofthecourtsofjustice,tothebushwhereunto,whilethesheepfliesfordefenceinweather,heissuretolosepartofhisfleece.Ontheotherside,anancientclerk,skilfulinprecedents,waryinproceeding,andunderstandinginthebusinessofthecourt,isanexcellentfingerofacourt;anddothmanytimespointthewaytothejudgehimself.

Fourthly,forthatwhichmayconcernthesovereignandestate.JudgesoughtabovealltoremembertheconclusionoftheRomanTwelveTables;Saluspopulisupremalex;andtoknowthatlaws,excepttheybeinordertothatend,arebutthingscaptious,andoraclesnotwellinspired.Thereforeitisanhappythinginastate,whenkingsandstatesdooftenconsultwithjudges;andagain,whenjudgesdooftenconsultwiththekingandstate:theone,whenthereismatteroflaw,intervenientinbusinessofstate;theother,whenthereissomeconsiderationofstate,intervenientinmatteroflaw.Formanytimesthethingsdeducedtojudgmentmaybemeumandtuum,whenthereasonandconsequencethereofmaytrenchtopointofestate:Icallmatterofestate,notonlythepartsofsovereignty,butwhatsoeverintroducethanygreatalteration,ordangerousprecedent;orconcernethmanifestlyanygreatportionofpeople.Andletnomanweaklyconceive,thatjustlawsandtruepolicyhaveanyantipathy;fortheyarelikethespiritsandsinews,thatonemoveswiththeother.Letjudgesalsoremember,thatSolomon’sthronewassupportedbylionsonbothsides:letthembelions,butyetlionsunderthethrone;beingcircumspectthattheydonotcheckoropposeanypointsofsovereignty.Letnotjudgesalsobeignorantoftheirownright,astothinkthereisnotlefttothem,asaprincipalpartoftheiroffice,awiseuseandapplicationoflaws.Fortheymayremember,whattheapostlesaithofagreaterlawthantheirs;Nosscimusquialexbonaest,modoquiseautaturlegitime.

AngerOfOfAnger

TOSEEKtoextinguishangerutterly,isbutabraveryoftheStoics.Wehavebetteroracles:Beangry,butsinnot.Letnotthesungodownuponyouranger.Angermustbelimitedandconfined,bothinraceandintime.Wewillfirstspeakhowthenaturalinclinationandhabittobeangry,maybeattemptedandcalmed.Secondly,howtheparticularmotionsofangermayberepressed,oratleastrefrainedfromdoingmischief.Thirdly,howtoraiseanger,orappeaseangerinanother.

Forthefirst;thereisnootherwaybuttomeditate,andruminatewellupontheeffectsofanger,howittroublesman’slife.Andthebesttimetodothis,istolookbackuponanger,whenthefitisthoroughlyover.Senecasaithwell,Thatangerislikeruin,whichbreaksitselfuponthatitfalls.TheScriptureexhortethustopossessoursoulsinpatience.Whosoeverisoutofpatience,isoutofpossessionofhissoul.Menmustnotturnbees;

...animasqueinvulnereponunt.

Angeriscertainlyakindofbaseness;asitappearswellintheweaknessofthosesubjectsinwhomitreigns;children,women,oldfolks,sickfolks.Onlymenmustbeware,thattheycarrytheirangerratherwithscorn,thanwithfear;sothattheymayseemrathertobeabovetheinjury,thanbelowit;whichisathingeasilydone,ifamanwillgivelawtohimselfinit.

Forthesecondpoint;thecausesandmotivesofanger,arechieflythree.First,tobetoosensibleofhurt;fornomanisangry,thatfeelsnothimselfhurt;andthereforetenderanddelicatepersonsmustneedsbeoftangry;theyhavesomanythingstotroublethem,whichmorerobustnatureshavelittlesenseof.Thenextis,theapprehensionandconstructionoftheinjuryoffered,tobe,inthecircumstancesthereof,fullofcontempt:forcontemptisthat,whichputtethanedgeuponanger,asmuchormorethanthehurtitself.Andtherefore,whenmenareingeniousinpickingoutcircumstancesofcontempt,theydokindletheirangermuch.Lastly,opinionofthetouchofaman’sreputation,dothmultiplyandsharpenanger.Whereintheremedyis,thatamanshouldhave,asConsalvowaswonttosay,telamhonoriscrassiorem.Butinallrefrainingsofanger,itisthebestremedytowintime;andtomakeaman’sselfbelieve,thattheopportunityofhisrevengeisnotyetcome,butthatheforeseesatimeforit;andsotostillhimselfinthemeantime,andreserveit.

Tocontainangerfrommischief,thoughittakeholdofaman,therebetwothings,whereofyoumusthavespecialcaution.Theone,ofextremebitternessofwords,especiallyiftheybeaculeateandproper;forcummuniamaledictaarenothingsomuch;andagain,thatinangeramanrevealnosecrets;forthat,makeshimnotfitforsociety.Theother,thatyoudonotperemptorilybreakoff,inanybusiness,inafitofanger;buthowsoeveryoushowbitterness,donotactanything,thatisnotrevocable.

Forraisingandappeasingangerinanother;itisdonechieflybychoosingoftimes,whenmenarefrowardestandworstdisposed,toincensethem.Again,bygathering(aswastouchedbefore)allthatyoucanfindout,toaggravatethecontempt.Andthetworemediesarebythecontraries.Theformertotakegoodtimes,whenfirsttorelatetoamananangrybusiness;forthefirstimpressionismuch;andtheotheris,tosever,asmuchasmaybe,theconstructionoftheinjuryfromthepointofcontempt;imputingittomisunderstanding,fear,passion,orwhatyouwill.

VicissitudeofThingsOfOfVicissitudeofThings

SOLOMONsaith,Thereisnonewthingupontheearth.SothatasPlatohadanimagination,Thatallknowledgewasbutremembrance;soSolomongivethhissentence,Thatallnoveltyisbutoblivion.Wherebyyoumaysee,thattheriverofLetherunnethaswellabovegroundasbelow.Thereisanabstruseastrologerthatsaith,Ifitwerenotfortwothingsthatareconstant(theoneis,thatthefixedstarseverstandalikedistanceonefromanother,andnevercomenearertogether,norgofurtherasunder;theother,thatthediurnalmotionperpetuallykeepethtime),noindividualwouldlastonemoment.Certainitis,thatthematterisinaperpetualflux,andneveratastay.Thegreatwinding-sheets,thatburyallthingsinoblivion,aretwo;delugesandearthquakes.Asforconflagrationsandgreatdroughts,theydonotmerelydispeopleanddestroy.Phaeton’scarwentbutaday.Andthethreeyears’droughtinthetimeofElias,wasbutparticular,andleftpeoplealive.Asforthegreatburningsbylightnings,whichareoftenintheWestIndies,theyarebutnarrow.Butintheothertwodestructions,bydelugeandearthquake,itisfurthertobenoted,thattheremnantofpeoplewhichhaptobereserved,arecommonlyignorantandmountainouspeople,thatcangivenoaccountofthetimepast;sothattheoblivionisallone,asifnonehadbeenleft.IfyouconsiderwellofthepeopleoftheWestIndies,itisveryprobablethattheyareanewerorayoungerpeople,thanthepeopleoftheOldWorld.Anditismuchmorelikely,thatthedestructionthathathheretoforebeenthere,wasnotbyearthquakes(astheEgyptianpriesttoldSolonconcerningtheislandofAtlantis,thatitwasswallowedbyanearthquake),butratherthatitwasdesolatedbyaparticulardeluge.Forearthquakesareseldominthoseparts.Butontheotherside,theyhavesuchpouringrivers,astheriversofAsiaandAfrickandEurope,arebutbrookstothem.TheirAndes,likewise,ormountains,arefarhigherthanthosewithus;wherebyitseems,thattheremnantsofgenerationofmen,wereinsuchaparticulardelugesaved.AsfortheobservationthatMachiavelhath,thatthejealousyofsects,dothmuchextinguishthememoryofthings;traducingGregorytheGreat,thathedidwhatinhimlay,toextinguishallheathenantiquities;Idonotfindthatthosezealsdoanygreateffects,norlastlong;asitappearedinthesuccessionofSabinian,whodidrevivetheformerantiquities.

Thevicissitudeofmutationsinthesuperiorglobe,arenofitmatterforthispresentargument.Itmaybe,Plato’sgreatyear,iftheworldshouldlastsolong,wouldhavesomeeffect;notinrenewingthestateoflikeindividuals(forthatisthefumeofthose,thatconceivethecelestialbodieshavemoreaccurateinfluencesuponthesethingsbelow,thanindeedtheyhave),butingross.Comets,outofquestion,havelikewisepowerandeffect,overthegrossandmassofthings;buttheyarerathergazedupon,andwaiteduponintheirjourney,thanwiselyobservedintheireffects;speciallyin,theirrespectiveeffects;thatis,whatkindofcomet,formagnitude,color,versionofthebeams,placinginthereignofheaven,orlasting,producethwhatkindofeffects.

ThereisatoywhichIhaveheard,andIwouldnothaveitgivenover,butwaiteduponalittle.TheysayitisobservedintheLowCountries(Iknownotinwhatpart)thateveryfiveandthirtyyears,thesamekindandsuitofyearsandweatherscomeaboutagain;asgreatfrosts,greatwet,greatdroughts,warmwinters,summerswithlittleheat,andthelike;andtheycallitthePrime.ItisathingIdotherathermention,because,computingbackwards,Ihavefoundsomeconcurrence.

Buttoleavethesepointsofnature,andtocometomen.Thegreatestvicissitudeofthingsamongstmen,isthevicissitudeofsectsandreligions.Forthoseorbsruleinmen’smindsmost.Thetruereligionisbuiltupontherock;therestaretossed,uponthewavesoftime.Tospeak,therefore,ofthecausesofnewsects;andtogivesomecounselconcerningthem,asfarastheweaknessofhumanjudgmentcangivestay,tosogreatrevolutions.Whenthereligionformerlyreceived,isrentbydiscords;andwhentheholinessoftheprofessorsofreligion,isdecayedandfullofscandal;andwithalthetimesbestupid,ignorant,andbarbarous;you

maydoubtthespringingupofanewsect;ifthenalso,thereshouldariseanyextravagantandstrangespirit,tomakehimselfauthorthereof.Allwhichpointsheld,whenMahometpublishedhislaw.Ifanewsecthavenottwoproperties,fearitnot;foritwillnotspread.Theoneisthesupplanting,ortheopposing,ofauthorityestablished;fornothingismorepopularthanthat.Theotheristhegivinglicensetopleasures,andavoluptuouslife.Forasforspeculativeheresies(suchaswereinancienttimestheArians,andnowtheArmenians),thoughtheyworkmightilyuponmen’swits,yettheydonotproduceanygreatalterationsinstates;exceptitbebythehelpofciviloccasions.Therebethreemannerofplantationsofnewsects.Bythepowerofsignsandmiracles;bytheeloquence,andwisdom,ofspeechandpersuasion;andbythesword.Formartyrdoms,Ireckonthemamongstmiracles;becausetheyseemtoexceedthestrengthofhumannature:andImaydothelike,ofsuperlativeandadmirableholinessoflife.Surelythereisnobetterway,tostoptherisingofnewsectsandschisms,thantoreformabuses;tocompoundthesmallerdifferences;toproceedmildly,andnotwithsanguinarypersecutions;andrathertotakeofftheprincipalauthorsbywinningandadvancingthem,thantoenragethembyviolenceandbitterness.

Thechangesandvicissitudeinwarsaremany;butchieflyinthreethings;intheseatsorstagesofthewar;intheweapons;andinthemanneroftheconduct.Wars,inancienttime,seemedmoretomovefromeasttowest;forthePersians,Assyrians,Arabians,Tartars(whichweretheinvaders)werealleasternpeople.Itistrue,theGaulswerewestern;butwereadbutoftwoincursionsoftheirs:theonetoGallo-Grecia,theothertoRome.Buteastandwesthavenocertainpointsofheaven;andnomorehavethewars,eitherfromtheeastorwest,anycertaintyofobservation.Butnorthandsoutharefixed;andithathseldomorneverbeenseenthatthefarsouthernpeoplehaveinvadedthenorthern,butcontrariwise.Wherebyitismanifestthatthenortherntractoftheworld,isinnaturethemoremartialregion:beitinrespectofthestarsofthathemisphere;orofthegreatcontinentsthatareuponthenorth,whereasthesouthpart,foraughtthatisknown,isalmostallsea;or(whichismostapparent)ofthecoldofthenorthernparts,whichisthatwhich,withoutaidofdiscipline,dothmakethebodieshardest,andthecourageswarmest.

Uponthebreakingandshiveringofagreatstateandempire,youmaybesuretohavewars.Forgreatempires,whiletheystand,doenervateanddestroytheforcesofthenativeswhichtheyhavesubdued,restingupontheirownprotectingforces;andthenwhentheyfailalso,allgoestoruin,andtheybecomeaprey.SowasitinthedecayoftheRomanempire;andlikewiseintheempireofAlmaigne,afterCharlestheGreat,everybirdtakingafeather;andwerenotunliketobefalltoSpain,ifitshouldbreak.Thegreataccessionsandunionsofkingdoms,dolikewisestirupwars;forwhenastategrowstoanover-power,itislikeagreatflood,thatwillbesuretooverflow.AsithathbeenseeninthestatesofRome,Turkey,Spain,andothers.Lookwhentheworldhathfewestbarbarouspeoples,butsuchascommonlywillnotmarryorgenerate,excepttheyknowmeanstolive(asitisalmosteverywhereatthisday,exceptTartary),thereisnodangerofinundationsofpeople;butwhentherebegreatshoalsofpeople,whichgoontopopulate,withoutforeseeingmeansoflifeandsustentation,itisofnecessitythatonceinanageortwo,theydischargeaportionoftheirpeopleuponothernations;whichtheancientnorthernpeoplewerewonttodobylot;castinglotswhatpartshouldstayathome,andwhatshouldseektheirfortunes.Whenawarlikestategrowssoftandeffeminate,theymaybesureofawar.Forcommonlysuchstatesaregrownmrichinthetimeoftheirdegenerating;andsothepreyinviteth,andtheirdecayinvalor,encouragethawar.

Asfortheweapons,ithardlyfallethunderruleandobservation:yetweseeeventhey,havereturnsandvicissitudes.Forcertainitis,thatordnancewasknowninthecityoftheOxidrakesinIndia;andwasthat,whichtheMacedonianscalledthunderandlightning,andmagic.Anditiswellknownthattheuseofordnance,hathbeeninChinaabovetwothousandyears.Theconditionsofweapons,andtheirimprovement,are;First,thefetchingafaroff;forthatoutrunsthedanger;asitisseeninordnanceandmuskets.Secondly,thestrengthofthepercussion;whereinlikewiseordnancedoexceedallarietationsandancientinventions.Thethirdis,thecommodioususeofthem;asthattheymayserveinallweathers;thatthecarriagemaybelightandmanageable;andthelike.

Fortheconductofthewar:atthefirst,menrestedextremelyuponnumber:theydidputthewarslikewiseuponmainforceandvalor;pointingdaysforpitchedfields,andsotryingitoutuponanevenmatchandtheyweremoreignorantinrangingandarrayingtheirbattles.After,theygrewtorestuponnumberrathercompetent,thanvast;theygrewtoadvantagesofplace,cunningdiversions,andthelike:andtheygrewmoreskilfulintheorderingoftheirbattles.

Intheyouthofastate,armsdoflourish;inthemiddleageofastate,learning;andthenbothofthemtogetherforatime;inthedecliningageofastate,mechanicalartsandmerchandize.Learninghathhisinfancy,whenitisbutbeginningandalmostchildish;thenhisyouth,whenitisluxuriantandjuvenile;thenhisstrengthofyears,whenitissolidandreduced;andlastly,hisoldage,whenitwaxethdryandexhaust.Butitisnotgoodtolooktoolongupontheseturningwheelsofvicissitude,lestwebecomegiddy.Asforthephilologyofthem,thatisbutacircleoftales,andthereforenotfitforthiswriting.

OfFame

THEpoetsmakeFameamonster.Theydescribeherinpartfinelyandelegantly,andinpartgravelyandsententiously.Theysay,lookhowmanyfeathersshehath,somanyeyesshehathunderneath;somanytongues;somanyvoices;shepricksupsomanyears.

Thisisaflourish.Therefollowexcellentparables;asthat,shegatherethstrengthingoing;thatshegoethupontheground,andyethidethherheadintheclouds;thatinthedaytimeshesittethinawatchtower,andfliethmostbynight;thatshemingleththingsdone,withthingsnotdone;andthatsheisaterrortogreatcities.Butthatwhichpassethalltherestis:TheydorecountthattheEarth,motherofthegiantsthatmadewaragainstJupiter,andwerebyhimdestroyed,thereuponinanangerbroughtforthFame.Forcertainitis,thatrebels,figuredbythegiants,andseditiousfamesandlibels,arebutbrothersandsisters,masculine

andfeminine.Butnow,ifamancantamethismonster,andbringhertofeedatthehand,andgovernher,andwithherflyotherraveningfowlandkillthem,itissomewhatworth.Butweareinfectedwiththestyleofthepoets.Tospeaknowinasadandseriousmanner:Thereisnot,inallthepolitics,aplacelesshandledandmoreworthytobehandled,thanthisoffame.Wewillthereforespeakofthesepoints:Whatarefalsefames;andwhataretruefames;andhowtheymaybebestdiscerned;howfamesmaybesown,andraised;howtheymaybespread,andmultiplied;andhowtheymaybechecked,andlaiddead.Andotherthingsconcerningthenatureoffame.Fameisofthatforce,asthereisscarcelyanygreataction,whereinithathnotagreatpart;especiallyinthewar.MucianusundidVitellius,byafamethathescattered,thatVitelliushadinpurposetoremovethelegionsofSyriaintoGermany,andthelegionsofGermanyintoSyria;whereuponthelegionsofSyriawereinfinitelyinflamed.JuliusCaesartookPompeyunprovided,andlaidasleephisindustryandpreparations,byafamethathecunninglygaveout:Caesar’sownsoldierslovedhimnot,andbeingweariedwiththewars,andladenwiththespoilsofGaul,wouldforsakehim,assoonashecameintoItaly.LiviasettledallthingsforthesuccessionofhersonTiberius,bycontinualgivingout,thatherhusbandAugustuswasuponrecoveryandamendment,anditisanusualthingwiththepashas,toconcealthedeathoftheGreatTurkfromthejanizariesandmenofwar,tosavethesackingofConstantinopleandothertowns,astheirmanneris.ThemistoclesmadeXerxes,kingofPersia,postapaceoutofGrecia,bygivingout,thattheGrecianshadapurposetobreakhisbridgeofships,whichhehadmadeathwartHellespont.Therebeathousandsuchlikeexamples;andthemoretheyare,thelesstheyneedtoberepeated;becauseamanmeetethwiththemeverywhere.Thereforeletallwisegovernorshaveasgreatawatchandcareoverfames,astheyhaveoftheactionsanddesignsthemselves.

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